A study of Japanese back channels
This study presents findings from an analysis of the conversational data involving the Japanese back channel with special attention to the comparison of back channel behaviour between Japanese native speakers and Japanese learners at an advanced level. While the analysis is based on four aspects of the back channel (i.e. form, frequency, location and function), the study reveals that native speakers and Japanese learners show significant differences particularly in the locational and functional aspects. There were also trends that the native speaker tends to use back channels in a way of supporting and encouraging the learner to participate in the conversation.