Submissions should be made through Babel’s Editorial Manager.

Final manuscripts should be between 5,000 and 9,000 words (including notes and references) and should be submitted in both MS WORD and PDF formats with embedded fonts, showing all special characters as they will be printed. All pages should be numbered consecutively. Manuscripts must be completely anonymized. Do not include author’ or funding information in manuscripts. You can provide this information in the “Manuscript Data” step during the submission process of in Editorial Manager. The abstract (150–200 words) and keywords, preferably in both English and French, must also be submitted in the “Manuscript Data” step of the submission process in Editorial Manager. Editors can assist with abstracts in French upon request. Manuscripts should preferably be written in English or French. If you are not a native speaker, it is strongly advisable to have your text proofread by a native speaker before submission. Articles in Arabic, Chinese, German, Italian, Russian, or Spanish will also be considered. Spelling in English should be in either British or American English consistently. Authors are responsible for complying with copyright laws when quoting or reproducing material. Copyright of articles published in Babel is held by FIT. In the interest of production efficiency and producing text of the highest quality and consistency, we urge you to write your manuscript in strict adherence to the following guidelines. It is essential that references be formatted as specified in these guidelines, as they cannot be formatted automatically. This book series uses author-date style as described in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Electronic files

Electronic files: Please be sure to supply all text and graphic files of the final version of the manuscript. Please delete all personal comments so that they cannot mistakenly be typeset, and check that all files are readable.

Software: Files in Word are preferred, but our typesetters can convert almost anything. If for some reason a format other than the one specified is required, we will contact you.

Graphic files: Please provide figures and plates as Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) or Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) conversions in addition to the source files. Please ensure resolution is suitable for print media, preferably 300 dpi.


Our typesetters will do the final formatting of your document. However, some of the text enhancements cannot be done automatically, so we kindly ask that you carefully follow the following style.

Use a minimum of page settings, namely 12 pt. Times New Roman, double line spacing, 1-inch margins. The only relevant codes are those pertaining to font enhancement (italics, bold, caps, small caps, etc.), punctuation, and reference format. Whatever formatting or style conventions you use, please be consistent.

Do not use right-hand justification or automatic hyphenation.

Use Unicode fonts for special characters or supply the required TrueType or PostScript Type 1 fonts. For text that includes examples or fragments in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean, this is required. Otherwise, you should clearly mark in red on the manuscript any symbols or visual aspects that you cannot produce in electronic form. If a symbol occurs frequently, you may use an alternative symbol (e.g.,  at # $ %) and include a list of these symbols with their correct transcription.

Tables, figures and plates

  1. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and have concise headings (240 characters maximum).
  2. All figures and tables should be referenced in the text, e.g., (see Figure 5). Please do not use relative references such as “see the table below”, or “in this table: ...”.
  3. If the table or figure is not included in the text file, please indicate the preferred position of the table or figure in the text by adding a line “ at  at Insert here (file name)” at the appropriate position. The figure will be placed either at the beginning or at the end of the page where it is mentioned or on the following page. The book will be printed in black and white. Please make sure that the illustrations are still meaningful even if they are printed in black and white.
  4. All tables, plates, and figures must fit within the following text area, either portrait or landscape: 12 cm x 20 cm at 8 pt. minimum.
  5. Notes in tables and figures should not be normal endnotes. Use a table note or figure note as in the following example. Standard note indicators in tables are *, **, †, ‡. The note itself is then inserted directly below the table/ illustration.
  6. Limit shading in tables to a functional minimum and only to individual cells, not entire rows or columns.

Running heads

Please do not use headings in your article.

Emphasis and foreign words

Use italics for foreign words, highlighting, and emphasis. Bold should be used only for emphasis within italics and for headings. Please refrain from using FULL CAPS (except for focal stress and abbreviations) and underlining (except for emphasis within examples, as an alternative to boldface).


Please transliterate all examples from languages that use a non-Latin script into English, using the appropriate transliteration system (ISO or LOC).

Chapters and headings

Chapters or articles should be headed in capital letters and sensibly divided into numbered sections and, if necessary, subsections. Please indicate the hierarchy of subheadings as follows:

Heading A = bold, one line space above, text on new line without indentation.
Heading B = italics, one line space above, text on new line without indentation.
Heading C = italics, one line space above, text in new line without indent.
Heading D = italics, one line space above, scrolling text.


Text citations in the main text should be enclosed in double quotation marks. Quotations longer than 3 lines should have a blank line above and below and a left indent, without quotation marks and with the appropriate reference to the source.

Listings: Should not be indented. If numbered, please number as follows:

1. ..................... or a. .......................

2. ..................... or b. .......................

Listings that continue with the main text should be numbered in parentheses: (1).............., (2)............., etc.

Examples and glosses

Examples should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1,2,3, etc.) in parentheses.

Examples in languages other than the language in which your article is written should be given in italics with an approximate translation. Glosses may be inserted between the original and the translation. This interlinear gloss does not receive punctuation or highlighting. For abbreviations in the interlinear gloss, you may use CAPS or SMALL CAPS, which will be converted to small caps by our typesetters during final formatting.

Please note that lines 1 and 2 are strung together by using spaces: It is important that the number of elements in lines 1 and 2 matches. If two words in the example match a word in the gloss, put a full stop to join the two words (2a). Hyphens are used to separate morphemes (1, 2b).

Each next level in the example gets an indent/tab.

(1)          Kare wa    besutoseraa  o          takusan kaite-iru.        

              he     TOP best-seller     ACC    many     write-PERF    

              “He has written many best-sellers.’”                              

(2)          a.            Jan houdt van Marie.

                             Jan loves         Marie

                             “Jan loves Marie.”

              b.            Ed en  Floor  gaan samen-wonen.

                             Ed and Floor   go      together-live.INF

                             “Ed and Floor are going to live together.”


Notes should be kept to a minimum. Note indicators in the text should appear at the end of sentences and follow punctuation marks.

Funding information

Funding information should be provided if funding was received through a grant for the research that is discussed in the article, including funder name and grant number, in a separate section called "Funding information" before (an Acknowledgment section and) the References.


Acknowledgments (other than funding information, see above) should be added in a separate, unnumbered section entitled "Acknowledgments", placed before the References.


It is essential that the references are formatted to the specifications given in these guidelines, as these cannot be formatted automatically. This book series uses the ‘Author-Date’ style as described in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.
References in the text: These should be as precise as possible, giving page references where necessary; for example (Clahsen 1991, 252) or: as in Brown et al. (1991, 252). All references in the text should appear in the references section.
References section: References should be listed first alphabetically and then chronologically. The section should include all (and only!) references that are actually mentioned in the text.
A note on capitalization in titles. For titles in English, CMS uses headline-style capitalization. In titles and subtitles, capitalize the first and last words, and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, some conjunctions). Do not capitalize articles; prepositions (unless used adverbially or adjectivally, or as part of a Latin expression used adverbially or adjectivally); the conjunctions and, but, for, or, nor; to as part of an infinitive; as in any grammatical function; parts of proper names that would be lower case in normal text; the second part of a species name. For more details and examples, consult the Chicago Manual of Style. For any other languages, and English translations of titles given in square brackets, CMS uses sentence-style capitalization: capitalization as in normal prose, i.e., the first word in the title, the subtitle, and any proper names or other words normally given initial capitals in the language in question.



  • English

Görlach, Manfred. 2003. English Words Abroad. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  

Spear, Norman E., and Ralph R. Miller, eds. 1981. Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 

  • Non-English Latin-Script

Holz-Mänttäri, Justa. 1984.Translatorisches Handeln. Theorie und Methode [Translation action: Theory and method]. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

  • Non-Latin-Script

Sun, Yifeng . 2016. Wenhua fanyi   文化翻譯 [Cultural translation] . Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe.

  • Intext citations

(Görlach 2003 )
(Spear and Miller 1981)

(Holz-Mänttäri 1984, 33)
(Sun 2016, 10–33)

Journal article:

  • English

Rayson, Paul, Geoffrey N. Leech, and Mary Hodges. 1997. “Social Differentiation in the Use of English Vocabulary: Some Analyses of the Conversational Component of the British National Corpus.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 2 (1): 120–132.

Van Dijk, Teun A. 1995. “Discourse, Opinions and Ideologies.” Current Issues in Language and Society 2 (2): 115 145. .

  • Non-English Latin-Script

Claes, Jeroen, and Luis A. Ortiz López. 2011. “Restricciones pragmáticas y sociales en la expresión de futuridad en el español de Puerto Rico” [Pragmatic and social restrictions in the expression of the future in Puerto Rican Spanish]. Spanish in Context 8: 50–72.

  • Non-Latin-Script

Sun, Yifeng 孫藝風 . 2019. “Fanyi yanjiu yu shijie wenxue” 翻譯研究與世界文學 [Translation studies and world literature]. Zhongguo fanyi 中國翻譯 [Chinese translators journal] 40 (1): 5 18.

  • Intext citations

(Rayson, Leech and Hoges 1997, 124–130)
(Claes and López 2011) (Sun 2019, 12)

Book chapter:

  • In a single-volume work

Adams, Clare A., and Anthony Dickinson. 1981. “Actions and Habits: Variation in Associative Representation during Instrumental Learning.” In Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms, edited by Norman E. Spear and Ralph R. Miller, 143–186. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • In a multi-volume work

van Doorslaer, Luc. 2010. “Journalism and Translation.” In Handbook of Translation Studies, edited by Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer, vol. 1, 180–184. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Intext citations

(Adams and Dickinson 1981, 143–186)
(van Doorslaer 2010, 180–184)


Pu, Songlin. 2006. Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio, translated by John Minford. London: Penguin Classics.

Minford, John, trans. 2006. Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio , by Pu Songlin. London: Penguin Classics.
  •   Intext citations

(Pu 2006, 67)
(Minford 2006, 120–123)

Multivolume works:

  • Entire collection

Gambier, Yves, and Luc van Doorslaer. 2014. Handbook of Translation Studies. 4 vols. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Individual volume

Gambier, Yves, and Luc van Doorslaer. 2014. Handbook of Translation Studies, vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Intext citations

(Gambier and van Doorslaer 2014)

Newspaper and magazine articles:

Owen, Stephen.1990. “What Is World Poetry? The Anxiety of Global Influence.” New Republic, 19 November 1990, 28–32.

Goldblatt, Howard. “My Hero: Mo Yan.” Guardian, 12 October 2012.

  • Intext citations

(Owen 1990, 28–32)

(Goldblatt 2012)

(Lovell 2012)

Thesis or dissertation:

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogue.” Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago.

  • Intext citations

(Rutz 2013, 56–57)


Lovell, Julia. 2012. “Mo Yan’s Creative Space.” New York Times, 15 October 2012. Accessed 10 November 2020. .

Adam, Joshua V. 2018. “Translation Without Theory.” Los Angeles Review of Books, 7 October 2018. Accessed 10 November 2020. .

  • Intext citations

(Lovell 2012)

(Adam 2018)


Appendices should follow the References section.

Additional Style Guidelines

Please use in-text citations, numbered endnotes, and works cited.

1. Do not justify the right margin of your manuscript or the electronic version on disk.  Leave a ragged right margin.

2. Double-space everything, including quotations and footnotes.

3. Observe the following rules of punctuation:

  • Use an en dash instead of a hyphen to denote a span or range of page numbers, dates, or times in citations and reference entries.
  • Use the Oxford comma, i.e., place a comma before “and” or “or” in a series of 3 items (e.g., lexis, morphology, and syntax).
  • Commas to set off a preceding dependent clause of a complex sentence or to separate a compound sentence.
  • Use curly quotes and curly apostrophes.
  • Double quotation marks to enclose a quotation and single quotation marks to indicate a quotation within a quotation.
  • End quotation marks after punctuation (e.g., “to done.”).
  • Comma after i.e. and e.g.
  • Do not put punctuation in lists.

4.  Miscellaneous

  • Mark a new paragraph with a single tab.
  • Set off each introductory sentence of five words or more with a comma, e.g., “Toward the end of World War II,...”
  • Dates should be in the form “15 December 1998.”
  • Decades should be written in the form “the 1980s.”
  • Spell out centuries, e.g., “eighteenth century.”
  • Give an author's full name the first time it is mentioned in your text, e.g., “Anne Ross...”; for all subsequent references in the text should use only the last name.
  • Use “and” instead of “&”, and “see” in instead of “cf.”.
  • Use minimal capitalization, e.g., “translation studies”, “the Roman Catholic Church”;
  • Use minimal hyphenation, e.g., “postcolonial.”
  • Possessives of names ending in “s” should take the form “Yeats’s.”
  • Please avoid inappropriately gendered language and find phrases that avoid awkward forms such as "his/her" whenever possible. Render dashes as en-dash with a space before and after, e.g., "despite the difficulties-however great." Provide DOI whenever possible

Proofing procedure

The first author of an article will receive a PDF of the first proofs of the article and will be asked to return the corrections to the journal editors within 7 days of receipt. Acrobat Reader can be downloaded for free from  and will allow you to read and print the file. Please limit corrections to the essentials. The editor has the discretion not to make major text changes or to charge the author. If it is absolutely necessary to change larger sections of text (i.e., more than a few words), it is best to submit the changes electronically (with identical hard copy).