Chapter published in:Perfects in Indo-European Languages and Beyond
Edited by Robert Crellin and Thomas Jügel
[Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 352] 2020
► pp. 378–410
The Hittite periphrastic perfect
In Hittite, the meaning associated with the Proto-Indo-European perfect, i.e. to indicate a state resulting from a change-of-state event, was covered by compound verb forms consisting of the -ant- participle plus the finite forms of the verbs ḫar(k)- “have” and eš- “be”. The origin and the function of this construction have been a matter of debate. In this chapter, we review the standard description of the Hittite periphrastic perfect, and reassess its status and function based on an analysis of its occurrences in texts ranging from Old to New Hittite. We argue that periphrastic forms involving ḫar(k)-/eš- and the participle instantiate three different constructions: the stative construction and two distinct auxiliary verb constructions, i.e. the passive and the perfect. We also suggest that the stative construction was probably the most ancient, and that the perfect construction, which functions as an anterior, constitutes a later development.
Keywords: Hittite, anterior, passive, resultative, auxiliary verb construction
Published online: 23 September 2020
Bertinetto, Pier Marco
Bertinetto, Pier Marco & Valentina Cambi
Boyer, James L.
van Brock, Nadia
Brosman, Paul W.
Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca
2005 The Hittite adverb karū: ‘formerly, earlier; already’. In Karlene Jones-Bley, Martin E. Huld, Angela Della Volpe & Miriam Robbins Dexter (eds.), Proceedings of the sixteenth annual UCLA Indo-European Conference. Los Angeles. November 5–6 2004 (Journal of Indo-European Monograph Series 50), 219–234. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Cotticelli Kurras, Paola
Dempsey, Timothy R.
Garrett, Andrew J.
Harry, J. E.
HED = Puhvel, Jaan
Hoffner, Harry A. Jr. & H. Craig Melchert
Houwink ten Cate, Philo H. J.
1973 Impersonal and reflexive constructions of the predicative participle in Hittite. In Martin Adrianus Beek, Arie A. Kapman, Cornelis Nijland & Jaques Ryckmans (eds.), Symbolae biblicae et mesopotamicae Francisco Mario Theodoro de Liagre Böhl dedicatae (Studia Francisci Scholten memoriae dicata 4), 199–210. Leiden: Brill.
Huggard, Mattyas G.
HW2 = Friedrich, Johannes, Annelies Kammenhuber & Inge Hoffmann
Inglese, Guglielmo & Simone Mattiola
Forthcoming. The Hittite suffix -ške/a- between verbal aspect and pluractionality: a typological approach. To appear in STUF - Linguistic Typology and Universals.
2018 What happened to the Perfect in Hittite? A contribution to the theory of the *h2e-conjugation. In Elisabeth Rieken (ed.), 100 Jahre Entzifferung des Hethitischen: morphosyntaktische Kategorie in Sprachgeschichte und Forschung. Akten der Arbeitstagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft vom 21. bis 23 September 2015 in Marburg, 137–156. Wiesbaden: Reichert.
Luraghi, Silvia, Anna Pompei & Stavros Skopeteas
Melchert, Craig. H.
Melchert, Craig H.
Forthcoming. The medio-passive in transition from Old to New Hittite. To appear in a forthcoming Festschrift.
Nedjalkov, Vladimir. P.
Schwyzer, Eduard & Albert Debrunner
Sidelstev, Andrej V.