Chapter published in:
Language Contact in Africa and the African Diaspora in the Americas: In honor of John V. Singler
Edited by Cecelia Cutler, Zvjezdana Vrzić and Philipp Angermeyer
[Creole Language Library 53] 2017
► pp. 177200
References
Allsopp, J
2012Caribbean lexicography: A chronicle of the linguistic and cultural identity of one people. In Language, Culture, and Caribbean Identity, J. Allsopp & J. Rickford (eds), 81–92. Jamaica: Canoe Press.Google Scholar
Arends, J
(ed.) 1996The Early Stages of Creolization [Creole Language Library 13] Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Austin-Broos, D
1994Race/class: Jamaica’s discourse of heritable identity. New West Indian Guide 68(3–4): 213–33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, B
1965Toward a new perspective in negro English dialectology. American Speech 40(3): 171–177. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baker, P
1995Motivation in creole genesis. In From Contact to Creole and Beyond, P. Baker (ed.), 3–15. London: University of Westminster Press.Google Scholar
Baugh, J
1979Linguistic Style-Shifting in Black English. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
1980A re-examination of the Black English copula. In Locating Language in Time and Space. W. Labov (ed.), 83–106. New York NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Beckles, H
1989White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados, 1627–1713. Knoxsville TN: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
2006A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Bickerton, D
1975Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Blake, R
1997aAll O’ We Is One?: Race, Class and Language in a Barbados Community. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
1997bDefining the envelope of linguistic variation: The case of “Don’t Count” forms in the copula analysis of African American English. Language Variation and Change 9(1): 57–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Browne, D
2012Race, Class, Politics and the Struggle for Empowerment in Barbados, 1914–1937. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
Burns, Sir A
1954History of the British West Indies. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
Cruickshank, G
1911Negro English with reference particularly to Barbados. Timehri 18B, 1(1): 102–106.Google Scholar
1916Black Talk: Being Notes on Negro Dialect in British Guiana, with (Inevitably) a Chapter on Barbados. Demerara: Argosy.Google Scholar
Davis, K
1978The Position of Poor Whites in a Color-Class Hierarchy: A Diachronic Study of Ethnic Boundaries in Barbados. PhD dissertation, Wayne State University.Google Scholar
Dillard, J
1972Black English. New York NY: Random House.Google Scholar
Douglass, L
1991The politics of propriety: Ideology and the silencing of discourse on race in Jamaica. Paper presented at the American Anthropological Association , Chicago, Illinois.
Dunn, R
1972Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Fasold, R
1972Tense Marking in Black English. Arlington VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
1981The relation between Black and White speech in the South. American Speech 56(3): 163–189. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fenigsen, J
1999“A broke-up mirror”: Representing Bajan in print. Cultural Anthropology 14(1), 61–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011“Flying at half-mast”? Voices, genres, and orthographies in Barbadian Creole. In Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency [Creole Language Library 37], L. Hinrichs & J. Farquharson (eds), 107–132. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, J
1996The social construction of whiteness in Shellcracker Haven, Florida. Human Organization 55(4): 379–388. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hackert, S
2004Urban Bahamian Creole: System and Variation [Varieties of English around the World G32]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hall, S
1995Negotiating Caribbean identities. New Left Review 209: 3–14.Google Scholar
Handler, J. & Lange, F
1978Plantation Slavery in Barbados. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hannah, D
1997Copula absence in Samaná English: Implications for research on the linguistic history of African-American Vernacular English. American Speech 72(4): 339–372. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Haynes, L
1973Language in Barbados and Guyana: Attitudes, Behaviours, and Comparisons. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.Google Scholar
Holm, J
1984Variability of the copula in Black English and its creole kin. American Speech 59(4): 291–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Irvine, J. & Gal, S
2000Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In Regimes of Language, P. Kroskrity (ed.), 35–38. Santa Fe NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
Jordan, D. & Walsh, M
2007White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Labov, W
1982Objectivity and commitment in linguistic science: The case of the Black English trial in Ann Arbor. Language in Society 11(2): 165–201. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
LePage, R. & Tabouret-Keller, A
1985Acts of Identity. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
Lewis, G
1968The Growth of the Modern West Indies. New York NY: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
Lewis, L
2001The contestation of race in Barbadian society and the camouflage of conservatism. In New Carribean Thought: A Reader, B. Meeks & F. Lindahl (eds), 144–196. Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Marshall, T
1999 [1992]All ‘o we is Bajan. In Insight Guides Barbados, R. Wilder (ed.), 53–64. Hong Kong: APA Publications.Google Scholar
McElhinny, B
1993Copula and auxiliary contraction in the speech of White Americans. American Speech 68(4): 371–399. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meyerhoff, M. & Walker, J
2007The persistence of variation in individual grammars: Copula absence in ‘urban sojourners’ and their stay-at-home peers, Bequia (St Vincent and the Grenadines). Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(3): 346–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Migge, B
1996Copula variability in the Belize Continuum and the notion of the Creole Continuum. Ms, Department of Linguistics, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
Mufwene, S
2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nichols, P
1983Linguistic options and choices for Black Women in the rural South. In Language, Gender and Society, B. Thorne, C. Kramarae & N. Henley (eds), 54–68. Rowley MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
1986Prepositions in Black and White English in coastal South Carolina. In Language Variety in the South: Perspectives in Black and White, M. Montgomery & G. Bailey (eds), 73–84. Alabama AL: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Niles, N
1980Provincial English Dialects and Barbadian English. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
Parker, M
2011The Sugar Barons: Family, Corruption, Empire and War. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Patrick, P
1991Linguistic Variation in Urban Jamaican Creole. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
1999Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect [Varieties of English around the World G17]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poplack, S. & Sankoff, D
1987The Philadelphia story in the Spanish Caribbean. American Speech 62: 291–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rawson, R
1872Report Upon the Population of Barbados, 1851–1871. Appendix E, Minutes of Assembly Council. Bridgetown, Barbados.Google Scholar
Reilly, M
2014At the Margins of the Plantation: Alternative Modernities and an Archaeology of the “Poor Whites” of Barbados. PhD dissertation, Syracuse University.Google Scholar
Rickford, J
1974The insights of the mesolect. In Pidgins and Creoles: Current Trends and Prospects, D. DeCamp & I. Hancock (eds), 92–117. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
1975Carrying the new wave into syntax: The case of Black English BIN. In Analyzing Variation in Language, R. Fasold & R. Shuy (eds), 162–183. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
1986Social contact and linguistic diffusion: Hiberno English and New World Black English. Language 62(2): 245–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1987Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts, and Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
1992The creole residue in Barbados. In Old English and New: Essays in Language and Linguistics in Honor of Frederic G. Cassidy, N. Doane, J. Hall & D. Ringler (eds), 183–201. New York NY: Garland.Google Scholar
1996Copula variability in Jamaican Creole and African American Vernacular English: A reanalysis of DeCamp’s texts. In Towards a Social Science of Language: Papers in Honor of William Labov [Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 127], G. Guy, C. Feagin, D. Schiffrin & J. Baugh (eds), 357–372. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1998The creole origins of African American English: Evidence from copula absence. In African American English, S. Mufwene, J. Rickford, G. Bailey, & J. Baugh (eds), 154–200. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rickford, J. & Blake, R
1990Copula contraction and absence in Barbadian Creole English, Samaná English, and Vernacular Black English. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, K. Hall, J.-P. Koening, M. Meacham, S. Reinman & L. Sutton (eds), 257–268. Berkeley CA: BLS.Google Scholar
Rickford, J., Ball, A., Blake, R., Jackson, R. & Martin, N
1991Rappin’ on the copula coffin: Theoretical and methodological issues in the analysis of copula variation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 3(1): 103–132. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sheppard, J
1977The “Redlegs” of Barbados. New York NY: KTO Press.Google Scholar
Schomburgk, R
1971The History of Barbados. London: Frank Cass (Original work published 1848: London, Longman).Google Scholar
Singler, J
1990On the use of sociohistorical criteria in the comparison of creoles. Linguistics 28(4): 645–669. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1991aLiberian Settler English and the ex-slave recordings: A comparative study. In The Emergence of Black English: Text and Commentary [Creole Language Library 8], G. Bailey, N. Maynor & P. Cukor-Avila (eds), 249–274. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1991bCopula variation in Liberian Settler English and American Black English. In Verb Phrase Patterns in Black English and Creoles, W. Edwards & D. Winford (eds), 129–164. Detroit MI: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
1993African influence upon Afro-American language varieties: A consideration of sociohistorical factors. In Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties, S. Mufwene (ed.), 235–253. Athens GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
1996The demographics of creole genesis in the Caribbean: A comparison of Martinique and Haiti. In Creolization: The Early Years [Creole Language Library 13], J. Arends (ed.), 203–232. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1996Theories of creole genesis, sociohistorical considerations, and the evolution of evidence: The case of Haitian Creole and the Relexification Hypothesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 11(2): 185–230. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2006Yes, but not in the Caribbean. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 21(2): 377–398. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008The sociolinguistic context of creole genesis. In The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies. S. Kouwenberg & J. Singler (eds), 332–358. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Smith, A
1947Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607–1776. Chapel Hill NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Smith, R
1982Race and class in post-emancipation Caribbean. In Racism and Colonialism, R. Ross (ed.), 93–119. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, W
1967Sociolinguistic factors in the history of American Negro dialects. The Florida FL Reporter 5(2): 1–4.Google Scholar
1968Continuity and change in American Negro dialects. The Florida FL Reporter 6(1): 3–4, 16, 18.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S. & Poplack, S
1988How Black English past got to the present: Evidence from Samaná. Language in Society 17(4): 513–533. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Watson, K
1970The Redlegs of Barbados. MA thesis, University of Florida.Google Scholar
2000“Walk and Nyam Buckras”: Poor-white emigration from Barbados, 1834–1900. The Journal of Caribbean History 34(1/2): 130–156.Google Scholar
Weldon, T
1995Past marking in Gullah. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAVE-24) , University of Pennsylvania, October.
Williams, J
1987Anglo-Caribbean English: A study of its Sociolinguistic History and the Development of its Aspectual Markers. PhD dissertation, University of Texas.Google Scholar
Winford, D
1992aAnother look at the copula in Black English and the Caribbean creoles. American Speech 67(1): 21–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1992bBack to the past: The BEV/creole connection revisited. Language Variation and Change 4(3): 311–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1994Sociolinguistic approaches to language use in the Anglophone Caribbean. In Language and the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations, M. Morgan (ed.), 43–62. Stanford CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
2001Intermediate creoles and degrees of change in creole formation: The case of Bajan. In Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages [Creole Language Library 22], I. Neumann-Holzschuh & E. Schneider (eds), 215–245. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, W
1969A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Wood, P
1975Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion. New York NY: Knopf.Google Scholar
Zelinsky, W
1992The Cultural Geography of the United States. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall (Original work published 1973, Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall).Google Scholar