Article published in:Language Endangerment: Disappearing metaphors and shifting conceptualizations
Edited by Elisabeth Piirainen and Ari Sherris
[Cognitive Linguistic Studies in Cultural Contexts 7] 2015
► pp. 65–90
4. Towards a taxonomy of metaphors of a curtailed language
the case of Waray
Waray is one of the spoken languages in the Philippine archipelago. It is spoken mainly in the provinces of Samar and in some municipalities of Leyte – islands in the eastern part of the country. The use of this language is curtailed due to government policy formulation, colonial consciousness, and cultural inferiority (Sugbo, 2003). This paper provides a taxonomy of Waray metaphors through the documentation of its occurrences in selected compilation of idioms, proverbs, narratives, folk songs, popular songs, lyric poetry, and internet blogs that are representative samples of linguistic data from the first few decades of the 20th century (1914–1920) to the onset of the 21st century (2000–2011). Analysis of metaphors was primarily based on the description of its vehicles (cosmological, geographical, zoological, botanical, somatic, social relation, and general tangible/intangible) and tenors (emotion, time, space, and other abstract domains). In exploring the source domains or vehicles, the properties attached to these domains were elaborated by looking into its structural aspects, positive-negative dichotomy, locative and locomotive features, causative and productive attributes, and abstract-concrete qualities. The analysis of tenors was primarily based on the neutrality, positivity, and negativity of the values carried by these domains. In the sectional analysis, the paper offers a mollifying proposition on the applicability of the four major metaphor theories: Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Context-Limited Simulation Theory, Lexical Concepts and Cognitive Models Theory, and Discourse Dynamics Theory.
Keywords: metaphor analysis, metaphors in different domains, metaphors of Waray language
Published online: 14 October 2015
Alunan, M., & Pundavela, E.
Andriessen, D., & Gubbins, C.
(2009) Metaphor analysis as an approach for exploring theoretical concepts: The case of social capital. Organization Studies, 30(8), 845−863. MetBib
(2013) The human body metaphors: A critical analysis of the metaphoric extensions vis-a-vis Amharic and English languages. [pdf] Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/3658757/The_Human_Body_Metaphors_The_Metaphorical_Extensions_of_the_Human_Body_Parts_in_English_and_Amharic_Languages_Series_1
Berendt, E.A., & Tanita, K.
Bremer, K., & Lee, M.
(2007) Patterns of metaphor use in reconciliation talk. Discourse and Society, 18(2), 197–222. BoP
Campbell, J.D., & Katz, A.N.
(2004) Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. MetBib
Crisp, P., Heywood, J., & Steen, G.
(2002) Metaphor identification and analysis, classification and quantification. Language and Literature, V11(1), 55−69. MetBib
(2005) Metaphor and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. BoP
De Veyra, V.S.
(2007) Mga siday hin ka-Waray. [Blog post] Retrieved from http://waraypoems.vicentesoriadeveyra.com/an_mga_siday/index.html
(2005) Norte Samar. [Blog] Retrieved from http://sidaykultura.wordpress.com/2007/
Downing, L.H., & Mujic, B.K.
(2007) [Research article] Retrieved from Emergence of figurative and non-figurative features in poetic metaphors. [online] Retrieved from http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/o2-07/o2-07.htm MetBib
(2002) Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action. In R. Dirven & R. Porings (Eds.), Metaphor and metonymy in comparison and contrast (pp.349–378). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. BoP
(2005) Embodiment and body metaphors. [Journal article] Retrieved from http://www.metaphorik.de/sites/www.metaphorik.de/files/journal-pdf/09_2005_goschler.pdf MetBib
(2004) The syntagmatics of metaphor and idiom. International Journal of Lexicography, 17(3), 245−274. MetBib
Harris, R.J., Friel, N.R., & Mickelson, N.R.
(2006) Attribution of discourse goals for using concrete- and abstract-tenor metaphors and similes with or without discourse context. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(6), 863−879. BoP
Haviland, W.A., Prins, H.E.L., McBride, B., & Walrath, D.
Huang, X., Huang, H., Xu, C., Chen, W., & Wang, R.
Kemertelidze, N., & Manjavidze, T.
(2012) Classification of the metaphors according to the degree of unexpectedness. European Scientific Journal, 8(2). [Journal article] Retrieved from http://www.eujournal.net/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/37/37
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
(1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. BoP
Lakoff, G., & Turner, M.
(1989) More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. BoP
Lai, V.T., Curran, T., & Menn, L.
(2009) Comprehending conventional and novel metaphors: An ERP study. Brain Research, 1284, 145−155. MetBib
Lan, L., & MacGregor, L.
Liang, S., & Heywood, M.I.
(2002) The effect of routing under local information using a social insect metaphor. [Research article] Retrieved from https://web.cs.dal.ca/~zincir/bildiri/cec02-snm.pdf
(2005) Towards a classification of metaphor use in text: Issues in conceptual discourse analysis of a domain-specific corpus. [Research article] Retrieved from http://metaphorhacker.net/files/2013/04/Luke%C5%A1-2005-Towards-aclassification-of-metaphor-use-in-text-.pdf MetBib
(2007) Ha mga Waray nga intelektuwal. [Blog post] Retrieved from http://sidaykultura.wordpress.com/2007/10/27/ha-mga-waray-nga-intelektuwal/
(2013) Preserving Cebuano and other languages. Inquirer Visayas, 1 September 2013. [Online news] Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/479137/preserving-cebuano-and-other-languages-2
Mashal, N., & Faust, M.
(2000) Metaphor analysis in psychology – Method, theory, and fields of application. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2), Article 21. [Journal article] Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1090/2388
(2009) Novel metaphors and learner English. [Journal article] Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1643664/Novel_Metaphors_and_Learner_English
Pauwels, P., & Simon-Vandenbergen, A.
(1995) Body parts in linguistic action: Underlying schemata and value judgements. In L. Goossens, P. Pauwels, B. Rudzka-Ostyn, A. Simon-Vandenbergen, & J. Vanparys (Eds.), By word of mouth: Metaphor, metonymy and linguistic action in cognitive perspective (pp.35−69). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. MetBib
(2013) Body parts and their metaphoric meanings in Mwan and other South Mande languages. [Research article] Retrieved from http://llacan.vjf.cnrs.fr/PDF/Mandenkan44/44perexvals.pdf
(2008) Much mouth much tongue: Chinese metonymies and metaphors of verbal behaviour. Cognitive Linguistics, 19(2), 241–282. BoP
(2005) Systematic metaphor analysis as a method of qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 10 (2), 358−394. MetBib
(2008) A comparative study of the translation of image metaphors of color in the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. [Online article] Retrieved from http://www.translationdirectory.com/articles/article1701.php
Shanton, K., & Goldman, A.
Sommer, R., & Sommer, B.
(2003) Language policy and local literature in the Philippines. [Online article] Retrieved from http://www-01.sil.org/asia/ldc/parallel_papers/victor_n_sugbo.pdf
Takada, M., Shinohara, K., Morizumi, F., & Sato, M.
(2000) A study of metaphorical mapping involving socio-cultural values: How woman is conceptualized in Japanese. [Journal article] Retrieved from http://aclweb.org/anthology/Y/Y00/Y00-1030.pdf MetBib
Thagard, P., & Beam, C.
(2013) Epistemological metaphors and the nature of philosophy. [Journal article] Retrieved from http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/epistemological.html MetBib
The Holy Bible
Thibodeau, P., & Durgin, F.H.
(2007) Productive figurative communication: Conventional metaphors facilitate the comprehension of related novel metaphors. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(2), 521−542. MetBib
Turney, P.D., Neuman, Y., Assaf, D., & Cohen, Y.
(2011) Literal and metaphorical sense identification through concrete and abstract context. [Proceedings article] Retrieved from http://aclweb.org/anthology//D/D11/D11-1063.pdf
Vaara, E., Tienari, J., & Santti, R.
(2002) Management of mobile agent systems using social insect metaphors. [Proceedings article] Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.95.3837&rep=rep1&type=pdf doi: