Article published in:
Cognitive Linguistic Studies
Vol. 2:2 (2015) ► pp. 205238
References

References

Abdelhadi, S., Ibrahim, R., & Eviatar, Z.
(2011) Perceptual load in the reading of Arabic: Effects of orthographic visual complexity on detection. Writing Systems Research, 3, 117–127. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Abd El-Minem, F.M.
(1987) Elm al-sarf. Jerusalem: Al-Taufik Press [in Arabic].Google Scholar
Abu-Rabia, S.
(2001) The role of vowels in reading semitic scripts: Data from Arabic and Hebrew. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 39–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Adams, M.J.
(1979) Models of word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 133–176. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Adams, M.J., & Bruck, M.
(1993) Word recognition: The interface of educational policies and scientific research. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 113–139. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aghababian, V., & Nazir, T.A.
(2000) Developing normal reading skills: Aspects of the visual processes underlying word recognition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 76, 123–150. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Allen, P.A., Wallace, B., & Weber, T.A.
(1995) Influence of case type, word frequency, and exposure duration on visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 21, 914–934. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Attneave, F.
(1955) Symmetry, information, and memory for patterns. American Journal of Psychology, 68, 209–222. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Azzam, R.
(1989) Orthography and reading of the Arabic language. In P.G. Aaron & R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and writing disorders in different orthographic systems (pp. 1–29). New York: Kluwer Academic. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1993) The nature of Arabic reading and spelling errors of young children. Reading and Writing, 5, 355–385. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Babcock, M.K., & Freyd, J.J.
(1988) Perception of dynamic information in static handwritten forms. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 111–130. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Babkoff, H., Faust, M., & Lavidor, M.
(1997) Lexical decision, visual hemifield and angle of orientation. Neuropsychologia, 35, 487–495. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Badian, N.
(2005) Does a visual-orthographic deficit contribute to reading disability? Annals of Dyslexia, 55, 28–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Balota, D.A.
(1994) Visual word recognition: The journey from features to meaning. In M.A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 303–358).San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Belaid, A., & Choisy, C.
(2008) Human Reading based strategies for off-line arabic word recognition. Arabic and Chinese Handwriting Recognition Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4768, 36–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Berent, I., & Shimron, J.
(1997) The representation of Hebrew words: Evidence from the obligatory contour principle. Cognition, 64, 39–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Berwick D.M., & Winickoff, D.E.
(1996) The truth about doctors’ handwriting: A prospective study. BMJ, 313, 1657–1658. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Besner, D.
(1989) On the role of outline shape and word-specific visual pattern in the identification of function words: None. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41A, 91–105. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blommaert, F.J.
(1988) Early-visual factors in letter confusions. Spatial Vision, 3, 199–224. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bouma, H.
(1970) Interaction effects in parafoveal letter recognition. Nature, 226, 177–178. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1971) Visual recognition of isolated lower-case letters. Vision Research, 11, 450–474. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1973) Visual interference in the parafoveal recognition of initial and final letters of words. Vision Research, 13(4), 767–782. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1978) Visual search and reading: Eye movements and functional visual field: A tutorial review. In J. Requin (Ed.), Attention and performance, (Vol. VII, pp. 115–146). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Bouma, H., & Legein, C.
(1977) Foveal and parafoveal recognition of letters and words by dyslexics and by average readers. Neuropsychologia, 15, 69–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, J.L., Nettleton, N.C., & Taylor, M.J.
(1981) The use of laterally presented words in research into cerebral asymmetry: Is directional scanning likely to be a source of artifact? Brain and Language, 14, 1–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Briggs, R., & Hocevar, D.J.
(1975) A new distinctive feature theory for upper case letters. Journal of General Psychology, 93, 87–93.Google Scholar
Bruder, G.A.
(1978) Role of visual familiarity in the word-superiority effects obtained with the simultaneous matching task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4, 88–100. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bryden, M.P., & Allard, F.
(1976) Visual hemifield asymmetries depend on typeface. Brain & Language, 3, 191–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cattell, J.M.
(1896) The time taken up by cerebral operations. Mind, 11, 377–392.Google Scholar
Clark, J.J., & O’Regan, J.K.
(1999) Word ambiguity and the optimal viewing position in reading. Vision Research, 39, 843–857. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chung, S.T.L.
(2002) The Effect of letter spacing on reading speed in central and peripheral vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science,43(4), 1270–1276.Google Scholar
Chung, S.T.L., & Legge, G.E.
(2009) Precision of position signals for letters. Vision Research, 49, 1948–1960. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coltheart, M.
(2005) Modeling Reading: The dual- route approach. In M. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 6–23). Oxford, England: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coltheart, M., & Freeman, R.
(1974) Case alternation impairs word identification. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 3, 102–104. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J.
(2001) DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108(1), 204–256. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Corcoran, D.W.J., & Rouse, R.O.
(1970) An aspect of perceptual organization involved in reading typed and handwritten words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 526–530. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, C.J.
(2010) The spatial coding model of visual word identification. Psychological Review, 117, 713–758. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dehaene, S., Cohen, L., Sigman, M., & Vinckier, F.
(2005) The neural code for written words: A proposal. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 335–341. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Drewnowski, A., & Healy, A.F.
(1977) Detection errors on the and and: Evidence for reading units larger than the word. Memory & Cognition, 5, 636–647. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ehri, L.
(2005) Development of sight word reading: Phases and findings. In M. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: a handbook (pp. 135–154). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ehri, C.L., & Snowling, J.M.
(2005) Developmental variations in word recognition. In C.A. Stone, R.E. Silliman, J.B. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (pp. 433–460). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Eviatar, Z., Ibrahim, R., & Ganayim, D.
(2004) Orthography and the hemispheres: Visual and linguistic aspects of letter processing. Neuropsychology, 18, 174–184. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eviatar, Z., & Zaidel, E.
(1991) The effects of word length and emotionality on hemispheric contribution to lexical decision. Neuropsychologia, 29, 415–428. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Farah, N., Khadir, M.T., & Sellami, M.
(2005) Artificial neural network fusion: Application to Arabic words recognition. 13th European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks ESANN , (pp. 151–155).
Fehrer, E.V.
(1935) An investigation of the learning of visually perceived forms. American Journal of Psychology, 47, 187–221. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D.F.
(1975) Reading and visual search. Memory and Cognition, 3, 188–196. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Frith, U.
(1985) Beneath the surface of developmental dyslexia. In K.E. Patterson, J.C. Marashall, & M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surface dyslexia (pp. 301–330). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Gervais, M.J., Harvey, L.O., Jr., & Roberts, J.O.
(1984) Identification confusions among letters of the alphabet. Journal of Experimental Psychology— Human Perception and Performance, 10, 655–666. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Geyer, L.H.
(1977) Recognition and confusion of the lowercase alphabet. Perception & Psychophysics, 22, 487–490. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, E.J., Osser, H., Schiff, W., & Smith, J.
(1963) An analysis of critical features of letters tested by a confusion matrix. In A basic research program on reading. [Cooperative Research Project No. 639], Ithaca, NY: Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., & Perea, M.
(2008) The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115, 577– 600. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gough, P.B.
(1984).Wordrecognition. In P.D. Pearson, R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 225–253). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Hagenzieker, M.P., van der Heijden, A.H.C., & Hagenaar, R.
(1990) Time-courses in visual-information processing: Some empirical evidence for inhibition. Psychological Research, 52, 13–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Healy, A.F.
(1976) Detection errors on the word the: Evidence for reading units larger than letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 2, 235–242. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1994) Letter detection:A windowto unitization and other cognitive processes in reading text. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 333–344. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Healy, A.F., Conboy, G.L., & Drewnowski, A.
(1987) Characterizingthe processing units of reading: Effects of intra- and intern word spaces in a letter detection task. In B.K. Britton & S.M. Glynn) Eds.), Executive control processes in reading (pp. 279–296). Hillsdale,NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hellige, J., & Adamson, M.
(2007) Hemispheric Differences in processing handwritten cursive. Brain & Language, 102, 215–227. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, J.M.
(1992) Visual attention and eye movement control during reading and scene perception. In K. Rayner (Ed.), Eye movements and visual cognition: Scene perception and reading (pp. 260–283). New York: Springer-Verlag. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Iacoboni, M., & Zaidel, E.
(1996) Hemispheric independence in word recognition: Evidence from unilateral and bilateral presentations. Brain and Language, 53, 121–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ibrahim, R., & Eviatar, Z.
(2003) The effects of metalinguistic awareness on acquisition of reading: A cross-language comparison. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
Ibrahim, R., Eviatar, Z., & Aharon-Perez, J.
(2002) Do the characteristics of Arabic orthography slow its cognitive processing? Neuropsychology, 16, 322–326. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jacobs, R.J.
(1979) Visual resolution and contour interaction in the fovea and periphery. Vision research, 19, 1187–1196. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, T.R., Patching, G.R., & Milner, A.D.
(2000) Lateralized word recognition: Assessing the role of hemispheric specialization, modes of lexical access and perceptual asymmetry. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 26, 1192–1208. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Khateb, A., Khateb-Abdelgani, M., Taha, H.Y., & Ibrahim, R.
(2014) The impact of orthographic connectivity on visual word recognition in Arabic: A cross- sectional study. Reading and Writing, 6, 1–24.Google Scholar
Khateb, A., Taha, H.Y., Elias, I., & Ibrahim, R.
(2013) The effect of the internal orthographic connectivity of written Arabic words on the process of the visual recognition: A comparison between skilled and dyslexic readers. Writing Systems Research, 5, 214–233. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Koriat, A., & Norman, J.
(1985) Reading rotated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 490–508. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1989) Why is word recognition impaired by disorientation while the identification of single letters is not? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 153–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kristen, P., Hensen, P., Holliday, I., & Cornelossen, P.
(2006) Attentional Shifting and the role of the dorsal pathways in visual word recognition. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2926–2936. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
LaBerge, D., & Brown, V.
(1989) Theory of attentional operations in shape identification. Psychological Review, 96, 101–124. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
LaBerge, D, & Samuels, S.J.
(1974) Toward a theory of automatic information Processing in Reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293–323. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lachmann, T.
(2000) Memory processes in recognition and comparison. Psychologia Universalis Nr. 22. Lengerich, Berlin: Pabst Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Latham, K., & Whitaker, D.
(1996) A comparison of word recognition and reading performance in foveal and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 36, 2665–2674. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lavidor, M.
(2011) Whole-word shape effect in dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(4), 443–454. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Levi, D.M., Song, S., & Pelli, D.G.
(2007) Amblyopic reading is crowded. Journal of Vision, 7(2), 21, 1–17.Google Scholar
Leybaert, J., & Content, A.
(1995) Reading and spelling acquisition in two different teaching methods: A test of the independence hypothesis. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 65–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lindell, A.K., & Nicholls, M.E.R.
(2003) Cortical representation of the fovea: Implications for visual half-field research. Cortex, 39(1), 111–117. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lindell, A.K., Nicholls, M.E.R., Kwantes, P.J.K., & Castles, A.
(2005) Sequential processing in hemispheric word recognition: The impact of initial letter discriminability on the OUP naming effect. Brain & Language, 93, 160–172. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Loomis, J.M.
(1982) Analysis of tactile and visual confusion matrices. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 41–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lorusso, M.L., Facoetti S., Pesenti, S., Cattaneo, C., Molteni, M., & Geiger, G.
(2004) Wider recognition in peripheral vision common to different subtypes of dyslexia. Vision research, 44, 2413–2424. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mari-Beffa, P., Houghton, G., Estevez, A.F., & Fuentes, L.J.
(2000) Word-based grouping affects the prime-task effect on semantic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 26, 469–447 CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Martelli, M., Majaj, J.N., & Pelli, G.D.
(2005) Are faces processed like words? A diagnostic test for recognition by parts. Journal of Vision, 5, 58–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Marzouki, Y., Meeter, M., & Grainger, J.
(2013).Location invariance in masked repetition priming of letters and words. Acta Psychologica. (Amst.), 142, 23–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mason, M.
(1978) From print to sound in mature readers as a function of reader ability and two forms of orthographic regularity. Memory and Cognition, 6, 568–581. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mazzro, D.W., & Klitzke, D.
(1977) Letters are functional in word identification. Memory & Cognition,5(3), 292–298. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mayall, K.A., Humphreys, G.W., & Olson, A.
(1997) Disruption to word or letter processing? The origins of case-mixing effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 23, 1275–1286. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McClelland, J.L.
(1976) Preliminary letter identification in the perception of words and nonwords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1976(7), 80–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McClelland, J.L., & Rumelhart, D.E.
(1981) An interactive activation model of context effect in letter perception. Part I: an account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375–407. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McLeish, E.
(2007) A study of the effect of letter spacing on the reading speed of young readers with low vision. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 25, 133–143. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montant, M., Nazir, T.A., & Poncet, M.
(1998) Pure alexia and the viewing position effect in printed words. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 15, 93–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Na¨sa¨nen, R., Kukkonen, H., & Rovamo, J.
(1993) Spatial integration of band-pass filtered patterns in noise. Vision Research, 33, 903–911. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Navon, D.
(1978) Perception of mis-oriented words and letter strings. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 32, 129–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nazir, T.A.
(2000) Traces of print along the visual pathway. In A. Kennedy, R. Radach, D. Heller, & J. Pynte (Eds.), Reading as a perceptual process (pp. 3–23). Amsterdam, North- Holland: Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nazir, T.A., Heller, D., & Sussmann, C.
(1992) Letter visibility and word recognition: The optimal viewing position in printed words. Perception & Psychophysics, 52(3), 315–328. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nazir, T A., O'Regan, J.K., & Jaccobs, A.M.
(1991) On words and their letters. Bulletin ofthe Psychonomic Society, 29, 171–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
New, B., Ferrand, L., Pallier, C., & Brysbaert, M.
(2006) Re-examining word length effects in visual word recognition: New evidence from the English Lexicon Project. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13, 45–52. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pammer, K., Lavis, R., Cooper, C., Hansen, P.C., & Cornelissen, P.L.
(2005) Symbol- string sensitivity and adult performance in lexical decision. Brain and Language, 94(3), 278–296. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pammer, K., Lavis, R., Hansen, P., & Cornelissen, P.L.
(2004) Symbol string sensitivity and children's reading. Brain and Language, 89, 601–610. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelli, D.G., Burns, C.W., Farell, B., & Moore-Page, D.C.
(2006) Feature detection and letter identification. Vision Research, 46(28), 4646–4674. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelli, D.G., & Farrell, B.
(1992) Visual Memory. Talk presented at ECVP meeting , Pisa, Italy.
Pelli, D.G., Farell, B., & Moore, D.C.
(2003) The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature, 423, 752–756. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelli, D.G., Palomares, M., & Majaj, N.J.
(2004) Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: Distinguishing feature integration from detection. Journal of Vision, 4, 1136–1169. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelli, D.G., Tillman, A.K., Freeman, J., Su, M., Berger, D.T., & Majaj, J.N.
(2007) Crowding and eccentricity determine reading rate. Journal of Vision, 7(2), 1–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelli, D.G., Farell, B., & Moore, D.C.
(2003) The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature, 423, 752–756. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perea, M., & Gomez, P.
(2012a) Subtle Increases in inter letter spacing facilitate the encoding of words during normal reading. PLoS ONE, 7(10), e47568. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012b) Increasing inter letter spacing facilitates encoding of words. Psychology of Bulletin & Review, 19, 332–338. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perea, M., & Lupker, S.J.
(2003) Does jugde activate COURT? Transposed-letter similarity effects in masked associative priming. Memory & Cognition, 31, 829–841. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2004) Can CANISO activate CASINO? Transposed-letter similarity effects with nonadjacent letter positions. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 231–246. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perea, M., Moret-Tatay, C., & Gomez, P.
(2011) The effects of inter letter spacing in visual-word recognition. Acta Psychologica, 137, 345–351. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perea, M., Panadero, V., Moret-Tatay, C., & Gomez, P.
(2012) The effects of inter letterspacing in visual-word recognition: Evidence with young normal readers and developmental dyslexics. Learn and Instruction, 22, 420–430. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perry, C., Ziegler, J.C., & Zorzi, M.
(2007) Nested incremental modeling in the development of computational theories: The CDP+ model of reading aloud. Psychological Review, 114, 273–315. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rayner, K., Foorman, B., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S.
(2002) How should reading be taught? Scientific American, 286, 84–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Reichle, E.D., Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A.
(2006) E–Z Reader: A cognitive-control, serial-attention model of eye-movement control during reading. Cognitive Systems Research, 7, 4–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rumelhart, D.E., & McClelland, J.L.
(1982) An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 2. The contextual enhancement effect and some tests and extensions of the model. Psychological Review, 89(1), 60–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, V.I., & Healy, A.F.
(1993) Detecting phonemes and letters in text: Interactions between different types and levels of processes. Memory & Cognition, 21, 739–751. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schomaker, L., & Segers, E.
(1999) Finding features used in the human reading of cursive handwriting. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 2, 13–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Share, D.L.
(2008) On the Anglocentricities of current reading research and practice: The perils of overreliance on an "outlier" orthography. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 584–615. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shillcock, R., Ellison, T.M., & Monaghan, P.
(2000) Eye-fixation behavior, lexical storage, and visual word recognition in a split processing model. Psychological Review, 107(4), 824–851. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sieroff, E., & Posner, M.I.
(1988) Cueing spatial attention during processing of words and letter strings in normals. Cognitive. Neuropsycholgy, 5, 451–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Smith, F.
(1969) Familiarity of configuration vs discriminability of features in the visual identification of words. Psychonomic Science, 14, 261–263. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Strasburger, H.
(2003) A generalized cortical magnification rule predicts low-contrast letter recognition in the visual field. Journal of Vision, 3(9), 653a. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2003) Indirektes Sehen. Formerkennung im zentralen und peripheren Gesichtsfeld. GPttingen, Bern, Toronto, Seattle: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
Stuart, J.A., & Burian, H.M.
(1962) A study of separation difficulty and its relationship to visual acuity in normal and amblyopic eyes. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 53, 471–477. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stuart, M., Masterson, J., Dixon, M., & Quinlan, P.
(1999) Inferring sublexical correspondences from sight vocabulary: Evidence from 6- and 7-year-olds. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 52(2), 353–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Taha, H., Ibrahim, R., & Khateb, A.
(2013) How does Arabic orthographic connectivity modulate brain activity during visual word recognition: An ERP study. Brain Topography, 26, 292–302. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tai, Y.C., Sheedy, J., & Hayes, J.
(2009) The effect of interletter spacing on reading. Paper presented at the Computer Displays and Vision Conference . Forest Grove, OR.
Tanaka, J.W., & Gauthier, I.
(1997) Expertise in object and face recognition. In R.L. Goldstone, D.L. Medin, P.G. Schyns& (Eds.), Mechanisms of perceptual learning (Vol. 36, pp. 83–125). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Taouk, M., & Coltheart, M.
(2004).The cognitive processes involved in learning to read in Arabic. Reading and Writing, 17(1-2), 27–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, I., & Taylor, M.M.
(1983) The psychology of reading. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Tinker, M.A.
(1963) Legibility of print. Iowa: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
Townsend, J.T.
(1971a) Theoretical analysis of the alphabetic confusion matrix. Perception & Psychophysics, 9, 40–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1971b) Alphabetic confusion: A test of models for individuals. Perception & Psychophysics, 9, 449–454. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Townsend, J.T., & Ashby, F.G.
(1982) Experimental test of contemporary mathematical models of visual letter recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 834–854. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Townsend, J.T., Hu, G.G., & Evans, R.J.
(1984) Modeling feature perception in brief displays with evidence for positive interdependencies. Perception & Psychophysics, 36, 35–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Overschelde, J.P., & Healy, A.F.
(2005) A blank look in reading: The effect of blank space on the identification of letters and words during reading. Experimental Psychology, 52, 213–223. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vellutino, F.R., Fletcher, J.M., Snowling, M.J., & Scanlon, D.M.
(2004) Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2–40. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wagner, N.M., & Harris, L.J.
(1994) Effects of typeface characteristics on visual field asymmetries for letter identification in children and adults. Brain & Language, 46, 41–58. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Watson, A.B., & Fitzhugh, A.E.
(1989) Modelling character legibility. Society for Information Display Digest of Technical Papers, 20, 360–363.Google Scholar
Weinstein, M.
(1955) Stimulus complexity and the recognition of visual patterns. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University
Whitney, C.
(2001) How the brain encodes the order of letters in a printed word: The SERIOL model and selective literature review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8(2), 221–243. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Windes, J.D.
(1991) Reaction time to a word in different orientations with letters rotated separately in different orientations. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 299–305. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ziegler, J.C., & Goswami, U.
(2005) Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilledreading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychol Bulletin, 131, 3–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zorzi, M., Barbiero, C., Facoetti, A., Lonciari, L., Carrozzi, M., Montico, M., Bravar, L., George, F., Pech-Georgel, C., & Ziegler, J.C.
(2012) Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 109(28), 11455–11459.