Chapter published in:
Conspiracy Theory Discourses
Edited by Massimiliano Demata, Virginia Zorzi and Angela Zottola
[Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture 98] 2022
► pp. 215238
Ahmed, Sara
2004The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Assimakopoulos, Stavros, Fabienne H. Baider, and Sharon Millar
(eds.) 2017Online Hate Speech in the European Union: A Discourse-Analytic Perspective. Cham: Springer Nature. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Badjatiya, Pinkesh, Shashank Gupta, Manish Gupta, and Vasudeva Varma
2017 “Deep Learning for Hate Speech Detection in Tweets.” In Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, ed. by Rick Barrett, 759–760. Geneva: International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baider, Fabienne
2020 “Pragmatics Lost?: Overview, Synthesis and Proposition in Defining Online Hate Speech.” Pragmatics and Society 11 (2): 196–218. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baider, Fabienne, and Maria Constantinou
2020 “Covert Hate Speech: A Contrastive Study of Greek and Greek Cypriot Online Discussions with an Emphasis on Irony.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 8 (2): 262–287. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barton, David, and Carmen Lee
2013Language Online: Investigating Digital Texts and Practices. Abingdon: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bergmann, Eirikur
2018Conspiracy & Populism: The Politics of Misinformation. Cham: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2020 “Populism and the Politics of Misinformation.” Safundi 21 (3): 251–265. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Boler, Megan, and Elizabeth Davis
2018 “The Affective Politics of the “Post-Truth” Era: Feeling Rules and Networked Subjectivity.” Emotion, Space and Society 27: 75–85. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bolsen, Toby, Risa Palm, and Justin T. Kingsland
2020 “Framing the Origins of COVID-19.” Science Communication 42 (5): 562–585. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bouko, Catherine, and David Garcia
2019 “Citizens’ Reactions to Brexit on Twitter. A Content and Discourse Analysis.” In Discourses of Brexit, ed. by Veronika Koller, Susanne Kopf, and Marlene Miglbauer, 171–190. Abingdon: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
boyd, danah
2010 “Social Network Sites as Networked Publics: Affordances, Dynamics, and Implications.” In A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites, ed. by Zizi Papacharissi, 39–58. NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Brotherton, Robert, and Christopher C. French
2014 “Belief in Conspiracy Theories and Susceptibility to the Conjunction Fallacy.” Applied Cognitive Psychology 28 (2): 238–248. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bruns, Axel, Stephen Harrington, and Edward Hurcombe
2020 “Corona? 5G? or Both?’: The Dynamics of COVID-19/5G Conspiracy Theories on Facebook.” Media International Australia 177 (1): 12–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Calvert, Clay
1997 “Hate Speech and Its Harms: A Communication Theory Perspective.” Journal of Communication 47 (1): 4–19. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chen, Meilin, and John Flowerdew
2019 “Discriminatory Discursive Strategies in Online Comments on YouTube Videos on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement by Mainland and Hong Kong Chinese.” Discourse & Society 30 (6): 549–572. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chiluwa, Innocent, and Presley Ifukor
2015 “ ‘War Against Our Children’: Stance and Evaluation in# BringBackOurGirls Campaign Discourse on Twitter and Facebook.” Discourse & Society 26 (3): 267–296. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chow, Gregory
2006 “Are Chinese Official Statistics Reliable?.” CESifo Economic Studies 52 (2): 396–414. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Depoux, Anneliese, Sam Martin, Emilie Karafillakis, Raman Preet, Annelies Wilder-Smith, and Heidi Larson
2020 “The Pandemic of Social Media Panic Travels Faster Than the COVID-19 Outbreak.” Journal of Travel Medicine 27 (3): 1–4. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Douglas, Karen, Aleksandra Cichocka, and Robbie M. Sutton
2020 “Motivations, Emotions and Belief in Conspiracy Theories.” In Routledge Handbook of Conspiracy Theories, ed. by Michael Butter, and Peter Knight, 181–191. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dresner, Eli, and Susan C. Herring
2010 “Functions of the Nonverbal in CMC: Emoticons and Illocutionary Force.” Communication Theory 20 (3): 249–268. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fischer, Agneta, Eran Halperin, Daphna Canetti, and Alba Jasini
2018 “Why We Hate.” Emotion Review 10 (4): 309–320. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Flowerdew, John, and Solomon Leong
2010 “Presumed Knowledge in the Discursive Construction of Socio-Political and Cultural Identity.” Journal of Pragmatics 42 (8): 2240–2252. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Garde-Hansen, Joanne and Kristyn Gorton
2013Emotion Online: Theorizing Affect on the Internet. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gitari, Njagi Dennis, Zhang Zuping, Hanyurwimfura Damien, and Jun Long
2015 “A Lexicon-Based Approach for Hate Speech Detection.” International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering 10 (4): 215–230. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hart, Christopher
2010Critical Discourse Analysis and Cognitive Science: New Perspectives on Immigration Discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Huffaker, David
2010 “Dimensions of Leadership and Social Influence in Online Communities.” Human Communication Research 36 (4): 593–617. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jaworsky, Bernadette Nadya, and Runya Qiaoan
2020 “The Politics of Blaming: The Narrative Battle between China and the US over COVID-19.” Journal of Chinese Political Science 26 (2): 295–315. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jones, Rodney
(ed.) 2021Viral Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
KhosraviNik, Majid
2010 “Actor Descriptions, Action Attributions, and Argumentation: Towards a Systematization of CDA Analytical Categories in the Representation of Social Groups.” Critical Discourse Studies 7 (1): 55–72. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
KhosraviNik, Majid, and Johann W. Unger
2016 “Critical Discourse Studies and Social Media: Power, Resistance and Critique in Changing Media Ecologies.” In Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (3rd edition), ed. by Ruth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 205–233. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Ksiazek, Thomas B., and Nina Springer
2020User Comments and Moderation in Digital Journalism: Disruptive Engagement. Abington: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lantian, Anthony, Dominique Muller, Cécile Nurra, Olivier Klein, Sophie Berjot, and Myrto Pantazi
2018 “Stigmatized Beliefs: Conspiracy Theories, Anticipated Negative Evaluation of the Self, and Fear of Social Exclusion.” European Journal of Social Psychology 48 (7): 939–954. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lee, Carmen
2020 “Doxxing as Discursive Action in a Social Movement.” Critical Discourse Studies. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2021 “#HateIsAVirus: Talking about COVID-19 ‘Hate’.” In Viral Discourse, ed. by Rodney Jones, 61–68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lee, Carmen, and Dennis Chau
2018 “Language as Pride, Love, and Hate: Archiving Emotions Through Multilingual Instagram Hashtags.” Discourse, Context & Media 22: 21–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lee, Francis L. F., and Joseph M. Chan
2018Media and Protest Logics in the Digital Era: The Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Leggitt, John S., and Raymond W. Gibbs
2000 “Emotional Reactions to Verbal Irony.” Discourse Processes 29 (1): 1–24. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Martin, James R., and Peter R. White
2005The Language of Evaluation. Vol. 2. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Papacharissi, Zizi
2015Affective Publics: Sentiment, Technology, and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Reisigl, Martin, and Ruth Wodak
2005Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2016 “The Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA).” In Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (3rd edition), ed. by Ruth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 23–61. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Reyes, Antonio
2011 “Strategies of Legitimization in Political Discourse: From Words to Actions.” Discourse & Society 22 (6): 781–807. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sahlane, Ahmed
2012 “Argumentation and Fallacy in the Justification of the 2003 War on Iraq.” Argumentation 26 (4): 459–488. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schild, Leonard, Chen Ling, Jeremy Blackburn, Gianluca Stringhini, Yang Zhang, and Savvas Zannettou
2020 ““Go Eat a Bat, Chang!”: An Early Look on the Emergence of Sinophobic Behavior on Web Communities in the Face of Covid-19.” Preprint. http://​arxiv​.org​/abs​/2004​.04046
Sierra, Sylvia
(2021) A Mexican Autodefensa Facebook Group’s use of binarity, legitimization strategies, and topoi of religion, family and struggle. Discourse, Context & Media, 42, 100497. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stieglitz, Stefan, and Linh Dang-Xuan
2013 “Emotions and Information Diffusion in Social Media – Sentiment of Microblogs and Sharing Behavior.” Journal of Management Information Systems 29 (4): 217–248. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Van Dijk, Teun A.
1993Elite Discourse and Racism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Van Leeuwen, Theo
2009 “Discourse as the Recontextualization of Social Practice: A Guide.” In Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (2nd edition), ed. by Ruth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 144–161. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Van Leeuwen, Theo, and Ruth Wodak
1999 “Legitimizing Immigration Control: A Discourse-Historical Analysis.” Discourse Studies 1 (1): 83–118. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wellman, Barry
2002 “Little Boxes, Glocalization, and Networked Individualism.” In Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, ed. by Makoto Tanabe, Peter Van den Besselaar, and Toru Ishida, 10–25. Heidelberg: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wesch, Michael
2009 “YouTube and You: Experiences of Self-Awareness in the Context Collapse of the Recording Webcam.” Explorations in Media Ecology 8 (2): 19–34.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth
(2008) Us’ and ‘them’: Inclusion and exclusion-Discrimination via discourse. Identity, belonging and migration, 54–77. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2014 “Critical Discourse Analysis,” In Routledge Companion to English Studies ed. by Constant Leung, Brian V. Street, 332–346. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
2009 “Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology.” In Methods of Critical Discourse Studies (2nd edition), ed. by Ruth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 1–33. London: Sage.Google Scholar
Ziegele, Marc, Mathias Weber, Oliver Quiring, and Timo Breiner
2018 “The Dynamics of Online News Discussions: Effects of News Articles and Reader Comments on Users’ Involvement, Willingness to Participate, and the Civility of Their Contributions.” Information, Communication & Society 21 (10): 1419–1435. DOI logoGoogle Scholar