Chapter published in:
Conspiracy Theory Discourses
Edited by Massimiliano Demata, Virginia Zorzi and Angela Zottola
[Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture 98] 2022
► pp. 295316
Abrams, Joseph
2015 “Obama’s Science Czar Considered Forced Abortions, Sterilization as Population Growth Solutions.” Fox News, December 24 2015 https://​www​.foxnews​.com​/politics​/obamas​-science​-czar​-considered​-forced​-abortions​-sterilization​-as​-population​-growth​-solutions
BBC News
2019 “Why Is Billionaire George Soros a Bogeyman for the Hard Right?September 7 2019 https://​www​.bbc​.com​/news​/stories​-49584157
Bessner, Daniel
2019 “The George Soros Philosophy – and Its Fatal Flaw.” The Guardian, July 6 2019 https://​www​.theguardian​.com​/news​/2018​/jul​/06​/the​-george​-soros​-philosophy​-and​-its​-fatal​-flaw
Bozdag, Cigdem
2020 “Managing Diverse Online Networks in the Context of Polarization: Understanding How We Grow Apart on and through Social Media.” Social Media+ Society. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Coffin, Caroline
1997 “Constructing and Giving Value to the Past: An Investigation into Secondary School History.” In Genre and Institutions: Social Processes in the Workplace and School, ed. by Frances Christie and James R. Martin, 196–230. London and New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
Douglas, Karen M., Joseph E. Uscinski, Robbie M. Sutton, Aleksandra Cichocka, Turkay Nefes, Chee Siang Ang, and Farzin Deravi
2019 “Understanding Conspiracy Theories.” Political Psychology 40: 3–35. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Financial Times
2009 “Transcript: George Soros Interview.” Financial Times, October 24 2009 https://​www​.ft​.com​/content​/6e2dfb82​-c018​-11de​-aed2​-00144feab49a
Fong, Amos, Jon Roozenbeek, Danielle Goldwert, Steven Rathje, and Sander van der Linden
2021 “The Language of Conspiracy: A Psychological Analysis of Speech Used by Conspiracy Theorists and their Followers on Twitter.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 24 (4): 606–623. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fuoli, Matteo
2012 “Assessing Social Responsibility: A Quantitative Analysis of Appraisal in BP’s and IKEA’s Social Reports,” Discourse & Communication 6 (1): 55–81. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Halberstam, Yosh, and Brian Knight
2016 “Homophily, Group Size, and the Diffusion of Political Information in Social Networks: Evidence from Twitter,” Journal of Public Economics 143: 73–88. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hunston, Susan
2010Corpus Approaches to Evaluation: Phraseology and Evaluative Language. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Korenek, Peter, and Marián Šimko
2014 “Sentiment Analysis on Microblog Utilizing Appraisal Theory.” World Wide Web 17 (4): 847–867. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Levy, Sharon, Michael Saxon, and William Yang Wang
2021 “The Truth is Out There: Investigating Conspiracy Theories in Text Generation.” arXiv e-prints, arXiv-2101.Google Scholar
Liu, Xiaolin
2010 “An Application of Appraisal Theory to Teaching College English Reading in China.” Journal of Language Teaching and Research 1 (2): 133–35. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Love, Kristina
2006 “APPRAISAL in Online Discussions of Literary Texts.” Text & Talk 26 (2): 217–244. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ma, Josephine
2020 “Coronavirus: China’s First Confirmed Covid-19 Case Traced Back to November 17.” South China Morning Post, March 13 2020 https://​www​.scmp​.com​/news​/china​/society​/article​/3074991​/coronavirus​-chinas​-first​-confirmed​-covid​-19​-case​-traced​-back
Martin, James R.
2000 “Beyond Exchange: Appraisal Systems in English.” In Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, ed. by Susan Hunston and Geoffrey Thompson, 142–175. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
1996 “Evaluating Disruption: Symbolising Theme in Junior Secondary Narrative.” In Literacy in Society, ed by Ruqaiya Hasan and Geoffrey Williams, 124–171. London: LongmanGoogle Scholar
Martin, James. R. and Peter. R. R. White
2005The Language of Evaluation. Appraisal in English. New York: Palgrave. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maya-Jariego, Isidro, and Daniel Holgado Ramos
2014 “Homophily.” In Encyclopedia of Social Media and Politics, ed. by Kerric Harvey, Volume 2: 630–632. London, UK: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Metaxas, Panagiotis, and Samantha T. Finn
2017 “The Infamous #Pizzagate Conspiracy Theory: Insight from a TwitterTrails Investigation.” Evanston, IL: Computation and Journalism Symposium.Google Scholar
Mora-López, Natalia
2020Linguistic and computational aspects of Appraisal annotation: The case of mobile application reviews in English and Spanish. In Current Trends in Corpus Linguistics, ed. by José Luis Oncins Martínez, 107–118. Berlin: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Narayanan, Vivek, Ishan Arora, and Arjun Bhatia
2013 “Fast and Accurate Sentiment Classification Using an Enhanced Naive Bayes ModelInternational Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Newling, Dan
2006 “Britons ‘Could Be Microchipped Like Dogs in a Decade.’Daily Mail, October 30 2006 https://​www​.dailymail​.co​.uk​/news​/article​-413345​/Britons​-microchipped​-like​-dogs​-decade​.html
Painter, Clare
2003 “Developing Attitude: An Ontogenetic Perspective on APPRAISAL.” Text & Talk 23 (2): 183–209. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Redfern, Nick
2015Secret History: Conspiracies from Ancient Aliens to the New World Order. Visible Ink Press.Google Scholar
Redfern, Nick, and Brad Steiger
2014The Zombie Book: The Encyclopedia of the Living Dead. Visible Ink Press.Google Scholar
Rivera, David Allen
1994Final Warning: A History of the New World Order. Progressive Press.Google Scholar
Ross, Andrew S., and David Caldwell
2020 “ ‘Going Negative’: An Appraisal Analysis of the Rhetoric of Donald Trump on Twitter.” Language & Communication 70: 13–27. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Safire, William
1991 “On Language; The New, New World Order.” The New York Times Magazine, February 17 1991 https://​www​.nytimes​.com​/1991​/02​/17​/magazine​/on​-language​-the​-new​-new​-world​-order​.html
2010 “ Half of messages on Twitter are not in English. Japanese is the second most used language .” [press release] February 14 2010 https://​semiocast​.com​/downloads​/Semiocast​_Half​_of​_messages​_on​_Twitter​_are​_not​_in​_English​_20100224​.pdf
Spark, Alasdair
2000 “Conjuring Order: The New World Order and Conspiracy Theories of Globalization.” The Sociological Review 48 (2): 46–62. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stewart, Charles J.
2002 “The Master Conspiracy of the John Birch Society: From Communism to the New World Order.” Western Journal of Communication 66 (4): 423–447. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Taboada, Maite, and Jack Grieve
2004 “Analyzing Appraisal Automatically.” Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Exploring Attitude and Affect in Text (AAAI Technical Report SS-04-07), 158–161. Stanford University, CA, USA.Google Scholar
The Guardian
2013 “Verizon Forced to Hand over Telephone Data – Full Court Ruling.” June 6 2013 https://​www​.theguardian​.com​/world​/interactive​/2013​/jun​/06​/verizon​-telephone​-data​-court​-order
Usher, Barbara Plett
2020 “Why US-China Relations Are at Their Lowest Point in Decades.” BBC News. July 24 2020 https://​www​.bbc​.com​/news​/world​-us​-canada​-53517439
Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, and Jostmann, Nils B.
2013 “Belief in conspiracy theories: The influence of uncertainty and perceived morality.” European Journal of Social Psychology 48 (7): 897–908. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, and Karen M. Douglas
2017 “Conspiracy theories as part of history: The role of societal crisis situations.” Memory Studies 10 (3): 323–333. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wakefield, Jane
2020 “How Bill Gates Became the Voodoo Doll of Covid Conspiracies.” BBC News. https://​www​.bbc​.com​/news​/technology​-52833706
Wang, Tianyi, Ke Lu, Kam Pui Chow, and Qing Zhu
2020 “COVID-19 Sensing: Negative sentiment analysis on social media in China via Bert Model.” Ieee Access 8: 138162–138169. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
White, Peter R. R.
1998Telling Media Tales: The News Story as Rhetoric. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Sydney: University of Sydney.
2003 “Beyond Modality and Hedging: A Dialogic View of the Language of Intersubjective Stance.” Text 23 (2): 259–284.Google Scholar
Wishart, Ian, Kait Bolongaro, and Arne Delfs
2020 “Old Friends Expect Trump’s U.S. to Become Even More Erratic.” Bloomberg Quint, July 10 2020 https://​www​.bloombergquint​.com​/politics​/trump​-changed​-the​-world​-order​-and​-leaders​-don​-t​-know​-what​-to​-do
Wood, Michael J.
2018 “Propagating and Debunking Conspiracy Theories on Twitter during the 2015–2016 Zika Virus Outbreak.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 21 (8): 485–490. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wood, Michael James, and Karen M. Douglas
2013 “ ‘What about Building 7?’ A Social Psychological Study of Online Discussion of 9/11 Conspiracy Theories.” Frontiers in Psychology 4: 409, DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wu, Geqi
2018 “Official Websites as a Tourism Marketing Medium: A Contrastive Analysis from the Perspective of Appraisal Theory.” Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 10: 164–171. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Zappavigna, Michele
2011 “Ambient Affiliation: A Linguistic Perspective on Twitter,” New Media & Society 13 (5): 788–806. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2014 “ CoffeeTweets: Bonding around the Bean on Twitter .” In The Language of Social Media, ed. by Philip Seargeant and Caroline Tagg, 139–160. London: Palgrave. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Zollo, Fabiana, Petra Kralj Novak, Michela Del Vicario, Alessandro Bessi, Igor Mozetič, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, and Walter Quattrociocchi
2015 “Emotional Dynamics in the Age of Misinformation.” PLoS ONE 10 (9): e0138740. DOI logoGoogle Scholar