How do we measure up?
A review of Dutch CLIL subject pedagogies against an international backdrop
Research into the pedagogies employed by CLIL teachers has been limited to date and, as such, has been identified
as a key area in need of further investigation (Pérez-Cañado, 2012; Dalton-Puffer & Smit, 2013). This review uses an elaborated 4Cs Analysis Framework
(adapted from Coyle, Hood, & Marsh, 2010; Coyle, 2015a, 2015b) as a basis for analysis of studies of pedagogies
implemented by CLIL subject teachers internationally and in Dutch classrooms. This allows us to place the Dutch situation in an
international context and to identify avenues for future research and development. The following questions guided the review: (1)
What appear to be the most prominent international trends with regard to the implementation of the 4Cs in CLIL subject
pedagogies?; and, (2) To what extent do Dutch CLIL subject pedagogies appear to reflect these international trends? Findings about
pedagogies reported in the reviewed studies suggest that, in general, studies from the Netherlands stand out compared to
international studies in several respects. Specifically, there is evidence of a relatively strong pedagogic focus in the
Netherlands on developing students’ intercultural competence. The Dutch studies also stand out, however, for not addressing the
role that the L1 can play in CLIL pedagogy. Furthermore, a main finding is that both the Dutch and the international studies
reviewed provide little insight into aspects of CLIL pedagogy related to subject-specific culture and into ways in which content
and language are integrated.
Keywords: CLIL, pedagogies, 4Cs, the Netherlands, review