Contrasting body parts
Metaphors and metonymies of mouth in Danish, English, and Spanish
In this chapter, the claim that metaphors and metonymies are grounded in bodily experiences is pursued by means of a cross-linguistic analysis of the semantic field of English mouth compared to its Spanish and Danish equivalent terms, boca and mund, respectively. Pustejovsky’s (1995) ‘qualia roles’ serve as a basis for the classificatory system proposed. It is shown that the metaphorical and metonymical uses of mouth are, indeed, linked with mappings of mind and body and these mappings appear to be related closely to the constitution, the shape, and the sensori-motor capacities of that specific body part. The cross-linguistic analysis also reveals that the metonymization and metaphorization processes are influenced by cultural differences, even with languages that are relatively close to one another (compared to e.g. non-European languages).