Part of
Historiographia Linguistica
Vol. 30:1/2 (2003) ► pp.247258

Note: This listing acknowledges the receipt of recent writings in the study of language, with particular attention being given to those dealing with the history – and historiography – of the language sciences. Only in exceptional instances will a separate acknowledgement of receipt be issued; no book can be returned to the publisher after it has been analyzed in this section. It should be pointed out, moreover, that by accepting a book, no promise is implied that it will be reviewed in any detail in HL. Reviews are printed as circumstances permit, and offprints will be sent to the publishers of the works reviewed, including those items briefly commented upon in the present section.

. 2002 . Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr – Archaismus und Innovation: Sprache und Metrik eines kymrischen Hofdichters des 12. Jahrhunderts . (= Studien und Texte zur Keltologie, 5 .) Münster : Nodus , 160 pp. ISBN 3–89323–615–5 ( Pb ) €38.50 . [Deriving from the author’s dissertation, presented to the Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Bonn in 2000, this is a close analysis of the work of the medieval Welsh poet Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (fl. c.1155–1195), based on manuscripts dating from the 12th to the end of the 14th century. After an introductory section on the manuscript situation, Cynddelw himself, his poems and the traditions to which they were connected (including the Provençal and French troubadour/trouvère traditions as well as the more obvious Celtic affiliations), Busse examines the language of the poems, with particular attention to loanwords from Irish, Latin, French and English. Cynddelw’s use of metre is also analysed. No index. – John E. Joseph.]
. [ 2002 ]. Graziado e Moisè Ascoli: Scienza, cultura e politica nell’Italia liberale . (= Percorsi della Fisica, 7 .) Pavia : Università degli Studi di Pavia , iv, 463 pp. ISBN 8–87830–370–4 ( Pb ) €23 . [As the preface notes, “It is unusual to see the writings of a linguist and a physicist presented together, the more so when, as in this case, there is a clear disparity of achievement and fame between the two, father and son” (p. i, my transl.: JEJ). The famous Ascoli was the linguist, Graziadio Isaia (1829–1907), so it is surprising too that this volume appears in a series devoted to physics, his son’s discipline. But then Moisè gets 275 pages (by Casella), compared to just 186 on Graziado (by Lucchini). Still, that makes for a rather substantial section on the linguist, opening with a 100-page intellectual biography that analyses his place in the linguistic debates of the time with great astuteness. This is followed by ten of Graziado’s writings, each introduced and annotated by Lucchini. “Gli irredenti” (1895) concerns the political situation of Transylvania, then a Hungarian province, and contains material on language and nationalism that is of great interest from a contemporary perspective. Others of the texts deal with socialism, education and history, and also included are his brief necrologies of Giovanni Flechia (1811–1892), Gaston Paris (1839–1903), and Adolfo Mussafia (1834–1905). Most of the texts are extremely difficult to find outside Italy, and their republication is therefore welcome, as is the impressive biographical essay. One regrets the absence of any index. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2001 . Il linguaggio: Storia delle teorie . ( Manuali Laterza, 153 .) Roma & Bari : Laterza , viii, 378 pp. ISBN 8–84206–424–6 , €24.79 . [Elegantly written, this is a wideranging yet compact survey of the history of linguistics. Naturally, to cover that whole history in 280 pp. (the last 100 pp. are taken up by the bibliography and indices) necessitates certain compromises: the author admits that space considerations have forced her to limit the book to the Western tradition, to omit areas such as translation, and to forego any attempt at treating grammar or rhetoric in terms of their distinct disciplinary history. One might add that she has had to assume considerable previous knowledge on the part of the reader, who on the first page of Chapter 1 is going to encounter this sentence: “Impaccio alla comunicazione delle anime o segno di riconoscimento della comune umanità, strumento indocile da sostituire con la silenziosa contemplazione dell’Essere, insostituibile mezzo di analisi, strumento malfido da sottoporre a perenne scrutinio o cui contrapporre la perfezione dei sistemi formali, guscio neutrale del pensiero o sua forma, sostanza o calcolo, incidente evolutivo o benedizione divina, il linguaggio sembra comunque stare sempre dalla parte del mondano, dell’empiria; amato più da Condillac (per dire) che da Plotino; più dai teorici della mediazione e dell’analisi che dai teorici dell’intuizione, da Locke (per dire) più che da Bergson” (p. 3). For a reader who knows what to make of the names cited and can admire the art of Ciceronian sentence construction, this is masterful, but the effect on average readers of this manuale will probably be to send them scrambling to the index of names, where they will, fortunately, be guided to something on Bergson, Condillac, Locke and Plotinus somewhere in the course of the book. After two chapters covering the Greek, Roman and Christian philosophical and grammatical traditions, Chapter 4 races breathlessly from Boetius to Locke – 12 centuries in 36 pages – and then, as we reach Formigari’s home ground, we settle in for 60 pp. on “the philosophy of languages from Humanism to the Enlightenment” that goes back briefly to the late middle ages before focussing at length on the 17th and especially the 18th centuries. Chapter 6, on “languages, peoples and nations”, examines views from Herder and Humboldt to Sapir and Whorf. Chapter 7, on “language and philosophy from the 18th to the 19th centuries”, again starts with Humboldt but this time traces a tradition leading down to Gadamer, encountering on the way Vossler, Croce, Cassirer, Herbart, Steinthal, Wundt, Paul, Whitney, Bréal, Wegener, Gabelentz, Bergson, Marty, Saussure, Husserl, Mauthner, Wittgenstein, Bühler, Jakobson, Vygotsky, Quine, Davidson and Searle. Finally, Chapter 8, on “works in progress”, looks at Chomsky’s debates with Piaget and Bruner, and at Fodor and current debates about the evolution of language centring around the role, if any, of evidence from other species – making a nice connection back to material in Chapter 3 on ancient views concerning animal communication. Ample bibliography and good indexes of names and topics. – John E. Joseph.]
, with a chapter on saints’ legends by Rachel S. Anderson . 2002 . A History of Old English Literature . Malden, Mass. & Oxford : Blackwell , ix, 346 pp. ; maps and illustr. ISBN 0–63122–397–5 ( Hb ) £40/$59.95 . [Following a 35-page Introduction, “Anglo-Saxon England and its literature: A social history”, this textbook carries the following chapters: 1, “The chronology and varieties of Old Saxon literature”; 2) “Literature of the Alfredian period [(871–899)]”; 3, “Homilies”; 4, “Saint’s legends”; 5, “Biblical literature”; 6, “Lithurgical and devotional texts”; 7, “Legal, scientific, and scholastic works”; 8, “Wisdom literature and lyric poetry”, and 9, “Germanic legend and heroic lay”. The conclusion is entitled “Making Old English new: Anglo-Saxonism and the cultural work of Old Engish literature” (225–234). The back mater consists of endnotes (235–268), “Works cited” (269–338), which includes such classics as Eduard Sievers’s (1850–1932) text edition Der Heliand und die angelsächsische Genesis (Halle/S.: Max Niemeyer, 1875) and Julius Zupitza’s (1844–1895) Ælfrics Grammatik und Glossar (Berlin: Weidmann, 1880), and a general index (339–346).]
. 2002 . Languages and their Use in Our Life as Human Beings: A theory of speech and language on a Saussurean basis . Transl. of the first three chapters and organisation of the publication by Kurt R. Jankowsky . Münster : Nodus , 284 pp. ISBN 3–89323–289–3 ( Pb ) €43 . [Hans Glinz (b.1913) was born in Switzerland in the year Ferdinand de Saussure died there, and this most unusual book offers a new dimension to the reception of Saussure in the German-speaking world. It opens with a 17-page autobiographical introduction that anyone interested in 20th-century linguistic history will find at least as worthy of attention as anything that follows. Glinz recounts how, as a schoolteacher in the 1930s and early ‘40s, he began looking into linguistics texts in search of solutions to the complex language situation he faced in the classroom, as his students, speakers of Swiss-German dialects, struggled to master Hochdeutsch as well as French. After trawling through works such as Fritz Mauthner’s Beiträge (1901–1902), he encountered Bühler’s Spachtheorie (1934) and Trubetzkoy’s Grundzüge (1939), and these led him to the book that would permanently transform his understanding of language, Saussure’s Cours (1916). Glinz either has retained his notes of these readings or has a photographic memory, since he not only cites the dates when he read them but, in the case of the Cours (read March 1942), details what particular struck him and which points he believed needed to be modified. Then, “later that same year, 1942”, he read the other book that would permanently shape his linguistic worldview, Weisgerber’s Muttersprache und Geistesbildung (1929). “I realised immediately,” Glinz writes, “that I had here a kind of continuation of Saussure […] I welcomed especially that Weisgerber emphasised the cognitive functions of the languages, aside from their communicative functions. He insisted on the fact (based on what Saussure had said on ‘La langue comme pensée organisée dans la matière phonique’, Cours 155–156) that each language has to be seen as a ‘social form of knowledge’ […]” (p. 18). In 1956–1957 Glinz worked fulltime in Weisgerber’s Arbeitkreis, and it was then that he began writing a book “on language in general, a ‘theory of speech and language’” (pp. 24–25). This culminated in the publication of his Ansätze zu einer Sprachtheorie in a special issue of the monthly Wirkendes Wort in 1962. This Ansätze was subsequently translated into English by Kurt Jankowsky (and forms the first three chapters of the present book); but by the time Jankowsky found a willing publisher, in 1997, Glinz found that in many passages his views had changed, and so he “decided to elaborate a new, considerably enlarged version” (p. 27). Indeed, whereas chapters 1–3 take up just 75 pp. of this volume, the seven added chapters (which Glinz drafted in English) amount to more than twice that. Reading Chapters 1–3 today one can see how strikingly original they must have seemed at the time they were written and first published, but now probably only Chapter 1, a pragmatic analysis of dialogue in a play by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, will have more than historical interest to conversation and text analysts. Of the new material, the most interesting parts are probably Chapter 4, which offers quite a detailed account of the language acquisition of Glinz’s three children, and Chapter 5, which considers the place of metaphor and irony within a theory of language and thought. Of the rest, some at least gives the impression of having been drawn from the grammar textbooks Glinz wrote from the 1960s to the 1990s. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2002 . Die Rezeption westlicher Linguistik im modernen Japan bis Ende der Shôwa-Zeit [ i.e., 1926–1989 ]. München : Iudicium Verlag [ address: Hans-Grässel-Weg 13, D-81375 München ], 289 pp. ISBN 3–89129–678–9 , €47.50 . [This revised version of the author’s doctoral dissertation (Mercator University of Duisburg, 2001; supervisor: Florian Coulmas) provides those who read German with a most intriguing history of linguistics in Japan from 1868, when the newly established Meiji government decreed an opening of the country to Western science and thought, to the end of the 1980s. “The book argues that within the development of modern linguistics in Japan (1868–1989) three major turning points can be observed during which the study of the Japanese language underwent a growing convergence with Western linguistics. This development was, however, not simply result of an unreflective imitation of Western concepts by specialists of the Japanese language. Rather, linguistics in the West and in Japan developed along parallel paths. The growing convergence between linguistics in the West and in Japan from the 1890s onwards was largely limited to the establishment of formal settings in which research was carried out. The Western scientific tradition and practices were institutionalized in Japan after the Meiji-Restoration (1868–1912), and in this process the study of language was established as an academic discipline. Besides historical studies the main focus at the time was grammar writing concerning which Western linguistics could not provide a proper methodological framework. The impact of the second turning point extended beyond the institutional setting. From the 1930s onwards Japanese linguists stopped being solely preoccupied with the study of the grammar and history of Japanese. Issues related to phonology, dialectology, sociology of language and gengo seikatsu (“language life”) were studied. Japanese linguistics diverged from their previous practice of simply viewing isolated phenomena and started to comprehend language in greater complexity. Accordingly, from the 1930s onwards Japanese linguistics began to transform itself from a pre-structural tradition into a structural treatment of language. Finally, ever since the 1970s, the study of the Japanese language has been subject to a growing internationalization which resulted in a convergence relating to the methodology of language studies. Methodological convergence developed owing to the Japanese reception of generative grammar and sociolinguistics. Approaches restricted to the Japanese language alone have as a result lost much of their appeal. Post-structural approaches to language study continuously increased and resulted in a reorganization of the networks within which Japanese was being studied. Besides non-Japanese linguists, English departments at Japanese universities started increasingly to contribute to the study of Japanese. Correspondingly, the authority of the indigenous tradition of kokugogaku-linguistics began to decline. This self-isolation from other schools of thought resulted in a noticeable schism in Japanese linguistics from the 1970s onwards between traditional and modern linguistics.” (Author). – The back matter consists of primary (210–211) and secondary sources (212–235), a list of linguistic societies in Japan (237–239), a chronological list of Japanese translations of Western linguistics books, from Arsène Darmesteter’s 1885 La vie des mots in 1897 to Harold Palmer’s 1921 The Principles of Language Study in 1989 (237–260), among others, but no regular general index. – See also Heinrich’s article “Gengo seikatsu: The study of language life in Japan” in HL 29:1/2.95–119 (2002).]
2003 . Chaucer and the Canterbury Tales: A short introduction . Malden, Mass. & Oxford : Blackwell , x, 175 pp. ISBN 0–63122–561–7 ( Hb ) £40/$54.95 , 0–63122–562–5 ( Pb ) £10.99/$19.95 . [As the back cover neatly expresses it, “Students with little or no prior knowledge of [Geoffrey] Chaucer [(c.1344–1400)], the Canterbury Tales, or the world in which they were produced [and who find reading the Middle English text too demanding, one may add – Chapter 9 consists of summaries of individual tales (134–151)], will welcome this lively and concise introduction.” Whether this well-written book will also provide students “with a critical framework for thinking creatively about them” may be another matter. The back matter consists of a few endnotes for each chapter (152–157), a select bibliography, classified according to headings such as “Biography’, ‘Gender Studies’, ‘Religion’ and the like), a general index (167–173), and a “List of authors, compilers, editors, and translators referred to in the select bibliography” (174–175).]
. 2002 . Collected Papers on the History of Linguistic Ideas . Ed. by Michael M. Isermann . (= The Henry Sweet Society Studies in the History of Linguistics, 8 .) Münster : Nodus , 390 pp. ISBN 3–89323–458–6 ( Pb ) €69.50 . [This collection was presented to Hüllen, long-time president of the Henry Sweet Society, on the occasion of his 75th birthday on 17 October 2002. It opens with a fine introduction by Isermann that explains the five ‘paths’ trodden by Hüllen in his wide-ranging work, which correspond to the sections into which his papers are arranged: the method of historiography; the Royal Society and the Plain Style debate; onomasiology; Comenius; the evaluation of languages; and ‘various topics’, to wit, semiotics and the relationship of linguistics to nationalism in general and the Third Reich in particular. 15 of the papers are in English, 5 in German. All of them are elegantly written, original in outlook and full of interest; those who know only certain parts of Hüllen’s work would do well to look into the rest, such as his recent writings on language and linguistics in Germany between 1914 and 1945, strking for their insight and sensitivity. There is a list of his selected publications on the history of linguistics, and an index of names. – John E. Joseph.]
eds. 2002 . Heilige und profane Sprachen/Holy and Profane Languages: Die Anfänge des Fremdsprachenunterrichts im westlichen Europe/The beginnings of foreign language teaching in Western Europe . (= Wolfenbütteler Forschungen, 98 .) Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz (in Kommission) , 224 pp. ISBN 3–447–04632–5 ( Hb ) €64 . [A selection from the papers presented at a conference held at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel on 26–27 June 2000, and dedicated to the memory of one of the contributors, Vivien Law (see HL 29:1/2.1–18 [2002] and entry for Law 2003 below). The book’s main title is a red herring: the first paper is “Von den ‘heiligen Sprachen’ im lateinischen Mittelalter und Renaissance-Humanismus” by Gabriele Hille-Coates, and since the rest have nothing do with sacred languages as such, they are, in a sense, profane. But the real thrust is how the applied linguistic concerns of foreign language teaching interacted with the development of theories of grammar and language in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Other contributors whose names will be known to HL readers include W. Keith Percival and Louis G. Kelly, authors of two of the three English-language papers (together with co-editor Hüllen), and Hans-J. Niederehe, author of one of the seven German-language papers (including Vivien Law’s). A handsomely produced volume. Index of names. – John E. Joseph.]
ed. 2002 . Die Baskischen Materialien aus dem Nachlass Wilhelm von Humboldts: Astarla, Charpentier, Aizipitarte und anderes . Unter editorischer Mitarbeit von Maria José Kerejet, Dina El Zarka & Ralf Vollmann [ and, for Chapter 1 also Ricardo Gómez López ]. Paderborn, München, Wien & Zürich : Ferdinand Schöningh , 291 pp; illustr. ISBN 3–50674–032–6 , €50 . [As the editor explains in his “Vorwort” (p. 9) with the publication of the present book the program of publication of the work of Wilhelm von Humboldt has been extended to the works, many of them in manuscript form and deposited either in the libraries of Cracow or Berlin, that had a distinct influence on Humboldt’s linguistic research. The present volume is devoted to Humboldt’s sources with regard to Basque, an area which, as is well-known, enticed the Prussian diplomat to engage in the study of ‘exotic’ languages. In this the writings of Pablo Pedro de Astarloa y Aguirre (1752–1806), a priest and member of the Real Sociedad Bascongada, whom Humboldt had met on his visit to the Basque country, played an important role, even as late as in his “Berichtigungen und Zusätze zum ersten Abschnitte des zweiten Bandes des Mithridates [of Adelung & Vater] über die Cantabrische oder Baskische Sprache” of 1817. In line with this understanding the editor and his team produced a first edition of Astarloa’s Plan de Lenguas o Gramatica Bascongada en el Dialecto Bizcaino, which remained manuscript and of which Humboldt had made excerpts in May 1801. (The original was lost.) The excerpts (45–79) are preceded by a detailed analysis and commentary by the editors (21–44), which places Astarloa’s work in its historical context. The next major source presented is Essay d’une grammaire de la Langue Basque by Nicolas Fréret (1688–1749), Secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie des Inscriptions in Paris, whose manuscript had been handed to Humboldt in Paris by a certain Guillaume Emanuel Joseph Guilhem de Clermont-Lodève, baron de Sainte Croix in 1799. Fréret’s grammar, as Humboldt noted, was indebted to work by Arnaud d’Oihénart(e) (Oienhartus, 1592–1668), who had translated the New Testament into Basque but also had, among others, published a book, Notitia utriusque Vasconiae tum Ibericae tum Aquitanicae (Paris: Cramosy, 1638; 2nd enl. ed., 1656). Again the edition (96–110) is preceded by an introduction (85–95). Item 3 is a manuscript by a geologist, German-born Jean de (alias Johann von) Charpentier (1786–1855), “Die Paradigmen baskischer Deklinationen und Conjugationen, nebst einem kleinen Wörterverzeichnisse, in der zu Saint Etienne (Donostiÿ) Hauptdorf des Thales von Baigorrÿ bei Saint-Jean-Pied-De-Port üblichen Mundart” (125–172), which, according to the editors (p. 113) dates from 1823 and was not mentioned by Humboldt as one of his sources, probably because by that time his attention had been drawn to other languages. Is item 4 follows an edition of Don José Maria Aizitarte’s (1751–1809) Catalogo de voces vasconadas con sus correspondencias castellanas […] (180–209), which the author, who also was a member of the Real Sociedad Bascongada, appears to have handed Humboldt in 1799 on his trip to the Basque country (cf. pp. 177–178 of the editors’ introduction). Finally, there is an anonymous text on Basque among Humboldt’s Nachlaß that appears to be an incomplete, untitled dictionary written in French, and which Humboldt at some point inscribed Regle de declinaison de la langue basque, at another Table des choses les plus usuelles […] (cf. introduction, pp. 214–215) and which H. found useful for his research (218–278). The back matter consists of a bib. of primary and secondary sources (279–286) and of a few reproductions of handwritten material (287–291), but there is no index.]
2002 . From Whitney to Chomsky: Essays in the history of American linguistics . (= Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, 103 .) Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins , viii, 234 pp. ISBN 1–58811–349–3 ( Hb ) $85/€85 ; ISBN 1–58811–350–7 ( Pb ) $39.95/€40 . [The book brings together fifteen years of research and treats the following subjects in nine chapters, several of which derive from articles previously published in HL and elsewhere, but have been significantly revised to turn a collection of papers into a coherent monograph: 1, “The Multiple Ambiguities of American Linguistic Identity” (1–17); 2, “‘The American Whitney’ and his European Heritages and Legacies” (19–46), which not only reassesses William Dwight Whitney’s (1827–1894) place in American linguistics but also the manner in which Saussure reacted to his ideas about language; 3, “20th-Century Linguistics in America and Europe”, which constitutes a succinct presentation of schools of linguistic thought on both sides of the Atlantic (47–70); 4 “The Sources of the ‘Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis’”, which shows that the more immediate sources of the ‘relativity hypothesis’ are to be found, in the case of Sapir, in Ogden & Richards’ famous The Meaning of Meaning of 1923, and in Whorf’s case, in several mystical, including theosophist, currents, some of which going back to Antoine Fabre d’Olivet (1768–1825), whose early 19th-century work appeared in English translation as The Hebraic Tongue Restored in New York in 1921 (71–105); 5, “The Origins of American Sociolinguistics”, in which Joseph rescues from oblivion an entire strand of socio-linguistic work that had effectively been buried by Labovian sociolingustics and their historians, namely the work of Paul Hanley Furfey (1896–1992), sociologist at The Catholic University in Washington, D. C., and several of his students (107–131). Chapter 6 deals with “Bloomfield’s and Chomsky’s Readings of the Cours de linguistique générale” and demonstrates how both linguists distorted Saussure’s arguments in order to serve their own purposes (133–155). The last three chapters – 7, “How Structuralist Was ‘American Structuralism’?” (157–167); 8, “How Behaviourist Was Verbal Behavior?” (169–180), and 9, “The Popular (Mis)interpretations of Whorf and Chomsky: What they had in common, and why they had to happen” (181–196) offer fresh interpretations of what appears to have become canonical history and shows, among other things, Chomsky’s work as the culmination of structuralism in its purest form and B. F. Skinner’s (1904–1990) work to be alive and well, especially among psychologists. Bib. (197–222); general index (223–234).]
. 2002 . Problemy prosodiki [ Problems of prosody ]. St. Petersburg : Izdatel’stvo S.-Peterburgskogo Universiteta , 112 pp. [K’s notion of ‘prosody’ is especially close to John Rupert Firth’s (1890–1960) “speech segment within a context longer than itself”, Paul Garde’s (b.1926) “unités accentuables contrasting within unités accentuelles”, and Anatoly Liberman’s (b.1937) stress as “privileged position” here understood as its maximal functional load. The book deals with problems of segmentation of the speech chain into units that do not coincide either with the units of primary segmentation (morphemes, words) or with phonemes, and with the organization of such units. In the Germanic languages (the principal material of the present study), the organization/segmentation of the speech chain is based on either correlation of syllable cut (the West Germanic languages and Danish) or isochrony/syllable leveling (Scandinavian languages other than Danish). In addition to (open) syllables (with long/free nuclei), segmentation yields indivisible syllable complexes, containing more than one (short/checked) nuclei (English city, Danish læsse, etc.). The syntagmatic contrast of syllables and syllable complexes determines the nature of accentual systems based in turn on various combinations of tonic and dynamic components, pitch and stress manifesting themselves within certain segments of the speech chain, different in length (number of syllables) and functional status (word, phrase, sentence), e.g., (a) English primary (tonic) stress or (b) Swedish/Norwegian Acc. II, both suggesting a contrast of entire (polymorphemic or polysyllabic) words within a sentence, rather than morphemes/syllables within a word, cf. Norw. kokk#en (Acc. I) vs. kokke#n (Acc. II). This approach implies the differentiation of the phenomena connected with segmentation and the boundaries it yields, on the one hand, and the phenomena accompanying segmentation into syllables and syllable complexes, on the other. The former is regarded as belonging to (segmental) prosody, while stress, tone, and intonation are considered as suprasegmentals. Bib. (104–110); no index.]
. 2002 [1947; 2000] . The Language of the Third Reich: LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii: A philologist’s notebook . Transl. by Martin Brady . London & New York : Continuum , 296 pp. ISBN 0–8264–5777–0 ( Pb ) £14.99/$22.95 . [First pbk. ed. of this translation first publ. in hardback in 2000 by Athlone Press. Klemperer (1881–1960), a Jew, was Professor of French Literature at Dresden University, before being removed from his post in 1935 on racial grounds. From 1933 through 1945 he kept detailed notes on the official language use of the Nazi regime, and these formed the basis of his LTI: Notizbuch eines Philologen (Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 1947). It is an utterly extraordinary book worthy of being read alongside the closely contemporary writings of George Orwell. The philological sensitivities which Klemperer brought to his observations of official language manipulation make for a book that is by turns hilarious and horrific, but consistently fascinating and enlightening. The original German text of LTI with English notes and commentary by Roderick H. Watt was published by Edwin Mellen Press (Lewiston, England) in 1997. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2002 . Zamovljannja jak vid rosijckoj naradnoj poezij [ Incantations as a kind of Russian poetry ]. Luck : Visnik & Co. , xxxv, 156 pp. ; 11 port., illustr. [This book consists of a Ukrainian translation (1–67) of Kruszzewski’s 1875 Master’s thesis (published in Warsaw in 1876) done under the direction of the philosopher and educationalist at the (then Russified) University of Warsaw, Mitrofan Aleksandrovič Kolosov (1839–1881), whose handwriten recommendation is reproduced on pp. [165]–[166]. To this, the translator, Zinaida Paxolok, has added the fruits of 14 years of study, namely, a detailed introduction (vii–xxxv), which, among others, provides biographical information on K. not found in the available literature, a commentary on K’s thesis (97–111), K’s original bibliography (112–114), a list of secondary sources (116–119), an index of subjects and terms (120–147), an index of authors and names (148–154), and information on the various pictures and reproductions (p. 156), such as the 1878 photograph of K., the family crest, the family estate of his parents, the city school he attended in his birth place Luck in the Volhynia region (today a part of Ukraine) – which at some point belonged to a larger Poland, etc.]
2002 . Towards a History of American Linguistics . (= Routledge Studies in the History of Linguistics, 5 .) London & New York : Routledge , x, 316 pp. ISBN 0–415–30060–6 ( Hb ) £55/$90 . [The author has, of course, made major contributions to our understanding of the development of American linguistics over the years, and those who follow his work will be familiar with some of the major themes that are revisited in this volume: the history of Americanist linguistics, the genealogy of the ‘Sapir-Whorf hypothesis’, Bloomfield’s and Chomsky’s readings of Saussure, the ‘Chomskyan revolution’ and its historiography, and the origins of sociolinguistics. One topic, the place of meaning in Bloomfieldian linguistics, he is revisiting for the first time in over 30 years. Two of the chapters, “On the Rise and Fall of Generative Semantics” and “On the Origins of Morphophonemics in American Linguistics” had “no published ‘predecessor’” at the time the book went to press, although – partial as well as fuller – versions of the latter have now appeared in Logos and Language 2:2.1–20 (2002) and Language and Communication 23.1–43 (2003). The “Origins of Morphophonemics” chapter is of particular interest because of the extremely detailed evidence presented concerning Chomsky’s intellectual and methodological continuity with such figures as Jakobson, Harris and Hockett. The book has an Index of Subjects and Terms and an Index of Names. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2003 . The History of Linguistics in Europe: From Plato to 1600 . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , xvii, 307 pp. ISBN 0–521–56315–1 ( Hb ) $70/£50 ; 0–521–56532–4 ( Pb ) $26/£19.95 . [The late and much-lamented Dr Law (1954–2002) had originally planned for this book’s coverage to extend up to the present time. She worked on the project for many years with the steadfast encouragement of R. H. Robins (1921–2000), who looked forward to the day when it would replace his own Short History of Linguistics (first published in 1967) as the standard English-language introduction to the subject. The decision to restrict the scope to 20 rather than 25 centuries, although not made by choice, has nonetheless resulted in a volume likely to stand unsurpassed for at least as long as Robins’ book has done. Although written very much in ‘textbook’ mode, with section headings such as “Getting Ready” and “Going Further”, the book’s language is unlikely to strike even the most advanced students of the subject as condescending. They will be grateful for the clear, straightforward way in which complex ideas are analysed and expressed, an achievement which will (or should) strike their teachers with awe. The first five chapters cover the usual suspects: the Greeks, the Stoics and Alexandrians, the Romans, the Bible and Christianity. With Chapter 6 we enter the Middle Ages, the period Law knew so thoroughly, and from this point on the book surpasses any previous treatment of the subject in its combination of depth and readability. Chapter 10 extends the scope beyond Europe, and Chapter 11, “A brief overview of linguistics since 1600”, gives readers a sense of how the themes they have been following since antiquity will have played themselves out up to the end of the 19th century. A wealth of suggestions for further reading is supplied. Cambridge University Press have done a superb production job, including illustrations well chosen and beautifully reproduced, a useful index, and five pages of “Research resources for the history of linguistics”. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2002 . La lingua nostra patria : Die Rolle der florentinischen Sprache für die Konstitution einer florentinischen wir-Gemeinschaft im Kreis um Lorenzo de’ Medici . (= Materialen zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft und der Semiotik, 13 .) Münster : Nodus , 312 pp. ISBN 3–89323–313–X ( Pb ) €61.50 . [A study of the language of Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) and his circle from the point of view of the socio-politics of language and identity, with ‘wir-Gemeinschaft’ indicating a self-defining collectivity or ‘in-group’. A rich study offering a methodologically modern approach to combining literary and non-literary texts for the understanding of the Renaissance link between language and nation. Index of names, none of topics. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2003 . La langue est-elle fasciste? Langue, pouvoir, enseignement . ( Coll. Les couleurs des idées .) Paris : Éditions du Seuil , 414 pp. ISBN 2–02057–277–X . €24 . [From the cover description: “Issuing from Romanticism, Western modernity has been constructed through an opposition with a ‘classicism’ assimilated to a style of socio-political dominance. Taken to the extreme, this critique culminated with Roland Barthes’ (in)famous statement, “language is fascist” […]. Merlin-Kajman offers us a completely different vision of classicism. The civility it put in place had the function, in 17th-century France, of replacing the violence of religious civil wars with a new form of collectivity, situated beyond the confrontations between communities. We need to resolve this historical error in order to purge modernity of its fatal side, as seen particularly in forms of pedagogy which, in the guise of progressivism, finally come down to giving a negative vision of the norm” (my transl.: JEJ). Includes indexes of names and of notions. – John E. Joseph.]
. 2002 . James Harris’s Theory of Universal Grammar: A synthesis of the Aristotelian and Platonic conceptions of language . (= Materialen zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft und der Semiotik, 12 .) Münster : Nodus , 271 pp. ISBN 3–89323–312–1 ( Pb ) €43 . [Originally the author’s Sophia University, Tokyo, PhD thesis. Part I surveys a wide range of 17th and 18th century figures for their views on language universals, including Scaliger, Sanctius, Bacon, Alsted, Vossius, Campanella, Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Bassett Jones, the Port-Royal grammarians, Lodwick, Dalgarno, Wilkins, Comenius, Dumarsais, Beauzée, Bayly, Priestly, Ward, Monboddo, Coote, Beattie, Horne Tooke and Campbell. Part II then focusses on “An interpretative reading of Hermes”, a running commentary on Harris’s great work. Finally, Part III examines “The two dimensions of Harris’s theory of universal grammar”, one Aristotelian and the other Platonic. The book includes biographical information on Harris and a publication history of Hermes, as well as an index. – John E. Joseph.]
ed. The Legacy of Zellig Harris: Language and information into the 21st century . Volume I1 : Philosophy of science, syntax, and semantics . (= Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 227 .) Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins , 2002 , xxxv, 323 pp. ; 11 portr. ISBN 1–58811–246–2 ( Hb ) €110/$110 . [This volume, and perhaps to a lesser degree, the second one, will be of interest to anyone working in the history of American linguistics in the 20th century as it documents (see also the bib. of Harris’ writings, 1932–2002, on pages 305–316) that Zellig S. Harris worked in linguistics until right to the end of his life, and in various productive lines of research. On Harris’ own assessment of the genesis of his work, see his paper of 1990, published here for the first time, “The Background of Transformational and Metalanguage Analysis” (1–15). See also the papers by Thomas Ryckman, “Method and Theory in Harris’s Grammar of Information” (19–37), Paul Mattick, “Some Implications of Zellig Harris’s Work for the Philosophy of Science” (39–55), the late Maurice Gross’ “Consequences of the Metalanguage Being Included in the Language” (57–67), and Robert E. Longacre, “Some implications of Zellig Harris’s Discourse Analysis” (117–135). Other contributors include Carlota S. Smith, Morris Salkoff, Pieter Seuren, Lila R. Gleitman, Leigh Lisker, and the late Fred Lukoff. “Name Index” (317–318); “Subject Index” (319–323).]
eds. 2002 . The Legacy of Zellig Harris: Language and information into the 21st century . Volume II1 : Mathematics and computability of language . ( Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 228 .) Amsterdam & Philadelphia : John Benjamins , xix, 312 pp. ISBN 1–58811–247–0 ( Hb ) €99/$99 . [A note on these two volumes in the present section appears justified if we consider that the work of Zellig Sabbettai Harris (1909–1992) has been ignored by the great majority of North American linguists from the mid-1960s onwards – even Charles Hockett, who knew Harris rather well and held a correspondence with him, spoke of Harris in the past tense in his 1968 The State of the Art (The Hague: Mouton). Interest in Harris’ linguistic ideas was largely kept alive by Maurice Gross (1934–2002) and his associates in Paris, who built on his work and collaborated with him (cf. Harris’ paper in the preceding volume). “Name Index” (305–306); “Subject Index” (307–312).]
eds. 2002 . Storage and Computation in the Language Faculty . Preface by Steven Pinker . (= Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics, 30 .) Dordrecht, Boston & London : Kluwer , xiii, 342 pp. ISBN 1–40200–526–1 ( Hb ) €130/$120/£82 ; 1–40200–527–X ( Pb ) €49/$45/£30 . [This volume brings together thoroughly revised versions of papers first presented at the October 1998 Utrecht Congress on the subject of this book. Following an introduction by the editors entitled “Minimising or maximising storage?”, there are altogether ten articles which have been organized under six parts, i.e., one or two ‘chapters’ (as the editors call them) making up a part, e.g., Part I, “Setting the stage”, conntains an article by Ray Jackendoff entitled “What’s in the lexion?”; Part III, “Changing the rules”, caries a piece by Geert Booij on “The balance between storage and computation in phonolgy”; and Part V, “Bufferig and computing” contains “Effects of short-term storage in processing rightward movement” by Peter Ackema & Ad Neeleman and “Storage and computation in sentnce processing: A neuroimaging perspective” by Edith Kaan & Laurie Stowe, to mention only a part of the contributions. Detailed subject index (329–342).]
eds. 2002 . Chajim H. Steinthal: Sprachwissenschaftler und Philosoph im 19. Jahrhundert/Linguist and philosopher in the nineteenth century . (= Studies in European Judaism, 4 .) Leiden, Boston & Köln : Brill , xxii, 283 pp. ISBN 9–00412–645–7 ( Hb ) €94/$112 . [Papers presented at a meeting held on 1–4 December 1999 at the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung at Schloss Wendgräben (Anhalt-Zerbst) on the linguistic, ethical and Jewish dimensions of the work of Steinthal (1823–1899). Papers in the first area include “From Articulation to Comprehension: Steinthal and the dynamics of linguistic intangibles” by Craig Christy, “Steinthal and Max Müller: Comparative lives” by Joan Leopold, “Sprachwissenschaft, Philologie und Völkerpsychologie: Die Grenzen ihrer Verträglichkeit bei H. Steinthal” by Manfred Ringmacher, and “Zu Steinthals Theorie von Ursprung der Sprache und des jüdischen Monotheismus” by Hartwig Wiedebach. The last provides an appropriate bridge to the four papers on ‘Jewish Questions’, including the interesting “Steinthal, the Jewish Orientalist” by Ivan Kalmar. Last but not least, there is a 34-page description and list of the Steinthal manuscripts and correspondence held at the Hebrew National and University Library in Jerusalem. Index of names only. – John E. Joseph.]
ed. 2000 . Las gramáticas misioneras de tradición hispánica (siglos XVI–XVII) . ( Portada Hispánica, 7 .) Amsterdam & Atlanta : Rodopi , xiii, 309 pp. ISBN 9–04201–292–7 ( Pb ) €55/$55 . [Following the discovery of the New World the Europeans began to establish their hegemony in a new continent. European expansion, colonization and christianization of a large number and variety of Amerindian tribes was accompanied by the study and recording of the native languages of the Americas. Although scholars agree that Antonio de Nebrija’s Latin grammar (1481) has served as model for many Spanish grammars of Amerindian languages, much has still to be done in this area, in particular an investigation of the actual nature of this ‘influence’. One of the aims of this book is to evaluate the at times innovative metalanguage and defining the most important extensions of this Latinbased framework by the Spanish missionaries. – From the contents: After an “Introducción y presentación” by the editor, there follow three parts of unequal length, Part I, “Gramáticas de lenguas mesoamericanas” contains five articles: “Los relatores discursivos en el ‘Arte de la Lengua Mexicana’ [1645] de H[oracio] Carochi [S. J. (1579–1662)]” by Carlos Hernández Sacristán (17–28); “[Antonio] Rincón [S. J. (1556–1601)] by Carochi: La tradición jesuítica de descripción del náhuatl” by Thomas C. Smith Stark (29–72); “Tradición e innovación en la descripción de la lengua náhuatl” by José Luis Suárez Roca (73–95); “El Arte de la lengua otomí [1582] de fray Pedro de Cárceres” by Yolanda Lastra [de Suárez] (97–105), and “La influencia del español en la conjugación: La Nueva España en el período de 1547 a 1574” by Cristina Monzón (107–122). Part II, “Lenguas amerindias de la América del Sur” carries only two contributions: “Las gramáticas del Siglo de Oro quechua: Originalidad y diversidad” by Julio Calvo Pérez (125–204) and “Modo, tiempo y aspecto en las gramáticas de las lenguas mapuche, millcayac, y guaraní de Luis de Valdivia [S. J. (1561–1642)] y Antonio Ruiz de Montoya [S. J. (1585–1652)]: La categoría de los ‘tiempos mixtos’” by the editor (205–256), and Part III, “Epílogo”, in which Lucia Binotti, in “‘La lengua compañera del imperio’: Observaciones sobre el desarrollo de un discurso de colonialismo lingüístico en el Renacimiento español” (259–288), puts Nebrija’s famous phrase in a new light, with an analysis of Spanish authors such as Gregorio López Madera, Domingo de Valtanás, Francisco de Medina, Bernardo de Aldrete and Juan de Solórzano y Pereira. The back matter consists of the list of contributors (289–290), a list of illustrations (291–292), and indexes of subjects (293–297), names (298–300), and of grammatical and linguistic terms (301–309).]