The work of Richard John Lloyd (1846–1906) and “the crude system of doctrine which passes at present under the name of Phonetics”
Richard John Lloyd (1846–1906) was a well-known Liverpool businessman who also pursued the study of phonetics, English language, literature, sociology and philosophy. His wide intellectual background embraced mathematics and physics too. His work in phonetics is characterised by a particular emphasis on the acoustics of vowel sounds, as well as by close attention to the fine detail of articulation (what he called “minute phonetics”). Alongside a small group of scientists in Europe, he was actively involved in research into the formant structure of vowels. His relatively early death meant that his work never achieved the prominence it deserved, and hence his influence has remained negligible. His work, however, bears comparison with that of colleagues in articulatory and experimental phonetics later in the 20th century.