In this paper, we investigate the language development of children with migration backgrounds who live in Hamburg and are currently learning English as a foreign language in school. With data collected from bilingual Russian-German, Turkish-German, and Vietnamese-German children, we evaluate both the quality and the quantity of transfer effects. The investigated linguistic features are subject-verb-agreement and the use of articles. We interviewed 160 12- and 16-year old test subjects, distributed equally according to language cluster and age, comparing the results to test subjects’ developmental levels in their heritage language and German, which were investigated independently. In addition to the main cohorts, additional cohorts of L1 speakers of Turkish, Russian, and Vietnamese with English as an L2 as well as adult bilinguals in Germany were interviewed. After factoring out language external phenomena, we can observe that both L1 and L2 have an influence on the acquisition of English, but that these effects depend on the phenomenon investigated and the language pairs involved. Our findings suggest a model of language transfer in which the grammatical status of a phenomenon interacts with the learner’s developmental level yielding qualitatively different transfer effects.
(ed.)2013Schieflagen im Bildungssystem: Die Benachteiligung der Migrantenkinder, 5th edn. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
De Angelis, G.
2007Third or Additional Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bardel, C. and Falk, Y.
2007The role of the second language in third language acquisition: the case of Germanic syntax. Second Language Research 23 (4): 459-484.
(ed.)2006Unterricht und Kompetenzerwerb in Deutsch und Englisch. Zentrale Befunde der Studie Deutsch-Englisch Schülerleistungen International (DESI). Frankfurt am Main: Deutsches Institut für Internationale Pädagogische Forschung.
Falk, Y. & Bardel, C.
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Flynn, S., Foley, C. & Vinnitskaya, I.
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2012Cognitive approaches to L3 acquisition. International Journal of English Studies 12(1): 129-146.
2001Roles of L1 and L2 in L3 production and acquisition. In Cross-linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives, J. Cenoz, B. Hufeisen & U. Jessner (eds), 21-41. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Håkansson, G., Pienemann, M. & Sayheli, S.
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Jarvis, S. & Pavlenko, A.
2010Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition. New York NY: Routledge.
LiMA - Linguistic Diversity Management in Urban Areas
2013Differential growth patterns in English as a foreign language of bilingual and monolingual children in at tracked school system. Paper Presentation at
LiMA Final Conference: Multilingual Individuals Multilingual Societies 2 (MIMS 2)
, October 11th 2013.
2001The Vietnamese language learning framework. Part One: Linguistics. Journal of Southeast Language Teaching 10: 1-23.
1989Language Transfer. Crosslinguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP.
2009Fast Catch Bumerang. Deutsche Sprachversion. Auswertungsbögen und Auswertungshinweise. In Von der Sprachdiagnose zur Sprachförderung. FÖRMIG Edition Band 5, D. Lengyel, H. Reich, H.-J. Roth & M. Döll (eds), 209-241. Münster: Waxmann.
2011L3 syntactic transfer selectivity and typological determinacy. The typological primacy model. Second Language Research 27(2): 107-127.
2021. VOT production, writing skills, and general proficiency in multilingual learners of French: approaching the intertwinement of different linguistic levels. Multilingua 40:6 ► pp. 745 ff.
Gabriel, Christoph, Tanja Kupisch, Jeanette Seoudy, F. Neveu, G. Bergounioux, M.-H. Côté, J.-M. Fournier, L. Hriba & S. Prévost
2016. VOT in French as a foreign language: A production and perception study with mono- and multilingual learners (German/Mandarin-Chinese). SHS Web of Conferences 27 ► pp. 09002 ff.
Lloyd-Smith, Anika, Henrik Gyllstad, Tanja Kupisch & Stefano Quaglia
2021. Heritage language proficiency does not predict syntactic CLI into L3 English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 24:3 ► pp. 435 ff.
Lorenz, Eliane, Richard J Bonnie, Kathrin Feindt, Sharareh Rahbari & Peter Siemund
2019. Cross-linguistic influence in unbalanced bilingual heritage speakers on subsequent language acquisition: Evidence from pronominal object placement in ditransitive clauses. International Journal of Bilingualism 23:6 ► pp. 1410 ff.
Lorenz, Eliane, Yevheniia Hasai & Peter Siemund
2021. Multilingual lexical transfer challenges monolingual educational norms: not quite!. Multilingua 40:6 ► pp. 791 ff.
Lorenz, Eliane & Peter Siemund
2019. Differences in the Acquisition and Production of English as a Foreign Language: A Study of Bilingual and Monolingual Students in Germany. In International Research on Multilingualism: Breaking with the Monolingual Perspective [Multilingual Education, 35], ► pp. 81 ff.
2022. Procedural and Declarative Knowledge: The Swedish and Vietnamese learners' acquisition of knowledge in English grammar, and Pedagogical Implications. International Journal of TESOL & Education 2:1 ► pp. 238 ff.
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