Article published In:
Information Design Journal
Vol. 28:3 (2023) ► pp.275302
Anqi, D., Jin, L. and Chen, X.
(2010) Discover China Student Book One. Macmillan Education.Google Scholar
Akbari, O.
(2008) Teaching vocabulary items through contextualization and picture to elementary Iranian EFL students. Asian EFL journal. 10(3), 53–77.Google Scholar
Aldalalah, M., Fong, S. F. and Ababneh, W. Z.
(2010) Effects of multimedia-based instructional designs for Arabic language learning among pupils of different achievement levels. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences. 5(5), 311–317.Google Scholar
Ayres, P. and Sweller, J.
(2005) The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. In Mayer, R. E. (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp.135–146). Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Banno, E., Ikeda, Y., Shinagawa, C., Tajima, K., & Tokashiki, K.
(2009) Kanji Look and Learn. The Japan Times.Google Scholar
Bradshaw, A. C.
(2003) Effects of presentation interference in learning with visuals. Journal of Visual Literacy, 23(1), 41–68. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Birzer, S. and Zinsmeister, H.
(2016) The utility of colour markup in texts for learners of Russian. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Biannual Conference Applied Linguistics in Research and Education. (pp.139–145).Google Scholar
British Council
(2013) Languages for the future. [URL]
(2017) Languages for the future. [URL]
(2017) Poop Themed Kanji Study Workbook. Bunkyosha.Google Scholar
Chandler, P., & Sweller, J.
(1991) Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 293–332. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(2), 233–246. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1996) Cognitive load while learning to use a computer program. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10(2), 151–170. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chang, W.
(2016) Chinese Radicals-Learn 102 High – frequency Radicals Quickly with Memory Tricks. Amazon Kindle.Google Scholar
Chen, T.
(1983) Chinese characters orthography (1st ed.). Hubei People’s Press.Google Scholar
ChineseSkill Team
(2014) ChineseSkill Learn Chinese [English].Google Scholar
Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A.
(1991) Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3(3), 149–210. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Confucius Institute
(2022) Confucius Institute official website. [Online] [Accessed 20 August 2022]. Available from: [URL]
Curran, T., & Doyle, J.
(2011) Picture superiority doubly dissociates the ERP correlates of recollection and familiarity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(5), 1247–1262. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2014) CharacterPop. [URL]
Defeyter, M. A., Russo, R., & McPartlin, P. L.
(2009) The picture superiority effect in recognition memory: A developmental study using the response signal procedure. Cognitive Development, 24(3), 265–273. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Digmandarin Team
(2013) DigMandarin. [URL]
Ferguson, K.
(2013) GotCharacters. [URL]
(2018) Kanji 1026 cards learned by Japanese elementary school students. The Japan Times.Google Scholar
Gombrich, E.
(1990) Pictorial instructions. In Benlow, H., Blakemore, C. & Weston-Smith, M. (Eds.), Images and understanding (pp.26–45). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Greenwood, E.
(2014) Fun and Easy Chinese. Noodle Publishing.Google Scholar
Gill, S. R.
(2007) Learning about word parts with kidspiration. The Reading Teacher. 61(1), 79–84. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hall, A.
(2011) Illustration. Laurence King Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
Heller, S., & Chwast, S.
(2008) Illustration: A visual history. Harry N Abrams Incorporated.Google Scholar
Hirzel, J., Evan, Cathy, & Ivy
(2007) Lenaia. Learn Chinese Visually, Systematically and Easily with Lenaia. [URL]
Horn, R. E.
(1999) Information design: Emergence of a new profession. In Jacobson, R. (Ed.), Information design (pp. 15–33). The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Hsueh, S.
(2014) Chineasy: The New Way to Read Chinese. Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
(2016) Chineasy Every Day: The World of Chinese Characters. Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
Knabe, T.
(2016) Chinese 3D [English].Google Scholar
Kuo, M.-L. A. and Hooper, S.
(2004) The effects of visual and verbal coding mnemonics on learning Chinese characters in computer-based instruction. Educational technology research and development. 52(3), 23–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lai, F.-Q. and Newby, T. J.
(2012) Impact of static graphics, animated graphics and mental imagery on a complex learning task. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 28(1), 91–104. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Li, Y. S., & Song, J.
(2008) Chinese Radicals for Beginners-workbook. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Google Scholar
Lohove, L.
(2015) Learn Chinese with Zizzle [English].Google Scholar
Lonsdale, M. D. S., & Lonsdale, D.
(2019) Design2Inform: Information visualisation. The Office of the Chief Scientific Advisor, Gov UK.Google Scholar
Louie, B. and Sierschynski, J.
(2015) Enhancing English learners’ language development using wordless picture books. The Reading Teacher. 69(1), 103–111. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lü, C., Koda, K., Zhang, D., & Zhang, Y.
(2015) Effects of semantic radical properties on character meaning extraction and inference among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Writing Systems Research, 7(2), 169–185. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Male, A.
(2017) Illustration: A Theoretical and Contextual Perspective. Ava Publishing. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Matthews, A., & Matthews, L.
(2007) Learning Chinese Characters: Volume. 1 (1st Ed.). Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
Mayer, R. E.
(1993) Illustrations that instruct. Advances in Instructional Psychology, 41, 253–284.Google Scholar
Mijksenaar, P.
(1997) Visual function: An introduction to information design. 010 Publishers.Google Scholar
Monkimun Team
(2014) Lingokids Chinese [English]. Monkimun Inc.Google Scholar
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E.
(2000) A learner-centered approach to multimedia explanations: Deriving instructional design principles from cognitive theory. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 2(2), 12–20.Google Scholar
Norman, J.
(1988) Chinese. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nguyen, T. P., Zhang, J., Li, H., Wu, X., & Cheng, Y.
(2017) Teaching Semantic Radicals Facilitates Inferring New Character Meaning in Sentence Reading for Nonnative Chinese Speakers. Frontiers in Psychology, 81(1846), 1–12. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, J.
2000Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users. Nielsen Norman Group. [Online]. Available from: [URL]
Niemann, C.
(2008) The Pet Dragon. HarperCollins.Google Scholar
Ninchanese Team
(2013) Ninchanese. Chinese character components. [URL]
Olurinola, O., & Tayo, O.
(2015) Colour in Learning: Its Effect on the Retention Rate of Graduate Students. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(14), 1–5.Google Scholar
Oldendick, R. W.
(2008) Ranking In: P. Lavrakas, ed. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods [Online]. California: Sage Publications, Inc. Available from: [URL]
Paivio, A.
(1971) Imagery and language. In S. J. Segal (Ed.), Imagery current cognitive approaches (pp. 7–32). Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1986) Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Peck, K. L., & Hannafin, M. J.
(1988) The design, development & evaluation of instructional software. Macmillan Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Peeck, J.
(1993) Increasing picture effects in learning from illustrated text. Learning and instruction. 3(3), 227–238. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Peng, T. H.
(2012) Fun with Chinese Characters 1: The Straits Times Collection 1. Master Communications, Inc.Google Scholar
Peter, T.
(2013) Chinese Characters for Internet Users: First 100 simplified characters. iSrcibio!.Google Scholar
Pettersson, R.
(1998) Information design and learning. In Vision Plus 05 (pp. 1–16). International Institute for Information Design.Google Scholar
(2010) Information design–principles and guidelines. Journal of Visual Literacy, 29(2), 167–182. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2014) Information design theories. Journal of Visual Literacy, 33(1), 1–96. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2015) Information Design 4 Graphic Design. Institute for infology.Google Scholar
(2019) Using Images. Institute for infology.Google Scholar
Rowley, M.
(1992) Kanji Pict-o-Graphix: Over 1,000 Japanese Kanji and Kana Mnemonics. Stone Bridge Press.Google Scholar
Sadoski, M., & Paivio, A.
(2013) Imagery and text: A dual coding theory of reading and writing. Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Samara, T.
(2007) Design elements: A graphic style manual. Rockport Publishers.Google Scholar
Schriver, K. A.
(1997) Dynamics in document design: Creating text for readers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
Shen, H. H., & Ke, C.
(2007) Radical awareness and word acquisition among nonnative learners of Chinese. The Modern Language Journal, 91(1), 97–111. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Simlinger, P.
(2007) IdX development of international core competencies and student and faculty exchange in information design within the EU/US cooperation program in higher education and vocational education and training. International Institute for Information Design.Google Scholar
Snyder, H. R. and Colón, I.
(1988) Foreign Language Acquisition and Audio-Visual Aids. Foreign Language Annals. 21(4), 343–348. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stout, T. G., & Hakone, K.
(2016) Japanese Kanji for Beginners. Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
Su, X., & Young-Suk, K.
(2014) Semantic radical knowledge and word recognition in Chinese for Chinese as foreign language learners. Reading in a Foreign Language, 26(1), 131–152.Google Scholar
Szlichcinski, K. P.
(1980) The syntax of pictorial instructions. In Bouma, H., Kolers, P. A. & Wrolstad, M. E. (Eds.), Processing of visible language 21 (pp. 113–124). Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Taiwan Knowledge Bank Co. Ltd
(2012) Art of Chinese characters [English]. [URL]
University of Tokyo Kanji Research Group
(2015) Essential Japanese Kanji. Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
Wang, J., Chen, H.-C., Radach, R., & Inhoff, A.
(1999) Semantic radicals in phonetic compounds: Implications for visual character recognition in Chinese. In Reading Chinese script (pp. 31–48). Psychology Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wang, L.
(2014) The effects of single and dual coded multimedia instructional methods on Chinese character learning. Chinese as a Second Language Research. 3(1), 1–25. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ward, M., & Sweller, J.
(1990) Structuring effective worked examples. Cognition and Instruction, 7(1), 1–39. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wichmann, F. A., Sharpe, L. T., & Gegenfurtner, K. R.
(2002) The contributions of color to recognition memory for natural scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(3), 509–520.Google Scholar
Wieger, L.
(1965) Chinese characters; their origin, etymology, history, classification and signification; a thorough study from Chinese documents. Paragon Book Reprint Corp.Google Scholar
Winn, W.
(1993) Perception principles. In Fleming, M. L. (Eds.) Instructional Message Design: Principles from the Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (pp. 55–126). Educational Technology.Google Scholar
XiaoXiang Hanzi
(2016) My very first book of Chinese characters. Fudan University Press.Google Scholar
(2017a) ZiKe. Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House.Google Scholar
(2017b) Like Pictures, Like Chinese. Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House.Google Scholar
Xu, Y., Chang, L.-Y., & Perfetti, C. A.
(2014) The effect of radical-based grouping in character learning in Chinese as a foreign language. The Modern Language Journal, 98(3), 773–793.Google Scholar
Zhang, J., Li, H., Dong, Q., Xu, J., & Sholar, E.
(2016) Implicit use of radicals in learning characters for nonnative learners of Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(3), 507–527. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X.
(2014) Zhi Ying Chinese Characters Recognition. Hangzhou Press.Google Scholar
Zull, J. E.
(2002) The art of changing the brain: Enriching teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar