Spanish has become increasingly prevalent in Bilwi, a Nicaraguan town on the northern Atlantic Coast, where many L1-Miskitu locals are now Spanish-dominant. As the community shifts towards Spanish, I investigate whether these L2-Spanish speakers are producing advanced rates of coda /s/ reduction like monolingual Nicaraguan Spanish speakers. In a comparison of the Miskitu’s reduction rates with Spanish monolinguals, I find that Miskitu speakers who learned Spanish later in life do reduce coda /s/ but diverge from monolingual reduction rates preconsonantally. I contend that salience and perceptibility can account for this difference. While monolinguals reduce /s/ the most in cue-impoverished environments, the L2-Spanish speakers reduce /s/ more where they hear the reductions the best: in cue-rich, prevocalic environments.
(1991) The acquisition of community speech norms by Asian immigrants learning English as a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 1-22.
(2011) Introduction. In L. Baracco (Ed.), National integration and contested autonomy: The Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua (pp. 3-10). New York, NY: Algora.
Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, K
(1999) Confounded age: Linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition. In D. Birdsong (Ed.), Second language acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis (pp. 161-181). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D
(2013) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.3.56).
(2004) The Miskitu people of Awastara. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
(1975) The learners’ interlanguage as a system of variable rules. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 401-407.
File-Muriel, R., & Brown, E.K
(2011) The gradient nature of s-lenition in caleño Spanish. Language Variation and Change, 23(2), 223-243.
(1995) ‘Why go to school to learn Miskitu?’: Changing constructs of bilingualism, education and literacy among the Miskitu of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. International Journal of Educational Development, 15(3), 245-262.
(1999) Can the grass roots speak? The literacy campaign in English on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2(3), 214-232.
Geeslin, K., & Gudmestad, A
(2008) The acquisition of a second dialect in second language Spanish? Where shall we begin? Paper presented at Current Approaches to Spanish and Portuguese Second Language Phonology, Minneapolis, MN.
(1976) Markedness and a Cuban dialect of Spanish. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
(1994) Resistance and contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan state, 1894-1987. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Henriksen, N., Geeslin, K., & Willis, E
(2010) The development of L2 Spanish intonation during a study abroad immersion program in León, Spain: Global contours and final boundary movements. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 3, 113-162.
Hobson Herlihy, L
(2007) Matrifocality and women’s power on the Miskito coast. Ethnology, 46(2), 133-149.
Horvath, B., & Sankoff, D
(1987) Delimiting the Sydney speech community. Language in Society, 16, 179-294.
Howard, M., Lemée, I., & Regan, V
(2006) The L2 acquisition of a phonological variable: The case of /l/ deletion in French. French Language Studies, 16, 1-24.
Johnson, J., & Newport, E
(1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60-99.
(1983) Bases metodológicas para la educación bilingüe-bicultural en Nicaragua. In N.J. Rodríguez, E. Masferrer & R.V. Vega (Eds.), Educación, etnias y descolonización: Una guía para la educación bilingüe-bicultural I (pp. 191-198). Mexico: UNESCO.
(1967) Biological foundations of language. New York, NY: Wiley.
(1984) /s/ in the Spanish of Nicaragua. Orbis, 33, 171-181.
(1994) Latin American Spanish. London: Longman.
(1999) The many faces of Spanish /s/-weakening: (Re)alignment and ambisyllabicity. In J. Gutiérrez-Rexach & F. Martínez-Gil (Eds.), Advances in Hispanic linguistics (pp. 198-213). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Mann, V.A., & Repp, B.H
(1980) Influence of vocalic context on perception of the [ʃ]-[s] distinction. Perception and Psychophysics, 28, 213-228.
Mann, V.A., & Soli, S.D
(1991) Perceptual order and the effect of vocalic context on fricative perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 49, 399-411.
Méndez Dosuna, J
(1996) Can weakening processes start in initial position? In B. Hurch & R. Rhodes (Eds.), Natural phonology: The state of the art (pp. 97-106). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Meyerhoff, M., & Schleef, E
2013Hitting an Edinburgh target: Immigrant adolescents’ acquisition of variation in Edinburgh English. In R. Lawson (Ed.), Sociolinguistic perspectives on Scotland (pp. 103-128). Houndmills: Palgrave.
(2013) To be overt or not to be overt: The role of bilingualism in subject pronoun expression in Yucatan Spanish. Paper presented at
New Ways of Analyzing Variation(NWAV)
42, Carnegie Mellon.
Michnowicz, J., Ronquest, R., Cooper, M., Harris, G., Ramos-Arbolí, I., & Sferruzzo, C
(2013) Intervocalic /bdg/ in NC Spanish: Heritage and immigrant speech. Paper presented at
Spanish Linguistics in North Carolina (SLINKI)
, Greensboro, NC.
(2013) Acquisition of variable rules: /s/-lenition in the speech of Chilean Spanish speaking children and their caregivers. Language Variation & Change, 25, 311-340.
(1987) Language and social networks (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.
(2013) El bilinguismo en el mundo hispanohablante. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Mougeon, R., & Nadasdi, T
(1998) Sociolinguistic discontinuity in minority language communities. Language, 74, 40-55.
Mougeon, R., Rehner, K., & Nadasdi, T
(2004) The learning of spoken French variation by immersion students from Toronto, Canada. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8, 408-432.
Ohala, J., & Kawasaki, H
(1984) Prosodic phonology and phonetics. Phonology Yearbook, 1, 113-127.
Otheguy, R., & Zentella, A.C
(2012) Spanish in New York: Language contact, dialectal leveling, and structural continuity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2006) Phrase-final intonation in narratives told by Turkish-German bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 10, 153-178.
(2000) Gramática escolar del Miskito. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán.
(1989) Change and compensation: Parallel weakening of [s] in Italian, French and Spanish. Bern: Peter Lang.
(2003) Aerodynamic characteristics of onset and coda fricatives. In M.J. Solé, D. Recasens & J. Romero (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 2761-2764). Barcelona: Causal.
(1997) Phonetics in phonology: The case of laryngeal neutralization. Available from: [URL]
(1985) Variability in tense marking: A case for the obvious. Language Learning, 35, 229-253.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 15 september 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.