Article published in:Linguistic Innovations: Rethinking linguistic creativity in non-native Englishes
Edited by Sandra C. Deshors, Sandra Götz and Samantha Laporte
[International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 2:2] 2016
► pp. 252–277
In case of innovation
Academic phraseology in the Three Circles
This paper addresses the equivalence often drawn between labels such as ESL, New Englishes and Outer Circle on the one hand, and between EFL, Learner Englishes and Expanding Circle on the other. It argues that this mapping takes insufficient account of both intra-varietal variation and inter-varietal similarities. We compare the two non-native varietal types with each other and with native English on the basis of ‘user’ data from the International Corpus of English and the Corpus of Dutch English, focusing on three-word clusters in academic writing. Quantitative analyses reveal no clear grouping per circle, but rather a regional East Africa grouping. Case studies of four specific clusters (in case of, due to the, the fact that and the other hand) mostly show a native/non-native divide. Characteristics of both ESL and EFL, including innovative processes as well as learner strategies, are shown to be at play in the Outer and Expanding Circle alike. The findings are consistent with the notion of neither a strict divide between varietal types, nor a continuum.
Keywords: non-native innovation, Expanding Circle, Outer Circle, New Englishes, Learner Englishes
Published online: 20 October 2016
Biber, D. & Barbieri, F.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E.
2015 Towards a process-oriented approach to comparing EFL and ESL varieties: A corpus-study of lexical innovations. Paper presented at the pre-conference workshop Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Innovations in Non-native Englishes, ICAME 36 , Trier, 27 May 2015.
Chen, Y. & Baker, P.
Coghill, A.M. & Garson, L.R.
Deshors, S.C., Götz, S. & Laporte, S.
2015 Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Innovations in Non-Native Englishes: A thematic introduction. Thematic introduction to the pre-conference workshop Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Innovations in Non-native Englishes, ICAME 36 , Trier, 27 May 2015.
Edwards, A. & Laporte, S.
2008 The Corpus of English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings. Director: Anna Mauranen. Available at http://www.helsinki.fi/elfa/elfacorpus.
Ellis, N.C., Simpson-Vlach, R., Römer, U., O’Donnell, M. & Wulff, S.
2015 The frequency of the present perfect in World Englishes. Paper presented at the 21st IAWE conference , Boğaziçi University/Turkey, 8-10 October 2015.
Gilquin, G., De Cock, S. & Granger, S.
Gilquin, G. & Granger, S.
Götz, S. & Schilk, M.
2011 “Formulaic sequences in spoken ENL, ESL and EFL: Focus on British English, Indian English and learner English of advanced German learners.” In J. Mukherjee & M. Hundt (Eds.), Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 79–100.
Granger, S., Dagneaux, E., Meunier, F. & Paquot, M.
Gries, S. Th
Gries, S. Th. & Deshors, S.C.
Gries, S. Th. & Mukherjee, J.
2015 The Expanding Circle, transnational media, and linguistic localization. Plenary lecture at the 21st IAWE conference , Boğaziçi University/Turkey, 8-10 October 2015.
Hudson-Ettle, D. & Schmied, J.
Hundt, M. & Vogel, K.
2011 “Contacts and variability in international Englishes: Compiling and using the Corpus of English in Finland”, Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 6. Available at www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/06/.
2016. “Ongoing changes and advanced L2 use of English: Evidence from new corpus resources”. In M. José López-Couso, B. Méndez-Naya, P. Núñez-Pertejo & I.M. Palacios-Martínez (Eds.) Corpus Linguistics on the Move: Exploring and Understanding English through Corpora Amsterdam and New York Brill/Rodopi
Laitinen, M. & Levin, M.
Mukherjee, J. & Gries, S. Th
Mukherjee, J. & Hoffmann, S.
Oksefjell Ebeling, S. & Hasselgard, H.
Paquot, M. & Granger, S.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J.
Sridhar, K.K. & Sridhar, S.N.
Staples, S., Egebert, J., Biber, D. & McClair, A.
Szmrecsanyi, B. & Kortmann, B.
Van Rooy, B.
2013 The Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (version 2.0 online). Director: Barbara Seidlhofer. Available at http://voice.univie.ac.at.
Cited by 4 other publications
No author info given
GUT, ULRIKE & ROBERT FUCHS
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 19 may 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.