Article published In:
Hate Speech in Online Media
Edited by Anton Granvik, Mélanie Buchart and Hartmut Lenk
[Internet Pragmatics 6:2] 2023
► pp. 197218
Allport, Gordon W.
1988The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Anderson, Luvell, and Ernie Lepore
2013 “Slurring words.” Noûs 471: 25–48. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Luvell, and Michael Barnes
2022 “Hate speech.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2022 Edition), ed. by Edward N. Zalta. [URL] (accessed 30 December 2022).
Assimakopoulos, Stavros, Fabienne H. Baider, and Sharon Millar
(eds.) 2017Online Hate Speech in the European Union. Cham: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Austin, John L.
1962How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bergen, Benjamin K.
2016What the F: What Swearing Reveals about Our Language, Our Brains and Ourselves. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Bianchi, Claudia
2018 “Perspectives and slurs.” In Beyond Semantics and Pragmatics, ed. by Gerhard Preyer, 187–198. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2021Hate speech, il lato oscuro del linguaggio. [Hate Speech, the Dark Side of Language]. Bari-Roma: Laterza.Google Scholar
Bolinger, Renée Jorgensen
2017 “The pragmatics of slur.” Noûs 51(3): 439–462. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brown, Alexander
2017a “What is hate speech? Part 1: The myth of hate.” Law and Philosophy 36(4): 419–468. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2017b “What is hate speech? Part 2: Family sesemblances.” Law and Philosophy 36(5): 561–613. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2018 “What is so special about online (as compared to offline) hate speech?Ethnicities 18(3): 297–326. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Butler, Judith
1997Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Camp, Elisabeth
2013 “Slurring perspectives.” Analytic Philosophy 54(3): 330–349. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cepollaro, Bianca
2015 “Gli epiteti denigratori: presupposizioni infami [Slurs: Infamous presuppositions].” Esercizi Filosofici 10(2): 154–168.Google Scholar
2017 “Slurs as the shortcut of discrimination.” Rivista di estetica 641: 53–65. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cohen, Henri, and Claire Lefebvre
(eds.) 2005Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Croom, Adam
2014 “The semantics of slurs: a refutation of pure expressivism.” Language sciences 41, Part B: 227–242. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
De Mauro, Tullio
2016 “Le parole per ferire [Words to wound].” Internazionale, 27 September 2016. [URL] (accessed 20 August 2022).
Dipoppa, Gemma, Guy Grossman and Stephanie Zonszein
2023 “Locked down, lashing out: COVID-19 effects on Asian hate-crimes in Italy.” Journal of Politics 85(2): 389–404. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Domaneschi, Filippo
2020Insultare gli altri [Insulting Others]. Torino: Einaudi.Google Scholar
Faloppa, Federico
2011Razzisti a parole (per tacer dei fatti) [Racists by Words (not to Talk about the Facts)]. Bari-Roma: Laterza.Google Scholar
2020#ODIO. Manuale di resistenza alla violenza delle parole [#HATE. Handbook of Resistance to the Violence of Words]. Torino: UTET.Google Scholar
Fish, Stanley
1994There’s No Such Thing as Free Speech and It’s a Good Thing, Too. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Frenda, Simona, Alessandra Teresa Cignarella, Valerio Basile, Cristina Bosco, Viviani Patti, and Paolo Rosso
2022 “The unbearable hurtfulness of sarcasm.” Expert Systems with Applications 1931, 116398. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fumagalli, Corrado
2019 “Discorsi d’odio come pratiche ordinarie [Hate speech as ordinary practices].” Biblioteca Della Libertà 54(224): 3–18. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Guillén-Nieto, Victoria
2023Hate Speech: Linguistic Perspectives. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hart, Christopher
2010Critical Discourse Analysis and Cognitive Science: New Perspectives on Immigration Discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hess, Leopold
2021 “Slurs and expressive commitments.” Acta Analytica 361: 263–290. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hom, Christopher
2008 “The semantics of racial epithets.” Journal of Philosophy 1051: 416–440. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lakoff, George
1987Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Langton, Rae, Sally Haslanger, and Luvell Anderson
2012 “Language and race.” In Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language, ed. by Gillian Russell, and Delia Graff Fara, 753–767. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lee, Christopher J., and Albert N. Katz
1998 “The differential role of ridicule in sarcasm and irony.” Metaphor and Symbol 13(1): 1–15. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Levinson, Stephen C.
1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
López Rodríguez, Irene
2009 “Of women, bitches, chickens and vixens: animal metaphors for women in English and Spanish.” Cultura, lenguaje y representación / Culture, Language and Representation 71: 77–100.Google Scholar
MacKinnon, Catharine
1993Only Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Matsuda, Mari, Charles R. Lawrence, Richard Delgado, and Kimberle W. Crenshaw
(eds.) 1993Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech and the First Amendment. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Musolff, Andreas
2012 “Immigrants and parasites: the history of a bio-social metaphor.” In Migrations: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ed. by Michi Messer, Renée Schroeder, and Ruth Wodak, 249–258. Wien: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2017 “Dehumanizing metaphors in UK immigrant debates in press and online media.” In Contemporary Discourses of Hate and Radicalism across Space and Genres, ed. by Monika Kopytowska, 41–56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Määttä, Simo
2020 “Syrjivän kielenkäytön rajoilla [On the borders of discriminating language].” Niin&Näin 3: 71–77.Google Scholar
Määttä, Simo, Karita Suomalainen, and Ulla Tuomarla
2021 “Everyday discourse as a space of citizenship: The linguistic construction of in-groups and out-groups in online discussion boards.” Citizenship Studies 25(6): 773–790. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ortner, Sherry B.
1974 “Is female to male as nature is to culture?” In Woman, Culture and Society, ed. by Michelle Z. Rosaldo, and Louise Lamphere, 68–87. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Pietrandrea, Paola, and Elena Battaglia
2022 “ ‘Migrants and the EU’: The diachronic construction of ad hoc categories in French far-right discourse.” Journal of Pragmatics 1921: 139–157. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Potts, Christopher
2003 “Expressive content as conventional implicature.” In Proceedings of the North East Linguistics Society 33, ed. by Makoto Kadowaki, and Shigeto Kawahara, 303–322. UMass Amherst: GLSA.Google Scholar
Russo, Ernesto, and Pablo Bernardino Tempesta
2017 “Categorisation and defence strategies.” In Online Hate Speech in the European Union, ed. by Stavros Assimakopoulos, Fabienne H. Baider, and Sharon Millar, 25–29. Cham: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schlenker, Philippe
Expressive presuppositions.” Theoretical Linguistics 33(2): 237–245. DOI logo
Tipler, Caroline R., and Janet B. Rusher
2019 “Dehumanizing representations of women: The shaping of hostile sexist attitudes through animalistic metaphors.” Journal of Gender Studies 28(1): 109–118. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tirrell, Lynne
2012 “Genocidal language games.” In Speech and Harm: Controversies over Free Speech, ed. by Maitra Ishani, and Mary Kate McGowan, 174–221. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Whiting, Daniel
2013 “It’s not what you said, it’s the way you said it: slurs and conventional implicatures.” Analytic Philosophy 54(3): 364–377. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wodak, Ruth
2001 “The discourse historical approach.” In Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. by Ruth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 63–94. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
2013 “Calculated ambivalence and holocaust denial in Austria.” In Analysing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text, ed. by Ruth Wodak, and John E. Richardson, 73–96. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Žagar, Igor
2010 “ Topoi in Critical Discourse Analysis.” Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 6(1): 3–27. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ziccardi, Giovanni
2020Online Political Hate Speech in Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. DOI logoGoogle Scholar