Second language pragmatics development through different instructional techniques
Focus on speech act of criticizing
This study investigated the effectiveness of three types of instruction on learning the speech act of criticizing by 100 Iranian learners of English. For 10 weeks, the consciousness raising group (N = 27), input enhancement group (N = 23), and ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)-sensitive group (N = 25) participated in the study. The three treatment groups were compared with a control group (N = 25) on pre-tests, immediate and delayed posttests performance of discourse completion test and role-play test. The results revealed that treatment groups significantly improved and outperformed the control group. They maintained their improvement in the delayed posttest. In addition, the results showed the superiority of ZPD-sensitive instruction in relation to two other methods, and better performance of consciousness raising instruction than input-enhancement method. Finally, by interviewing the participants, the researchers could understand the opinions of learners about the instructions they received. The findings and implications are discussed.
Keywords: consciousness raising instruction, input enhancement instruction, ZPD-sensitive instruction, speech act of criticizing, Role-play test, Discourse Completion Test