Article published in:ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics
Vol. 171:2 (2020) ► pp. 253–279
Oral corrective feedback on written errors
Graduated feedback vs. supplemented direct feedback
The current study investigated the differential effect of two types of oral feedback – graduated oral corrective feedback (GOCF) in accordance with sociocultural theory (SCT) and supplemented direct oral corrective feedback (SDOCF) in accordance with cognitive-interactionist theory (CIT) – on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners’ written errors. The study used a pretest-treatment-immediate posttest-delayed posttest design with three groups. Two types of tests were employed to measure the learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of English articles. The results of the repeated measures mixed-design ANOVAs and post-hoc analyses demonstrated that while both types of feedback significantly improved both types of knowledge in the immediate posttest, a clear advantage was found for the GOCF in the long term. The findings indicate that oral feedback, especially the GOCF within SCT, could be an effective means of addressing learners’ written errors and improving their implicit knowledge.
Keywords: oral corrective feedback, written errors, sociocultural theory, cognitive-interactionist theory, implicit knowledge
- Literature review
- Direct and indirect CF in accordance with Cognitive-interactionist Theory
- Graduated CF in accordance with Sociocultural Theory
- Explicit knowledge, implicit knowledge, and their measurement
- Studies on the impact of oral CF on written errors
- The current study
- Target structures
- Design and procedures
- Oxford placement test
- Picture-cued narrative writing tasks
- Error correction test
- A description of feedback types
- Supplemented direct oral corrective feedback
- Graduated oral corrective feedback
- Scoring and data analysis
- Results for the ECT
- Results for the PNW tasks
Published online: 25 June 2019
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