References
Anderson, K. J.
(2010) Students’ stereotypes of professors: an exploration of the double violations of ethnicity and gender. Social Psychology Education, 131, 459–472. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Arpan, L. M.
(2002) When in Rome? The effects of spokesperson ethnicity on audience evaluation of crisis communication. Journal of Business Communication, 39 (3), 314–339. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Azuma, K. & Suzuki, A.
(1991) Seiyakuwari taido kenkyū no tenbō [Review of research on sex role attitudes]. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 62 (4), 270–276. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barkley, K.
(2020) The impact of CEO ethnicity and language choice on crisis communication in Japan. International Journal of Business Communication, 57 (2), 244–259. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Befu, H.
(2001) Hegemony of homogeneity: An anthropological analysis of nihonjinron. Tokyo: Trans Pacific Press.Google Scholar
Benedict, R.
(1946) The chrysanthemum and the sword. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Biernat, M., & Fuegen, K.
(2001) Shifting standards and the evaluation of competence: Complexity in gender-based judgment and decision making. Journal of Social Issues, 57 (4), 707–724. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Biernat, M., & Vescio, T. K.
(2002) She swings, she hits, she’s great, she’s benched: Implications of gender-based shifting standards for judgment and behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (1), 66–77. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Biernat, M., Vescio, T. K., & Billings, L. S.
(1999) Black sheep and expectancy violation: Integrating two models of social judgment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29 (4), 523–542. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Coke, J. S., Batson, C. D., & McDavis, K.
(1978) Empathic mediation of helping: A two-stage model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 (7), 752–766. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Coombs, W. T.
(2007) Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 10 (3), 163–176. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cowen, A. P., & Montgomery, N. V.
(2020) To be or not to be sorry? How CEO gender impacts the effectiveness of organizational apologies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105 (2), 196–208. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Crijns, H., Claeys, A.-S., Cauberghe, V., & Hudders, L.
(2017) Who says what during crises? A study about the interplay between gender similarity with the spokesperson and crisis response strategy. Journal of Business Research, 79 (1), 143–151. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dagley, G. R., & Gaskin, C. J.
(2014) Understanding executive presence: Perspectives of business professionals. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66 (3), 197–211. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Davis, M. H.
(1983) The effects of dispositional empathy on emotional reactions and helping: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality, 51 (2), 167–184. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Doi, T.
(1973) The anatomy of dependence (J. Bester, Trans.). Tokyo: Kodansha. (Original work published 1971)Google Scholar
Don Konishi nihon makku shachō no shazai kaiken fasshon ha shippai
(2014, August 6). [Don Konishi declares McDonald’s CEO’s apology conference fashion a failure]. Aera Asahi. Retrieved from https://​dot​.asahi​.com​/wa​/2014080500084​.html
Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J.
(2002) Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109 (3), 573–598. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Elsesser, K. M., & Lever, J.
(2011) Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey. Human Relations, 64 (12), 1555–1578. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Einwiller, S. A., Laufer, D., & Ruppel, C.
(2017) Believe me, I am one of you! The role of common group affiliation in crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 43 (5), 1007–1015. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fiske, S. T.
(1998) Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (p. 357–411). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Fombrun, C. J., Gardberg, N. A., & Sever, J. M.
(2000) The reputation quotient: A multi-stakeholder measure of corporate reputation. Journal of Brand Management, 7 (4), 241–255. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fousiani, K., Yzerbyt, V., Kteily, N. S., & Demoulin, S.
(2019) Justice reactions to deviant ingroup members: Ingroup identity threat motivates utilitarian punishments. British Journal of Social Psychology, 58(4), 869–893. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fujimoto, E.
(2002) Japanese-ness, whiteness, and the “other” in Japan’s internationalization. In M. J. Collier (Ed.), Transforming communication about culture: Critical new directions (pp. 1–24). New York, NY: Sage. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gaikokujin saita no 266 man-nin
(2019, July). [2.66 million foreigners, the most ever]. Nihon Keizai Shimbun. Retrieved from https://​www​.nikkei​.com​/article​/DGXMZO47203370Q9A710C1EA1000/
Garcia-Retamero, R., & López-Zafra, E.
(2006) Prejudice against women in male-congenial environments: Perceptions of gender role congruity in leadership. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 55 1, 51–61. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hong, S., & Len-Ríos, M. E.
(2015) Does race matter? Implicit and explicit measures of the effect of the PR spokesman’s race on evaluations of spokesman source credibility and perceptions of a PR crisis’ severity. Journal of Public Relations Research, 27 (1), 63–80. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hovland, C., & Weiss, W.
(1951) The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15 1, 635–650. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Johnson, S. K., Murphy, S. E., Zewdie, S., & Reichard, R. J.
(2008) The strong, sensitive type: Effects of gender stereotypes and leadership prototypes on the evaluation of male and female leaders. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 106 1, 39–60. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kobayashi, Y.
(2010) Discriminatory attitudes toward intercultural communication in domestic and overseas contexts. Higher Education, 59 (3), 323–333. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Lehmberg, D., & Hicks, J.
(2018) A “glocalization” approach to the internationalizing of crisis communication. Business Horizons, 61 1, 357–366. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Maddux, W. W., Kim, P. H., Okumura, T. and Brett, J. M.
(2011) Cultural Differences in the Function and Meaning of Apologies. International Negotiation, 16 1, 405–425. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Manabe, K., & Befu, H.
(1993) Japanese cultural identity: An empirical investigation of Nihonjinron. Japanstudien, 4 (1), 89–102, DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Marques, J. M.
(1990) The black-sheep effect: Out-group homogeneity in social comparison settings. In D. Abrams & M. Hogg (Eds). Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances (pp. 131–151). New York, NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
McCann, R. M.
(2017) Aging and organizational communication. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McCroskey, J. C., & Young, T. J.
(1981) Ethos and credibility: The construct and its measurement after three decades. Central States Speech Journal, 32 (1), 24–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
McCullough, M. E., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Rachal, K. C.
(1997) Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 (2), 321–336. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mikami, E.
(2013) Gakkō ni okeru dansei-sei josei-sei ni tsuite [Masculinity and feminity in schools]. Gakushin University Studies in Humanities, 22 1, 147–162.Google Scholar
Montgomery, N. V., & Cowen, A. P.
(2019) How leader gender influences external audience response to organizational failures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 118 (4), 639–660. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mukai, Y., & Watabe, M.
(2006) Bunka juyō taido: Nichi doku ei no hikaku [Intercultural acceptance attitudes: A comparison between Japan, Germany, and England]. Urban Culture Research Center. Retrieved from http://​litsv​.lit​.osaka​-cu​.ac​.jp​/UCRC​/2006​/ja​/issue​/pdf​/200503​_hikakubunkakenkyu​.pdf
Nakajima, S.
(2007) Sono kishakaiken machigattemasu! Kikikanri kouhou no jissai [That press conference was wrong! The reality of crisis management in public relations]. Tokyo: Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishers.Google Scholar
Olson, J. M., Roese, N. J., & Zanna, M. P.
(1996) Expectancies. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 211–238). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Osanami Törngren, S., & Okamura, H.
(2020) Recognition of multiracial and multiethnic Japanese: Historical trends, classification, and ways forward. In Rocha, Z., Aspinall, P. (Eds.), pp 779–796, The Palgrave international handbook of mixed racial and ethnic classification. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ota, H., McCann, R. M., & Honeycutt, J. M.
(2012) Inter-Asian variability in intergenerational communication. Human Communication Research, 38 (2), 172–198. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Post, C., DiTomaso, N., Lowe, S. R., Farris, G. F. & Cordero, R.
(2009) A few good women: gender differences in evaluations of promotability in industrial research and development. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24 (4), 348–371. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rogers, E. M., & Bhowmik, D. K.
(1970) Homophily-heterophily: Relational concepts for communication research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34 (4), 523–538. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rothlin, S., & McCann, D.
(2016) The social environment: Business etiquette and cultural sensitivity. In S. Rothlin, & D. McCann (Eds.), International business ethics: Focus on China (pp. 321–340). Berlin: Springer Verlag. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., & Liu, J.
(1996) Think manager–think male: A global phenomenon? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 171, 33–41. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schwarz, A., Seeger, M. W., & Auer, C.
(Eds.) (2016) The handbook of international crisis communication research. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Skelly, J. J., & Johnson, J. B.
(2011) Glass ceilings and great expectations: gender stereotype impact on female professionals. Southern Law Journal, 21 1, 59–70.Google Scholar
Suzuki, A.
(1994) Byōdō shugi-teki seiyakuwari taido sukēru tanshuku-ban (SESRA – S) no sakusei [Construction of a short-form of the scale of egalitarian sex role attitudes (SESRA-S)]. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 65 (1), 34–41. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2017) Jendā yakuwari fubyōdō no mekanizumu: Shokuba to katei [Mechanisms of persistence in gender inequality: Perspective of work and family]. Japanese Psychological Review, 60 (1), 62–80. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C.
(2004) The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In J. T. Jost & J. Sidanius (Eds.), Key readings in social psychology: Political psychology (pp. 276–293). New York: Psychology Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Takai, N., & Okano, K.
(2009) Jendā ishiki ni kansuru kentō – dansei-sei josei-sei o chūshin ni shite [A study of gender: Masculinity and femininity]. Taisei Gakuin University Bulletin, 11 1, 61–73.Google Scholar
Tanaka, T.
(2006) Sonna shazaikaiken de ha kaisha ga abunai [Apology press conferences that are dangerous for companies]. Tokyo: Bunshunbunko.Google Scholar
Teikoku Databank
(2019) Josei shacho hiritsu zenkoku de 7.9% ni josho [Rise in the female company president ratio to 7.9% nationwide]. http://​www​.tdb​.co​.jp​/report​/watching​/press​/pdf​/p190605​.pdf
Tobari, M.
(2005) Kyōkan kanki katei to kanjō-teki kekka, tokusei kyōkan no kankei – Sei no ruiji-do, shinri-teki kasanari no kōka [Predicting empathy arousing process and affective outcome by trait empathy, target sex, and psychological overlap between target and the self]. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 13 (2), 143–155. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Torigoe, C.
(2019) “Gaikokujin” “imin” “gaikokujin roudousha”: Nihon ni okeru imin disukousu ga kouchiku suru jinshu no kaisou [Racialized labels for foreigners, immigrants, and foreign workers in Japan: Construction of racial “others” in Japanese immigration discourses]. Studies in English Language and Literature, 59 (3), 155–179.Google Scholar
Wagatsuma, H., & Rosett, A.
(1986) The implications of apology: Law and culture in Japan and the United States. Law & Society Review, 20 (4), 461–498. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wei, H., & Ran, Y.
(2019) Male versus female: How the gender of apologizers influences consumer forgiveness. Journal of Business Ethics, 154 (2), 371–387. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
World Economic Forum
Yamashiro, J. H.
(2013) The social construction of race and minorities in Japan. Sociology Compass, 7 1, 147–161. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yamato, R.
(1995) Seibetsu yakuwari bungyou ishiki no futatsu no jigen [The two factors determining the attitude toward “sexual-division-of-labor”]. Soshioroji, 40 (1), 109–126, 192. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Yoshino, K.
(1992) Cultural nationalism in contemporary Japan: A sociological enquiry. London: Routledge.Google Scholar