(Inter)subjectification in Makhuwa
From demonstrative to pragmatic particle
This study contributes to the research on the development of pragmatic particles from the perspective of the Bantu language Makhuwa. Makhuwa shows synchronic variation in the use of va and vo, which function as locative demonstratives, va (proximal) and vo (medial), but also as pragmatic particles in the left as well as the right periphery, where they draw the attention of the addressee, intensify the illocutionary force and indicate the relationship between speaker and addressee. The supposed development from demonstrative to pragmatic particle confirms the relevance of both peripheries for the change to pragmatic particle. Discussing the (inter)subjective properties of these pragmatic particles, the paper argues for a relatively broad definition of (inter)subjectivity as grounding the message in the speech situation (oriented towards the speaker, addressee or discourse).
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