References

Sources

ceecs = The Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler
1998 (Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi and Minna Palander-Collin.) Helsinki: Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
hc = The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts
1991 (Compiled by Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö, Lena Kahlas-Tarkka, Matti Kilpiö, Saara Nevanlinna, Irma Taavitsainen, Terttu Nevalainen and Helena Raumolin-Brunberg.) Helsinki: Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
hcos = The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots
1995 (Compiled by Anneli Meurman-Solin.) Helsinki: Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
pceec = Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence, text version
2006 (Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi and Minna Palander-Collin, with additional annotation by Ann Taylor.) Helsinki: University of Helsinki and York: University of York. Distributed through the Oxford Text Archive.Google Scholar
ScotsCorr = The Helsinki Corpus of Scottish Correspondence 1540–1750
2017 (Compiled by Anneli Meurman-Solin.) Helsinki: Research Unit for the Study of Variation, Contacts and Change in English (varieng), Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki. Last accessed 12 June 2023 at: [URL]
Aijmer, Karin
1996Conversational Routines in English: Convention and Creativity. London and New York: Longman.Google Scholar
Archer, Dawn
2010 “Speech Acts”. In Andreas Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), Historical Pragmatics, 379–417. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barron, Anne
2008 “The Structure of Requests in Irish English and English English”. In Klaus Schneider and Anne Barron (eds), Variational Pragmatics, 35–67. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johannsson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finegan
1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
Blum-Kulka, Shoshana
1987 “Indirectness and Politeness in Requests: Same or Different?Journal of Pragmatics: An Interdisciplinary Monthly of Language Studies 11 (1): 131–46. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blum-Kulka, Shoshana and Juliane House
1989 “Cross-Cultural and Situational Variation in Requesting Behaviour”. In Shoshana Blum-Kulka, Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper (eds), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies, 123–154. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper
(eds) 1989aCross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
1989b “The CCSARP Coding Manual”. In Shoshana Blum-Kulka, Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper (eds), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies, 273–294. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson
1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Culpeper, Jonathan and Dawn Archer
2008 “Requests and Directness in Early Modern English Trial Proceedings and Play Texts, 1640–1760”. In Andreas Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), Speech Acts in the History of English, 45–84. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Culpeper, Jonathan and Jane Demmen
Daybell, James
2012The Material Letter in Early Modern England: Manuscript Letters and the Culture and Practices of Letter-Writing, 1512–1635. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
dost = A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue
1931–2002 (Edited by William Craigie, Adam J. Aitken, James A. C. Stevenson and Marace Dareau.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Last accessed 13 June 2023 at: [URL]
Elsweiler, Christine
2019 “Pragmatic and Formulaic Uses of Shall and Will in Older Scots and Early Modern English Official Letter Writing”. In Birte Bös and Claudia Claridge (eds), Norms and Conventions in the History of English, 167–190. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2021 “Convergence and Divergence in Two Historical Varieties of English: Pragmalinguistic Strategies in Commissive and Directive Speech Acts in Scottish and English Letters (1500–1700)”. Special Issue, “Focus on English Linguistics: Varieties Meet Histories”. Anglistik (32.1 Spring 2021): 109–132.Google Scholar
2022 “Gender Variation in the Requestive Behaviour of Early Modern Scottish and English Letter-Writers? A Study of Private Correspondence”. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 8 (1): 55–88. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
House, Juliane
1989a “ Oh Excuse Me Please…’: Apologizing in a Foreign Language”. In Bernhard Kettemann, Peter Bierbaumer, Alwin Fill and Annemarie Karpf (eds), Englisch Als Zweitsprache [‘ English as a Second Language ’], 303–327. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
1989b “Politeness in English and German: The Functions of Please and Bitte ”. In Shoshana Blum-Kulka, Juliane House and Gabriele Kasper (eds), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies, 96–119. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
1996 “Contrastive Discourse Analysis and Misunderstanding: The Case of German and English”. In Marlis Hellinger and Ulrich Ammon (eds), Contrastive Sociolinguistics, 345–361. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2005 “Politeness in Germany: Politeness in GERMANY?” In Leo Hickey and Miranda Stewart (eds), Politeness in Europe, 13–28. Bristol: Channel View Publications. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
House, Juliane and Gabriele Kasper
1981 “Politeness Markers in English and German”. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Conversational Routine, 157–185. The Hague: Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kohnen, Thomas
2002 “Towards a History of English Directives”. In Andreas Fischer, Gunnel Tottie and Hans Martin Lehmann (eds), Text Types and Corpora: Studies in Honour of Udo Fries, 165–175. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
2008 “Directives in Old English: Beyond Politeness?” In Andreas Jucker and Irma Taavitsainen (eds), Speech Acts in the History of English, 27–44. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kranich, Svenja, Hanna Bruns and Elisabeth Hampel
2021 “Requests across Varieties and Cultures: Norms are Changing (but not everywhere in the same way)”. Special issue, “Focus on English Linguistics: Varieties Meet Histories”. Anglistik (32.1 Spring 2021): 87–108.Google Scholar
Leech, Geoffrey
2014The Pragmatics of Politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mack, Peter
2002Elizabethan Rhetoric: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meurman-Solin, Anneli
1993Variation and Change in Early Scottish Prose: Studies Based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.Google Scholar
Millar, Robert McColl
2018Modern Scots: An Analytical Survey. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2020A Sociolinguistic History of Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Moessner, Lilo
2010 “Directive Speech Acts: A Cross-Generic Diachronic Study”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 11 (2): 219–249. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu
2004 “Letter Writing: Introduction”. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 5 (2): 181–191. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu and Helena Raumolin-Brunberg
1995 “Constraints on Politeness: The Pragmatics of Address Formulae in Early English Correspondence”. In Andreas Jucker (ed.), Historical Pragmatics: Pragmatic Developments in the History of English, 541–601. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Klaus
2012 “Appropriate Behaviour across Varieties of English”. Journal of Pragmatics 441: 1022–1037. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schneider, Klaus and Anne Barron
2008 “Where Pragmatics and Dialectology Meet: Introducing Variational Pragmatics”. In Klaus Schneider and Anne Barron (eds), Variational Pragmatics: A Focus on Regional Varieties in Pluricentric Languages, 1–32. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Searle, John
1969Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Watts, Richard
2003Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2005 “Linguistic Politeness Research: Quo Vadis?” In Richard Watts, Sachiko Ide and Konrad Ehlich (eds), Politeness in Language: Studies in Its History, Theory and Practice, xi–xlvii. (Second revised and expanded edition.) Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar