Article published in:
Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education
Vol. 5:1 (2017) ► pp. 110134


CLIL theory and empirical reality – Two sides of the same coin?


Behörde für Schule, Jugend und Berufsbildung. Amt für Schule, Hamburg
(Ed.) (1998) Der Hamburger Schulleistungstest für sechste und siebte Klassen – SL-HAM 6/7 [Hamburg scholastic achievement test for Years 6 and 7]. Hamburg, Germany.Google Scholar
(Ed.) (2000) Der Hamburger Schulleistungstest für achte und neunte Klassen – SL-HAM 8/9 [Hamburg scholastic achievement test for Years 8 and 9]. Hamburg, Germany.Google Scholar
Bonnet, A.
(2012a) CLIL im Fach Chemie – Wachsende Orchidee und Motor der Integration [Chemistry CLIL: Growing orchid and engine of integration]. In B. Diehr & L. Schmelter (Eds.), Bilingualen Unterricht weiterdenken. Programme, Positionen, Perspektiven [Advancing bilingual teaching. Programmes, positions, perspectives] (pp. 201-215). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
(2012b) Towards an evidence base of CLIL: How to integrate qualitative and quantitative as well as process, product and participant perspectives in CLIL research. International CLIL Research Journal, 4(1), 66–78.Google Scholar
Bos, W., Bonsen, M., Gröhlich, C., Guill, K., May, P., Rau, A., & Wocken, H.
(2009) KESS 7. Kompetenzen und Einstellungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern – Jahrgangsstufe 7 [Competences and attitudes of male and female students – Year 7]. Retrieved from http://​bildungsserver​.hamburg​.de​/contentblob​/2627296​/data​/pdf​-kess​-7​.pdf
Bredenbröker, W.
(2000) Förderung der fremdsprachlichen Kompetenz durch bilingualen Unterricht: Empirische Untersuchungen [Fostering foreign-language competence through CLIL: Empirical examinations]. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Burmeister, P.
(1994) Englisch im Bili-Vorlauf: Pilotstudie zur Leistungsfähigkeit des verstärkten Vorlaufs in der 5. Jahrgangsstufe deutsch-englisch bilingualer Zweige in Schleswig-Holstein [English in preparatory CLIL classes: Pilot study on the efficiency of additional language classes in Year 5 of German-English bilingual streams in Schleswig-Holstein]. Kiel, Germany: l&f.Google Scholar
Cialdini, R. B., Borden, R. J., Thorne, A., Walker, M. R., Freeman, S., & Sloan, L. R.
(1976) Basking in reflected glory: Three (football) field studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(3), 366–375. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Council of the European Union
(2008) 2868th Council meeting: Education, youth and culture. Retrieved from http://​www​.consilium​.europa​.eu​/ueDocs​/cms​_Data​/docs​/pressData​/en​/educ​/100577​.pdf Google Scholar
Coyle, D.
(2006) Content and language integrated learning. Motivating learners and teachers. Retrieved from http://​blocs​.xtec​.cat​/clilpractiques1​/files​/2008​/11​/slrcoyle​.pdf Google Scholar
(2008) CLIL – A pedagogical approach from the European perspective. In N. van Deusen-Scholl & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 4. Second and foreign language education (2nd ed., pp. 97–112). New York, NY: Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dallinger, S.
(2015) Die Wirksamkeit bilingualen Sachfachunterrichts: Selektionseffekte, Leistungsentwicklung und die Rolle der Sprachen im deutsch-englischen Geschichtsunterricht [The effectiveness of CLIL: Selection effects, development of achievement and the role of languages in German-English history classes] (PhD Dissertation [original, unpublished version]). Ludwigsburg, Germany: Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg.
Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinares, A., Lorenzo, F., & Nikula, T.
(2014) “You can stand under my umbrella”: Immersion, CLIL and bilingual education. A response to Cenoz, Genesee, & Gorter (2013). Applied Linguistics, 42(2), 117–122. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daniels, Z.
(2008) Entwicklung schulischer Interessen im Jugendalter [Development of school-related interests during adolescence]. Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M.
(1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eccles [Parsons], J. S.
(1983) Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation (pp. 75–146). San Francisco, CA: Freeman.Google Scholar
Eccles, J. S.
(2005) Subjective task value and the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105–121). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Eckes, T., & Grotjahn, R.
(2006) A closer look at the construct validity of C-tests. Language Testing, 23(3), 290–325. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006) Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) at school in Europe. Retrieved from http://​aulaintercultural​.org​/?ddownload​=17289 Google Scholar
Fehling, S.
(2008) Language awareness und bilingualer Unterricht: Eine komparative Studie [Language awareness and CLIL: A comparative study] (2nd ed.). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Fruhauf, G.
(1996) Introduction. In G. Fruhauf, D. Coyle, & I. Christ (Eds.), Teaching content in a foreign language (pp. 7–11). Alkmaar, Netherlands: Stichting Europees Platform voor het Nederlandse Onderwijs.Google Scholar
Gamoran, A.
(2008) Creaming. In W. A. Darity (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences: Vol. 2. Cohabitation – ethics in experimentation (2nd ed., pp. 160f). Chicago, IL: Gale. Retrieved from http://​www​.encyclopedia​.com​/doc​/1G2​-3045300477​.html Google Scholar
García, O.
(2009) Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Grotjahn, R.
(2011) C-Tests – Aspekte der Validität [Aspects of validity]. Deutsch als Fremdsprache [German as a foreign language], 48(3), 131–137.Google Scholar
Hastings, A. J.
(2002) Error analysis of an English C-test: Evidence for integrated processing. In R. Grotjahn (Ed.), Der C-Test. Theoretische Grundlagen und praktische Anwendungen [The C-Test. Theoretical basics and practical applications] (pp. 53–66). Bochum, Germany: AKS.Google Scholar
Helmke, A., & Weinert, F. E.
(1997) Bedingungsfaktoren schulischer Leistung [Determinants of scholastic achievement]. In F. E. Weinert (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie. Themenbereich D: Praxisgebiete. Serie 1: Pädagogische Psychologie: Vol. 3. Psychologie des Unterrichtens und der Schule [Encyclopedia of psychology. Topic area D: Practical areas. Series 1: Educational psychology. Vol. 3. Psychology of teaching and school] (pp. 71–176). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
Köller, O., Leucht, M., & Pant, H. A.
(2012) Effekte bilingualen Unterrichts auf die Englischleistungen in der Sekundarstufe I [Effects of CLIL on English achievement at lower secondary level]. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 40(4), 334–350.Google Scholar
Krapp, A.
(2002) Structural and dynamic aspects of interest development: Theoretical considerations from an ontogenetic perspective. Learning and Instruction, 12(4), 383–409. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lasagabaster, D.
(2008) Foreign language competence in content and language integrated courses. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 1, 30–41. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lehmann, R. H.
(2003) Aspects of national and international surveys of student achievement in English as a foreign language. In J. Rymarczyk & H. Haudeck (Eds.), In search of the active learner. Untersuchungen zu Fremdsprachenunterricht, bilingualen und interdisziplinären Kontexten [Studies on foreign language teaching, bilingual and interdisciplinary contexts] (pp. 155–162). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Lehmann, R. H., Gansfus, R., & Husfeldt, V.
(2011) LAU 9. Aspekte der Lernausgangslage und Lernentwicklung – Klassenstufe 9 [Aspects of initial conditions of learning and learning development – Year 9]. In Behörde für Schule, Jugend und Berufsbildung (Ed.), LAU – Aspekte der Lernerausgangslage und der Lernerentwicklung. Klassenstufen 5, 7 und 9 (pp. 293–451). Münster, Germany: Waxmann.Google Scholar
Lorenzo, F.
(2007) The sociolinguistics of CLIL: Language planning and language change in 21st century Europe. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 20(1), 27–38.Google Scholar
Marsh, D.
(2000) Using languages to learn and learning to use languages. In D. Marsh & G. Langé (Eds.), Using languages to learn and learning to use languages. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved from http://​archive​.ecml​.at​/mtp2​/clilmatrix​/pdf​/1UK​.pdf Google Scholar
(2002) CLIL/EMILE – the European dimension: Actions, trends and foresight potential. Jyväskylä, Finland: UniCOM, Continuing Education Centre. Retrieved from https://​jyx​.jyu​.fi​/dspace​/bitstream​/handle​/123456789​/47616​/david​_marsh​-report​.pdf​?sequence​=1 Google Scholar
Marsh, D., & Langé, G.
(Eds.) (2000) Using languages to learn and learning to use languages. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
Marsh, H. W.
(1987) The big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 280–295. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006) Self-concept theory, measurement and research into practice: The role of self-concept in educational psychology. Leicester, UK: The British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
Marsh, H. W., & Scalas, L. F.
(2010) Self-concept in learning: Reciprocal effects model between academic self-concept and academic achievement. In P. L. Peterson, E. L. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (3rd ed., pp. 660–667). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, S.
(2011) Frames of reference used by language learners in forming their self-concepts. Forum Sprache, 3(2), 6–22.Google Scholar
Meyer, O., Coyle, D., Halbach, A., Schuck, K., & Ting, T. Y.-L.
(2015) A pluriliteracies approach to content and language integrated learning – Mapping learner progressions in knowledge construction and meaning-making. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 28(1), 41–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O.
(1998–2012) Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
Navés, T.
(2010) What makes good CLIL teaching and learning? Paper presented at the 25th GRETA Convention: Celebrating 25 years of teacher inspiration. Granada: University of Granada.Google Scholar
Nold, G., Hartig, J., Hinz, S., & Rossa, H.
(2008) Klassen mit bilingualem Sachfachunterricht: Englisch als Arbeitssprache [Classes with CLIL: English as working language/English as a medium of instruction]. In E. Klieme (Ed.), Unterricht und Kompetenzerwerb in Deutsch und Englisch. Ergebnisse der DESI-Studie [Teaching and competence acquisition in German and English. Results of the DESI study] (pp. 451–457). Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
Pérez-Cañado, M. L.
(2012) CLIL research in Europe: past, present, and future. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 315–341. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rumlich, D.
(2015) Zur affektiv-motivationalen Entwicklung von Lernenden im bilingualen Sachfachunterricht [About the affective-motivational development of learners in CLIL] In B. Rüschoff, J.-T. Sudhoff, & D. Wolff (Eds.), CLIL Revisited: Eine kritische Analyse des gegenwärtigen Standes des bilingualen Sachfachunterrichts [CLIL revisited: A critical analysis of the state of the art of bilingual teaching] (pp. 309-330). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
(2016) Evaluating bilingual education in Germany: CLIL students’ general English proficiency, EFL self-concept and interest. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Subramaniam, P. R.
(2009) Motivational effects on student engagement and learning in physical education: A review. International Journal of Physical Education, 46(2), 11–19. Retrieved from http://​www​.unco​.edu​/cebs​/psychology​/kevinpugh​/motivation​_project​/resources​/subramaniam​.pdf Google Scholar
Ting, T. Y.-L.
(2010) CLIL appeals to how the brain likes its information: Examples from CLIL-(neuro)science. International CLIL Research Journal, 3(1), 3–18.Google Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S.
(1978) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman., Eds.) (A. R. Luria, M. Lopez-Morillas & M. Cole [with J. V. Wertsch], Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Original manuscripts [ca. 1930–1934]).Google Scholar
Wesche, M. B.
(2002) Early French immersion: How has the original Canadian model stood the test of time? In P. Burmeister, T. Piske, & A. Rohde (Eds.), An integrated view of language development – Papers in honor of Henning Wode (pp. 357–379). Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.Google Scholar
Wolff, D.
(1997) Zur Förderung von Sprachbewusstheit und Sprachlernbewusstheit im bilingualen Sachfachunterricht [About facilitating language awareness and language learning awareness in CLIL]. Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen [Learning and teaching foreign languages], 26, 167–183.Google Scholar
Wu, M. L., Adams, R. J., & Wilson, M.
(2007) ConQuest Manual. Camberwell, Australia: Acer Press.Google Scholar
Zaunbauer, A. C. M., Retelsdorf, J., & Möller, J.
(2009) Die Vorhersage von Englischleistungen am Anfang der Sekundarstufe [The prediction of English achievement at the beginning of lower secondary level]. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie [Journal for Developmental Psychology and Educational Psychology], 41(3), 153–164. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zydatiß, W.
(2007) Deutsch-Englische Züge in Berlin (DEZIBEL): Eine Evaluation des bilingualen Sachfachunterrichts an Gymnasien [German-English streams in Berlin: An evaluation of CLIL at Gymnasien]. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 10 other publications

Bower, Kim
2020. School leaders’ perspectives on content and language integrated learning in England. Language, Culture and Curriculum 33:4  pp. 351 ff. Crossref logo
Chu, Edward Y. W.
2019. What is effective second language exposure and how does it relate to content-based instruction and language across the curriculum?. Journal of Second Language Studies 2:1  pp. 93 ff. Crossref logo
Goris, JA, EJPG Denessen & LTW Verhoeven
2019. Effects of content and language integrated learning in Europe A systematic review of longitudinal experimental studies. European Educational Research Journal 18:6  pp. 675 ff. Crossref logo
Goris, José, Eddie Denessen & Ludo Verhoeven
2020. Determinants of EFL learning success in content and language integrated learning. The Language Learning Journal  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Martínez Agudo, Juan de Dios
2021. Do CLIL programmes help to balance out gender differences in content and language achievement?. Language, Culture and Curriculum  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Martínez Agudo, Juan de Dios
2021. To what extent do affective variables correlate with content learning achievement in CLIL programmes?. Language and Education 35:3  pp. 226 ff. Crossref logo
Martínez-Agudo, Juan de Dios
2019. To what extent can CLIL learners’ oral competence outcomes be explained by contextual differences? Updated empirical evidence from Spain. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 37:1  pp. 27 ff. Crossref logo
Palacios Hidalgo, Francisco Javier
2020.  In Handbook of Research on Bilingual and Intercultural Education [Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design, ],  pp. 359 ff. Crossref logo
San Isidro, Xabier & David Lasagabaster
2019. Code-switching in a CLIL multilingual setting: a longitudinal qualitative study. International Journal of Multilingualism 16:3  pp. 336 ff. Crossref logo
San Isidro, Xabier & David Lasagabaster
2019. The impact of CLIL on pluriliteracy development and content learning in a rural multilingual setting: A longitudinal study. Language Teaching Research 23:5  pp. 584 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 18 september 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.