Article published In:
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict
Vol. 11:1 (2023) ► pp.124
Alba-Juez, Laura
2018 “Emotion and Appraisal Processes in Language: How are they Related?” In The Construction of Discourse as Verbal Interaction, edited by Maria de los Angeles Gomez Gonzalez and Lachlan Mackenzie, 227–250. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Alba-Juez, Laura, and Geoff Thompson
2014 “The Many Faces and Phases of Evaluation.” In Evaluation in Context, edited by Laura Alba-Juez and Geoff Thompson, 3–23. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Bryan
2017 “Tweeter-in-Chief: a Content Analysis of President Trump’s Tweeting Habits.” Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 8 (2): 36–47. [URL]
Bakhtin, Mikhail M.
1981 “The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays”, edited by Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Bednarek, Monika
2006Evaluation in Media Discourse. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Biber, Douglas, and Edward Finegan
1989 “Styles of Stance in English: Lexical and Grammatical Marking of Evidentiality and Affect.” Text-Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 9 (1): 93–124. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blakemore, Erin
8 January 2020 “U.S.-Iran Tensions: From Political Coup to Hostage Crisis to Drone Strikes.” [URL]. Accessed 9 January 2020. [URL]
Breeze, Ruth
2017 “Tired of Nice People? An Appraisal-Based Approach to Trump’s Dichotomies.” Cultura, Lenguaje y RepresentacIón 181: 7–25. [URL]
2019 “Emotion in Politics: Affective-Discursive Practices in UKIP and Labour.” Discourse & Society 30 (1): 24–43. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2020 “Angry Tweets: A Corpus-Assisted Study of Anger in Populist Political Discourse.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict 8 (1): 118–145. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Carroll, Oliver
18 January 2020 “Russia Says Iran Shot Down Passenger Plane After US Jets were Sent to its Borders.” Independent. Accessed 18 January 2020. [URL]
Ceron, Andrea, and Giovanna d’Adda
2016 “E-campaigning on Twitter: The Effectiveness of Distributive Promises and Negative Campaign in the 2013 Italian Election.” New Media & Society 18 (9): 1935–1955. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Chilton, Paul
2017 “ ‘The People’ in Populist Discourse: Using Neuro-Cognitive Linguistics to Understand Political Meanings.” Journal of Language and Politics 16 (4): 582–594. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Collins, Sean
14 January 2020 “Iran Makes Plane Crash Arrests, but Continues to Blame the US for the Disaster.” VOX. Accessed 19 January 2020. [URL]
Crockett, Zachery
2016What I Learned Analyzing 7 Months of Donald Trump’s Tweets. Vox. Accessed 23/7/2018 from [URL]
Duncombe, Constance
2019 “The Politics of Twitter: Emotions and the Power of Social Media.” International Political Sociology 13 (4): 409–429. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Enli, Gunn
2017 “Twitter as Arena for the Authentic Outsider: Exploring the Social Media Campaigns of Trump and Clinton in the 2016 US Presidential Election.” European Journal of Communication 32 (1): 50–61. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Enli, Gunn, and Anja Aaheim Naper
2015 “Barack Obama’s and Mitt Romney’s Tweets in the 2012 US Presidential Election Campaign.” In The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics, edited by Axel Bruns, Gunn Enli, Eli Skogerbo, Anders Olof and Christian Christensen, 364–377. London: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fuoli, Matteo
2018 “A Stepwise Method for Annotating Appraisal.” Functions of Language 25 (2): 229–258. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gimenez, Elsa, and Natalie Schwarz
2016 “The Visual Construction of ‘the People’ and ‘Proximity to the People’ on the Online Platforms of the National Front and Swiss People’s Party.” Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie 41 (2): 213–242. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Halliday, Michael
1994An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, Christian R.
2018 “Crooked Hillary and Dumb Trump.” Internet Pragmatics 1 (1): 55–87. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hood, Susan
2010Appraising Research: Evaluation in Academic Discourse. London: Palgrave. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hood, Susan, and James Martin
2005 “Invoking Attitude: The Play of Graduation in Appraising Discourse.” Revista Signos 37 (58): 195–220. [URL]
Hunston, Susan
2000 “Evaluation and the Planes of Discourse: Status and Value in Persuasive Texts.” In Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, edited by Susan Hunston and Geoff Thompson, 176–207. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hunston, Susan, and Geoffrey Thompson
2000Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Katzman, Kenneth, and Paul K. Kerr
2016Iran Nuclear Agreement. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
Kayam, Orly
2018 “The Readability and Simplicity of Donald Trump’s Language.” Political Studies Review 16 (1): 73–88. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kreis, Ramona
2017 “The ‘Tweet Politics’ of President Trump.” Journal of Language and Politics 16 (4): 607–618. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kreiss, Daniel
2016 “Seizing the Moment: The Presidential Campaigns’ Use of Twitter during the 2012 Electoral Cycle.” New Media & Society 18 (8): 1473–1490. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Krzyżanowski, Michał, and Joshua A. Tucker
Lee, Jasmine C., and Kevin Quealy
2016 “The 282 People, Places and Things Donald Trump has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List.” The New York Times 251. [URL]
Liu, Dilin, and Lei Lei
2018 “The Appeal to Political Sentiment: An Analysis of Donald Trump’s and Hillary Clinton’s Speech Themes and Discourse Strategies in the 2016 US Presidential Election.” Discourse, Context & Media 251: 143–152. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Martin, James, and Peter White
2005The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Moffitt, Benjamin
2015 “How to Perform Crisis: A Model for Understanding the Key Role of Crisis in Contemporary Populism.” Government and Opposition 50 (2): 189–217. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2016The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation. Standford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Moffitt, Benjamin, and Simon Tormey
2014 “Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style.” Political Studies 62 (2): 381–397. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
O’Donnell, M.
2008 “UAM Corpus Tool”. Available to download from: [URL].”
Ott, Brian L.
2017 “The Age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the Politics of Debasement.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 34 (1): 59–68. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pain, Paromita, and Gina Masullo Chen
2019 “The President is in: Public Opinion and the Presidential Use of Twitter.” Social Media+ Society 5 (2): 1–12 DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Pollack, Kenneth
2004The Persian Puzzle: Deciphering the Twenty-Five-Year Conflict between the United States and Iran. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
Reidel, Bruce
. December 2017 “Who are the Houthis, and why are we at War with them?”. Brookings. [URL]
Reyes, Antonio
2020 “I, Trump: The Cult of Personality, Anti-Intellectualism and the Post-Truth Era.” Journal of Language and Politics 19 (6): 869–892. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ross, Andrew S., and David Caldwell
2020 “ ‘Going Negative’: An APPRAISAL Analysis of the Rhetoric of Donald Trump on Twitter.” Language & Communication 701: 13–27. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ross, Andrew S., and Damian J. Rivers
2018 “Discursive Deflection: Accusation of “Fake News” and the Spread of Mis-and Disinformation in the Tweets of President Trump.” Social Media+ Society 4 (2). DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2020 “Donald Trump, Legitimisation and a New Political Rhetoric.” World Englishes 39 (4): 623–637. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ross, Monique, and Annabelle Quince
4 January 2020 “Why America and Iran Hate Each Other.” ABC News. [URL]
Samoilenko, Sergei A., E. Shiraev, J. Keohane, and M. Icks
2016 “Character Assassination.” The SAGE Encyclopedia of Corporate Reputation 11: 115–118. [URL]
Trevisan, Piergiorgio
2018 “ ‘Tweeting Engagement’. Strategies of Identity Construction and ‘Alignment-Disalignment’ in Donald Trump’s Use of Social Media.” Lingue e Linguaggi 281: 337–353. [URL]
Trump, Donald, and Tony Schwartz
1987The Art of the Deal. Random House: New York.Google Scholar
Twiplomacy Study
2018 Retrieved from: [URL]. Accessed 10 January 2019.
van Dijk, Teun A.
1998 “Opinions and Ideologies in the Press.” In Approaches to Media Discourse, edited by Allan Bell and Philip Garrett, 21–63. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2004 “Politics, Ideology and Discourse.” In Elsevier Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, edited by Ruth Wodak, 728–740. London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
2013 “Ideology and Discourse.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lymen Tower Sargent and Marc Stears, 176–196. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin
2018 “Media Coverage of Shifting Emotional Eegimes: Donald Trump’s Angry Populism.” Media, Culture & Society 40 (5): 766–778. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wells, Chris, Dhavan V. Shah, Jon C. Pevehouse, Jung Hwan Yang, Ayellet Pelled, Frederick Boehm, Josephine Lukito, Shreenita Ghosh, and Jessica L. Schmidt
2016 “How Trump Drove Coverage to the Nomination: Hybrid Media Campaigning.” Political Communication 33 (4): 669–676. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wignell, Peter, Kay O’Halloran, and Sabine Tan
2019 “Semiotic Space Invasion: The Case of Donald Trump’s US Presidential Campaign.” Semiotica 2019 (226): 185–208. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wignell, Peter, Sabine Tan, Kay L. O’Halloran, and Kevin Chai
2021 “The Twittering Presidents: An Analysis of Tweets from @BarackObama and @realDonaldTrump.” Journal of Language and Politics 20 (2): 197–225. [URL]. DOI logoGoogle Scholar