Article published in:
Journal of Second Language Pronunciation
Vol. 7:3 (2021) ► pp. 408434


Baker Smemoe, W., & Haslam, N.
(2013) The effect of language learning aptitude, strategy use and learning context on L2 pronunciation learning. Applied Linguistics, 34 (4), 435–456. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
(2015) Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67 (1), 1–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Birdsong, D.
(2007) Nativelike pronunciation among late learners of French as a second language. In O.-S. Bohn & M. J. Munro (Eds.), Language Learning & Language Teaching (Vol. 17, pp. 99–116). John Benjamins Publishing Company. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D.
(2018) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 6.0.37) [Computer program and manual]. http://​www​.praat​.org/
Caramazza, A., & Yeni-Komshian, G. H.
(1974) Voice onset time in two French dialects. Journal of Phonetics, 2 (3), 239–245. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Caramazza, A., Yeni-Komshian, G. H., Zurif, E. B., & Carbone, E.
(1973) The acquisition of a new phonological contrast: The case of stop consonants in French-English bilinguals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54 (2), 421–428. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Casillas, J. V.
(2020) The longitudinal development of fine-phonetic detail: Stop production in a domestic immersion program. Language Learning, 70 (3), 768–806. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, L.
(2018) Phonation and laryngeal specification in American English voiceless obstruents. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 48 (3), 331–356. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Deng, J., Holtby, A., Howden-Weaver, L., Nessim, L., Nicholas, B., Nickle, K., Pannekoek, C., Stephan, S., & Sun, M.
(2009) English pronunciation research: The neglected orphan of Utopian Goals. Prairie Metropolis Centre Working Paper Series, WP05-09, Edmonton, AB.Google Scholar
Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J.
(2013) The development of L2 oral language skills in two L1 groups: A 7-year study. Language Learning, 63 (2), 163–185. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dewaele, J.-M., & Furnham, A.
(2000) Personality and speech production: A pilot study of second language learners. Personality and Individual Differences, 28 (2), 355–365. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Duanmu, S.
(2007) The phonology of standard Chinese. OUP Oxford.Google Scholar
Escudero, P.
(2009) Linguistic perception of “similar” L2 sounds. In P. Boersma & S. Hamann (Eds.), Phonology in perception (pp. 151–190). Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Escudero, P., & Boersma, P.
(2004) Bridging the gap between L2 speech perception research and phonological theory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26 (04). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J.
(1987) The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15 , 47–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1991) Age of learning affects the authenticity of voice-onset time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89 (1), 395–411. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1995) Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 233–277). York Press.Google Scholar
Flege, J., & Bohn, O.-S.
(2021) The revised speech learning model (SLM-r). In R. Wayland (Ed.), Second Language Speech Learning: Theoretical and Empirical Progress (pp. 3–83). Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J., Munro, M. J., & Mackay, I. R. A.
(1995) Effects of age of second-language learning on the production of English consonants. Speech Communication, 16 (1), 1–26. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J., & Eefting, W.
(1987a) Cross-language switching in stop consonant perception and production by Dutch speakers of English. Speech Communication, 6 (3), 185–202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1987b) Production and perception of English stops by native Spanish speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 15 , 67–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Flege, J., & Hillenbrand, J.
(1984) Limits on phonetic accuracy in foreign language speech production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76 (3), 708–721. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gabriel, C., Kupisch, T., & Seoudy, J.
(2016) VOT in French as a foreign language: A production and perception study with mono-and multilingual learners (German/Mandarin-Chinese). SHS Web of Conferences, 27 , 09002. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
González López, V., & Counselman, D.
(2013) L2 acquisition and category formation of Spanish voiceless stops by monolingual English novice learners. In J. Cabrelli Amaro, G. Lord, A. de Prada Perez, & J. E. Aaron (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 16th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 118–127). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
Gonzalez-Bueno, M.
(1997) Voice-onset-time in the perception of foreign accent by native listeners of Spanish. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 34 (4), 251–262. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holliday, J. J.
(2015) A longitudinal study of the second language acquisition of a three-way stop contrast. Journal of Phonetics, 50 , 1–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huffman, M. K., & Schuhmann, K. S.
(2015) Effect of early L2 learning on L1 stop voicing. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics 169 ASA, 23 (1), 060007. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Iverson, G. K., & Salmons, J. C.
(2003) Laryngeal enhancement in early Germanic. Phonology, 20 (1), 43–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S. D.
(1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Longman.Google Scholar
Lin, Y.-H.
(2007) The Sounds of Chinese with Audio CD (Vol. 1). Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S.
(1964) A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word, 20 (3), 384–422. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1967) Some effects of context on voice onset time in English stops. Language and Speech, 10 (1), 1–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lord, G.
(2008) Second language acquisition and first language phonological modification. In J. B. de Garavito & E. Valenzuela (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 10th hispanic linguistics symposium (pp. 184–193). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
Louër, D.
forthcoming). VOT of French in contact with English: A comparative study of bilingual speakers in southwestern Ontario. Proceedings of LACUS Forum 46 , 10.
Maddieson, I., & Ladefoged, P.
(1996) The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Nagle, C. L.
(2017) A longitudinal study of voice onset time development in L2 Spanish stops. Applied Linguistics, 40 (1), 86–107. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Netelenbos, N., Li, F., & Rosen, N.
(2016) Stop consonant production of French immersion students in Western Canada: A study of voice onset time. International Journal of Bilingualism, 20 (3), 346–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
New, B., Pallier, C., Ferrand, L., & Matos, R.
(2001) A lexical database for contemporary French: LEXIQUE. L’année Psychologique, 101 (3), 447–462. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Offerman, H. M., & Olson, D. J.
(2016) Visual feedback and second language segmental production: The generalizability of pronunciation gains. System, 59 , 45–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Olson, D. J.
(2014) Phonetics and technology in the classroom: A practical approach to using speech analysis software in second-language pronunciation instruction. Hispania, 97 (1), 47–68. JSTOR. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
R Core Team
(2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://​www​.R​-project​.org/
Reeder, J. T.
(1998) English speakers’ acquisition of voiceless stops and trills in L2 Spanish. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 3 (3), 101–118.Google Scholar
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A.
(2002) E-Prime: User’s guide. Psychology Software Incorporated.Google Scholar
Schoonmaker-Gates, E.
(2015) On voice-onset time as a cue to foreign accent in spanish: Native and nonnative perceptions. Hispania, 98 (4), 779–791. JSTOR. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schuhmann, K., & Huffman, M. K.
(2015) L1 drift and L2 category formation in second language learning. In the Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015 (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.Google Scholar
Schuhmann, K. S., & Huffman, M. K.
(2019) Development of L2 Spanish VOT before and after a brief pronunciation training session. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 5 (3), 402–434. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shultz, A. A., Francis, A. L., & Llanos, F.
(2012) Differential cue weighting in perception and production of consonant voicing. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132 (2), EL95–EL101. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Washington University Speech and Hearing Lab Neighborhood Database
Yang, Y., Chen, X., & Xiao, Q.
(2020) Cross-linguistic similarity in L2 speech learning: Evidence from the acquisition of Russian stop contrasts by Mandarin speakers. Second Language Research, 026765831990091. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zampini, M. L.
(1998) The relationship between the production and perception of Spanish stops. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 85–100.Google Scholar