The present paper reexamines the relationship between the two Spanish copulas ser “be” and estar “be.locative” and the i-level/s-level contrast. It is shown that the compatibility with the copulas does not yield an adequate classification of adjectives as i-level or s-level, if this distinction is defined in terms of boundedness. Additional criteria for boundedness have to be taken into account, namely the compatibility (i) with certain pseudo-copular verbs, (ii) with adjunct predicates and (iii) with absolute constructions. Adjectives like enfermo (‘ill’), which in addition to their compatibility with estar can appear in all these contexts, can be properly considered bounded. Among so-called ambivalent adjectives at least two types can distinguished: nervioso (‘nervous’) type adjectives are compatible with ser and are also allowed in any of the other s-level-contexts, while viejo (‘old’) type adjectives allow ser and estar, but do not pass any of the other tests for boundedness.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 7 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.