In a series of five experiments with 31 Korean heritage children, we show that knowledge of case and the ability to use it must be evaluated with careful attention to multiple factors that can influence access to morphological information in the course of comprehension and production. The first two experiments, which compared the canonical SOV pattern with the non-canonical OSV pattern, employed picture-selection comprehension tasks to assess knowledge of case. Poor performance on OSV sentences was mitigated by experimental manipulations that either enhanced the perceptual salience of case or provided felicitous conditions for the use of non-canonical word order. The next three experiments, all involving production tasks, revealed that many children who failed to demonstrate knowledge of case in the comprehension tasks actually produced nominative and accusative case correctly, thereby revealing their knowledge of this morphosyntactic system.
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Goldschneider, J., & DeKeyser, R.
(2001) Explaining the “natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning, 511, 1–50.
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Hwang Jackson, K.
(2008) The effect of information structure on Korean scrambling. PhD dissertation, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
Jin, K.-s., Kim, M. J., & Song, H.-j.
(2015) The development of Korean preschoolers’ ability to understand transitive sentences using case-markers. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (3), 75–90.
(2014) Unveiling linguistic competence by facilitating performance. PhD dissertation, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
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(2006) Subject preference in Korean. In D. Baumer, D. Montero, & M. Scanlon (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, pp. 1–14. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
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Ladd, D. R.
(1996) Intonational phonology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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(2006a) Effects of focus and markedness hierarchies on object case ellipsis in Korean. Discourse and Cognition, 131, 205–231.
(2006b) Parallel optimization in case systems: Evidence from case ellipsis in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 151, 69–96.
Love, T., Walenski, M., & Swinney, D.
(2009) Slowed speech input has a differential impact on on-line and off-line processing in children’s comprehension of pronouns. Journal of Psycholinguist Research, 381, 285–304.
(2010) Current issues in heritage language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 301, 3–23.
(2013) Structural changes in three heritage languages. Invited talk. Radboud University Languages in Contact, De Leeuwenhorst, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, January 23, 2013.
(2009) Back to basics: Differential Object Marking under incomplete acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12 (3), 363–383.
Montrul, S., & Bowles, M.
(2010) Is grammar instruction beneficial for heritage language learners? Dative case marking in Spanish. The Heritage Language Journal 7 (1), 47–73.
National Institute of the Korean Language
(2002) Hyentay kwuke sayong pinto cosa [Investigation of word frequency on the contemporary Korean language]. Seoul: National Institute of the Korean Language.
O’Grady, W., Kwak, H.-Y., Lee, O.-S., & Lee, M.
(2011) An emergentist perspective on heritage language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 331, 223–245.
(1997) Cross-linguistic parallels in language loss. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 14 (1–2), 87–123.
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(2008a) Gender under incomplete acquisition: Heritage speakers’ knowledge of noun categorization. The Heritage Language Journal, 6 (1), 40–71.
(2008b) Heritage language narratives. In D. Brinton, O. Kagan, & S. Bauckus (Eds.), Heritage Language Education. A New Field Emerging, pp. 149–164. New York: Routledge.
Polinsky, M., & Kagan, O.
(2007) Heritage languages: In the ‘wild’ and in the classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1 (5), 368–95.
(2006) Interface strategies: Reference-set computation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
(2003) Scrambling and processing: Complexity, dependencies, and constraints. In S. Karimi (Ed.), Word order and scrambling, pp. 301–324. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
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(2009) Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 adult, L2 child, and L1 child comparisons in the acquisition of Korean wh-constructions with negative polarity items. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 311, 323–361.
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(1997) The learning and teaching of Korean in community schools. In Y.-H. Kim (Ed.), Korean language in America 21, pp. 111–127. Los Angeles: American Association of Teachers of Korean.
2021. Research Approaches to Heritage Languages. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 373 ff.
[no author supplied]
2021. Grammatical Aspects of Heritage Languages. In The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics, ► pp. 579 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.
1 Feb 2017: Due to an error in production, the version published online on 13 Jan 2017 did not include all the corrections from the proofreading stage. These corrections have now been implemented in the version that is currently online.