Crime and Corpus

The linguistic representation of crime in the press

| University of Huddersfield
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027234094 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027268761 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
 
Reports on crime in newspapers do not provide a neutral representation of criminals and their offences but instead construct them in accordance with societal discourse surrounding this issue. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach at the intersection of Linguistics, Criminology, and Media Studies and demonstrates how Linguistics can contribute to the study of crime in the media. By combining the tools offered by Corpus Linguistics and Critical Stylistics (a text-based framework for Critical Discourse Analysis), evidence is provided for predominant perceptions of crime and their underlying ideologies in both British and German society. This study names and illustrates the most significant linguistic devices used to construct offenders, victims, and crimes in two newspaper corpora compiled from the German and British press. These devices are then linked to criminological frameworks.
[Linguistic Approaches to Literature, 20]  2015.  xvii, 181 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
xi–xii
Acknowledgements
xiii–xiv
List of figures
xv–xvi
List of tables
xvii–xviii
Chapter 1. Introduction
1–8
Chapter 2. Crime theories and the media
9–26
Chapter 3. Critical language studies and Critical Stylistics
27–54
Chapter 4. Corpus Linguistics
55–70
Chapter 5. Conducting the analysis
71–90
Chapter 6. Linguistic construction in the British press
91–116
Chapter 7. Linguistic construction in the German press
117–152
Chapter 8. Final considerations
153–158
References
159–176
Appendix
177–178
Index
179–182
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Catalano, Theresa & Linda R. Waugh
2016. Representations of power. Journal of Language and Politics 15:6  pp. 790 ff. Crossref logo
Dollinger, Bernd
2019. Help Wanted? A Narrative Look at Penal Welfarism ‘From Below’. Youth Justice 19:2  pp. 120 ff. Crossref logo
Douthwaite, John, Daniela Francesca Virdis & Elisabetta Zurru
2017.  In The Stylistics of Landscapes, the Landscapes of Stylistics [Linguistic Approaches to Literature, 28],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Gregoriou, Christiana & Ilse A. Ras
2018.  In Representations of Transnational Human Trafficking,  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Leung, Ray C. H.
2017. Conceptualizations of sociopolitical culture in Hong Kong and Mainland China. International Journal of Language and Culture 4:2  pp. 215 ff. Crossref logo
Lugea, Jane
2017. The year’s work in stylistics 2016. Language and Literature: International Journal of Stylistics 26:4  pp. 340 ff. Crossref logo
Nevala, Minna
2019.  In Reference and Identity in Public Discourses [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 306],  pp. 19 ff. Crossref logo
Nevala, Minna & Arja Nurmi
2020.  In Late Modern English [Studies in Language Companion Series, 214],  pp. 316 ff. Crossref logo
Nolte, M. Insa, Clyde Ancarno & Rebecca Jones
2018. Inter-religious relations in Yorubaland, Nigeria: corpus methods and anthropological survey data. Corpora 13:1  pp. 27 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 27 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 43 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 81 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 115 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 157 ff. Crossref logo
Tabbert, Ulrike
2016.  In Language and Crime,  pp. 177 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 april 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

References

References

Abousnnouga, G. & Machin, D.
(2008) Defence discourse I: The visual institutionalization of discourses in war monuments. In A. Mayr (Ed.), Language and Power: An Introduction to Institutional Discourse (pp. 115–137). London: Continuum.
(2013) The Language of War Monuments. London: Bloomsbury. Crossref link
Abrahams, H.
(2007) Supporting Women After Domestic Violence: Loss, Trauma and Recovery. London: Jessica Kingsley. Crossref link
Adolphs, S.
(2006) Introducing Electronic Text Analysis: A Practical Guide for Language and Literary Studies. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Agresti, A.
(2002) Categorical Data Analysis (2nd edn.). New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience. Crossref link
Althusser, L.
(1971) Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. New York, NY: Monthy Review Press.
Anthony, L.
(2012) AntConc (version 3.3.1).
(2013) A critical look at software tools in corpus linguistics. Linguistic Research, 30(2), 141–161. Crossref link
Ashworth, A.
(1998) The Criminal Process: An Evaluative Study (2nd edn.). Oxford: OUP.
Atkinson, M., Kilby, D. & Roca, I.
(1982) Foundations of General Lingustics. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Baker, P.
(2004) Querying keywords: Questions of difference, frequency, and sense in keyword analysis. Journal of English Linguistics, 32(4), 346–359. Crossref link
(2006) Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum. Crossref link
(2009) The BE06 corpus of British English and recent language change. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(3), 312–337. Crossref link
(2010) Representations of Islam in British broadsheet and tabloid newspapers 1999–2005. Journal of Language and Politics, 9(2), 310–338. Crossref link
(2011) Times may change, but we will always have Money: Diachronic variation in recent British English. Journal of English Linguistics, 39(1), 65–88. Crossref link
Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., KhosraviNik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., McEnery, T. & Wodak, R.
(2008) A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourse of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse Society, 19, 273–306. Crossref link
Baker, P. & McEnery, T.
(2005) A corpus-based approach to discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in UN and newspaper texts. Journal of Language and Politics, 4(2), 197–226. Crossref link
Baker, P., McEnery, T. & Gabrielatos, C.
(2013) Discourse Analysis and Media Attitudes: The Representation of Islam in the British Press. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Bamberg, M.
(1994) Development of linguistic forms: German. In R.A. Berman & D.I. Slobin (Eds.), Relating Events in Narrative: A Crosslinguistic Development Study (pp. 189–238). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Barnett, B.
(2006) Medea in the media: Narrative and myth in newspaper coverage of women who kill their children. Journalism, 7(4), 411–432. Crossref link
Beck, U.
(1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage. Crossref link
Becker, H.S.
(1966) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York NY: The Free Press. Crossref link
Bednarek, M.
(2006) Evaluation in Media Discourse: Analysis of a Newspaper Corpus. London: Continuum. Crossref link
Bednarek, M. & Caple, H.
(2012) News Discourse. London: Continuum. Crossref link
(2014) Why do news values matter? Towards a new methodological framework for analysing news discourse in critical discourse analysis and beyond. Discourse & Society, 25(2), 135–158. Crossref link
Bell, A.
(1991) The Language of News Media. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Crossref link
Benneworth, K.
(2007) ‘Just Good Friends’: Managing the clash of discourses in police interviews with paedophiles. In J. Cotterill (Ed.), The Language of Sexual Crime (pp. 42–61). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Biber, D.
(1993) Representativeness in corpus design. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 8(4), 243–257. Crossref link
(2009) A corpus-driven approach to formulaic language in English. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(3), 275–311. Crossref link
Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Leech, G.
(2002) Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education. Crossref link
Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Reppen, R.
(1998) Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Bickel, P.J. & Doksum, K.A.
(2007) Mathematical Statistics: Basic Ideas and Selected Topics (2nd edn.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Billig, M.
(2000) Towards a critique of the critical. Discourse & Society, 11(3), pp. 291–292. Crossref link
Bishop, H. & Jaworski, A.
(2003) ‘We Beat ‘em’: Nationalism and the hegemony of homogeneity in the British press reportage of Germany versus England during Euro 2000. Discourse & Society, 14(3), 243–271. Crossref link
Blommaert, J.
(2001) Context is/as critique. Critique of Anthropology, 21(1), 13–32. Crossref link
(2005) Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Boehm, G.
(1989) Was heißt: Interpretation? Anmerkungen zur Rekonstruktion eines Problems. In C. Fruh, R. Rosenberg & H.P. Rosinski (Eds.), Kunstgeschichte – aber wie? Zehn Themen und Beispiele (pp. 13–26). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Braithwaite, J.
(1989) Crime, Shame and Reintegration. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Brown, G. & Yule, G.
(1983) Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Brown, M.
(2000) Calculations of risk in contemporary penal practice. In M. Brown & J. Pratt (Eds.), Dangerous Offenders: Punishment & Social Order (pp. 93–108). London: Routledge.
Brown, M. & Pratt, J.
(Eds.) (2000) Dangerous Offenders: Punishment & Social Order. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Buchanan, D.R.
(1992) An uneasy alliance: Combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. Health Education Quarterly, 19(1), 117–135. Crossref link
Burgess, R. & Akers, R.
(1966) A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behavior. Social Problems, 14, 128–147. Crossref link
Busà, M.G.
(2014) Introducing the Language of the News. London: Routledge.
Carrabine, E., Cox, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K. & South, N.
(2009) Criminology: A Sociological Introduction (2nd edn.). Abingdon: Routledge.
Carter, R., Goddard, A., Reah, D., Sanger, K. & Swift, N.
(2008) Working with Texts: A Core Introduction to Language Analysis (3rd edn.). Abingdon: Routledge. Crossref link
Chapman, S.
(2006) Thinking about Language: Theories of English. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Chibnall, S.
(1977) Law and Order News. London: Travistock.
Chilton, P.
(2005) Missing links in mainstream CDA: Modules, blends and the critical instinct. In R. Wodak & P. Chilton (Eds.), A New Research Agenda in Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity (pp. 19–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2011) Still something missing in CDA. Discourse Studies, 13(6), 769–781. Crossref link
Chomsky, N.
(1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Crossref link
(1966) Cartesian Linguistics. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Crossref link
Christie, N.
(1977) Conflicts as property. In E. McLaughlin, R. Fergusson, G. Hughes, & L. Westermarland (Eds.), Restorative justice: Critical issues (pp. 37–51). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
(1986) The ideal victim. In E.A. Fattah (Ed.), From Crime Policy to Victim Policy (pp. 17–30). Houndmills: The Macmillan Press. Crossref link
Cillia, R. de & Wodak, R.
(2007) ‘Katastrophe und Wiedergeburt’. Zur diskursiven Konstruktion gemeinsamer Geschichte im Österreich des Jahres 2005. In A. Redder (Ed.), Diskurse und Texte. Festschrift für Konrad Ehlich zum 65. Geburtstag (pp. 117–128). Tübingen: Stauffenberg.
Clark, K.
(1992) The linguistics of blame: Representations of women in The Sun’s reporting of crimes of sexual violence. In M. Toolan (Ed.), Language, Text and Context: Essays in Stylistics (pp. 208–226). London: Routledge.
Clarke, R.V.G.
(1980) “Situational” crime prevention: Theory and practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20(2), 136–147.Crossref link
Clauβ, G. & Ebner, H.
(1983) Grundlagen der Statistik (7th edn.). Berlin: Volk und Wissen.
Coffey, L.
(2013) “Innocent Until Proven Filthy”: A corpus-based critical stylistic analysis of representations of men in women’s magazines. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Huddersfield. http://​eprints​.hud​.ac​.uk​/19274/⟩.
Cohen, A.K.
(1955) Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Crossref link
Cohen, S.
(1980) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. Crossref link
(2002) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers (3rd edn.). London: Routledge. Crossref link
Cole, P. & Harcup, T.
(2010) Newspaper Journalism. London: Sage. Crossref link
Coleman, C. & Norris, C.
(2000) Introducing Criminology. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
Conboy, M.
(2006) Tabloid Britain: Constructing a Community through Language. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Cook, G.
(1989) Discourse. Oxford: OUP.
Cornwell, D., Blad, J. & Wright, M.
(Eds.) (2013) Civilising Criminal Justice: An International Restorative Agenda for Penal Reform. Hook: Waterside Press.
Cotterill, J.
(2001) Domestic discord, rocky relationships: Semantic prosodies in representations of marital violence in the O.J. Simpson trial. Discourse & Society, 12(3), 291–312. Crossref link
(2003) Language and Power in Court: A Linguistic Analysis of the O.J. Simpson Trial. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Cottle, S.
(2008) Social drama in a mediatized world: The racist murder of Stephen Lawrence. In G.S. John (Ed.), Victor Turner and Contemporary Cultural Performance (pp. 109–124). New York, NY: Berkhahn Books.
Crowther, C.
(2007) An Introduction to Criminology and Criminal Justice. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Crossref link
Culpeper, J.
(2001) Language and Characterisation: People in Plays and other Texts. Harlow: Pearson Education.
(2002) Computers, language and characterisation: An analysis of six characters in Romeo and Juliet . In U. Melander-Marttala, C. Östman & M. Kytö (Eds.), Conversation in Life and in Literature (pp. 11–30). Uppsala: Universitetstryckeriet [Papers from the ASLA Symposium, Association Suedoise de Linguistique Appliquée (ASLA) 15].
(2009) Words, parts-of-speech and semantic categories in the character-talk of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet . International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(1), 29–59. Crossref link
Davies, M.
(2013) Oppositions and Ideology in News Discourse. London: Bloomsbury.
de Cillia, R., Reisigl, M. & Wodak, R.
(1999) The discursive construction of national identities. Discourse & Society, 10(2), 149–173. Crossref link
Derrida, J.
(1967, 2005) Writing and Difference. London: Routledge.
Dobash, R.E. & Dobash, R.P.
(1992) Women, Violence and Social Change. London: Routledge. Crossref link
(Eds.) (1998) Rethinking Violence against Women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Crossref link
Dunning, T.
(1993) Accurate methods for the statistics of surprise and coincidence. Computational Linguistics, 19(1), 61–74.
Durant, A. & Lambrou, M.
(2009) Language and Media: A resource Book for Students. Abingdon: Routledge. Crossref link
Durkheim, É.
(1938) The Rules of Sociological Method (8th edn., translated by S.A. Solovay and J.H. Mueller, and edited by G.E.G. Catlin). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Ehrlich, S.
(1999) Communities of practice, gender and the representation of sexual assault. Language in Society, 28(2), 239–256. Crossref link
(2001) Representing Rape: Language and Sexual Consent. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Ehrlich, S. & King, R.
(1996) Consensual sex or sexual harassment: Negotiating meaning. In V.L. Bergvall, J.M. Bing, & A.F. Freed (Eds.), Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice (pp. 153–172). Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.
Eilders, C.
(2002) Conflict and consonance in media opinion: Political positions of five German quality newspapers. European Journal of Communication, 17, 25–63. Crossref link
Erwin-Tripp, S.M.
(1969) Sociolinguistic rules of address. In J.B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 225–240). Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Evison, J.
(2010) What are the basics of analysing a corpus? In A. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. Milton Park: Routledge. Crossref link
Fahrmeir, L., Künstler, R., Pigeot, I. & Tutz, G.
(2007) Statistik (6th edn.). Berlin: Springer. Crossref link
Fairclough, N.
(1992a) Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Crossref link
(1992b) Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 3(2), 193–217. Crossref link
(1995) Media Discourse. London: Hodder Education.
(2000) New Labour, New Language? London: Routledge. Crossref link
(2001a) The dialectics of discourse. In G. Cortese & D. Hymes (Eds.), Textus, 14(2), 231–242.
(2001b) Language and Power (2nd edn.). Essex: Pearson Education.
(2003) ‘Political Correctness’: The politics of culture and language. Discourse & Society, 14(1), 17–28. Crossref link
(2005) Peripheral vision: Discourse analysis in organization studies: the case for critical realism. Organization Studies, 26(6), 915–939. Crossref link
(Ed.) (1992c) Critical Language Awareness. Harlow: Longman.
Fairclough, N. & Wodak, R.
(1997) Critical discourse analysis. In T.A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction: Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction (Vol. 2, pp. 258–284). London: Sage. Crossref link
Felson, M.
(1987) Routine activities and crime presention in the developing metropolis. Criminology, 25(4), 911–932. Crossref link
Firth, J.R.
(1957) A synopsis of linguistic theory, 1930–1955. In J.R. Firth (Ed.), Studies in Linguistic Analysis (pp. 1–32). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Fischer-Starke, B.
(2009) Keywords and frequent phrases of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice . International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(4), 492–523. Crossref link
(2010) Corpus Linguistics in Literary Analysis: Jane Austen and her Contemporaries. London: Continuum. Crossref link
Fogarty, K., Augoustinos, M. & Kettler, L.
(2013) Re-thinking rapport through the lens of progressivity in investigative interviews into child sexual abuse. Discourse Studies, 15(4), 395–420. Crossref link
Forster, E.M.
(1927) Aspects of the Novel. London: Edward Arnold.
Foucault, M.
(1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Tavistock. Crossref link
(1977) Discipline and Punish. London: Allen Lane. Crossref link
Fowler, R.
(1981) Literature as Social Discourse: The Practice of Linguistic Criticism. London: Batsford Academic and Educational.
(1991) Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Fowler, R., Hodge, B., Kress, G. & Trew, T.
(1979a) Language and Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Crossref link
Fowler, R. & Kress, G.
(1979b) Critical linguistics. In R. Fowler, B. Hodge, G. Kress & T. Trew (Eds.), Language and Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Crossref link
Francis, W.N. & Kucera, H.
(1979) Manual of Information to Accompany a Standard Sample of Present-day Edited American English, for Use with Digital Computers (original ed. 1964, revised 1971, revised and augmented 1979 edn.). Providence, RI: Brown University.
Gabrielatos, C. & Baker, P.
(2008) Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: A corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press, 1996–2005. Journal of English Linguistics, 361, 5–38. Crossref link
Gabrielatos, C., McEnery, T., Diggle, P.J. & Baker, P.
(2012) The peaks and troughs of corpus-based contextual analysis. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 17(2), 151–175. Crossref link
Galtung, J. & Ruge, M.
(1973) Structuring and selecting the news. In S. Cohen & J. Young (Eds.), The Manufacture of News: Deviance, Social Problems and the Mass Media. London: Constable.
Garland, D.
(2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: OUP. Crossref link
Gavins, J.
(2007) Text World Theory: An Introduction. Edinburgh: EUP. Crossref link
(2012) Leda and the stylisticians. Language and Literature, 21(4), 345–362. Crossref link
Giddens, A., Duneier, M. & Appelbaum, R.P.
(2003) Introduction to Sociology (4th edn.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
Gramsci, A.
(1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart. Crossref link
Greenbaum, S. & Nelson, G.
(2009) An introduction to English grammar (3rd edn.). Harlow: Pearson Education.
Greer, C.
(2003) Sex Crime and the Media: Sex Offending and the Press in a Divided Society. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
Gregoriou, C.
(2011) Language, Ideology and Identity in Serial Killer Narratives. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Grice, H.P.
(1975) Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts (pp. 41–58). New York, NY: Academic Press. Crossref link
(1978) Further notes on logic and conversation. In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and Semantics 9: Pragmatics (pp. 113–127). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Gries, S.T.
(2010) Corpus linguistics and theoretical linguistics. A love-hate relationship? Not necessarily … International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(3), 327–343. Crossref link
Guo, J.-y
(2012) ‘Anyone in my shoes will end up like me’: Female inmates discourse of responsibility for crime. Discourse & Society, 23(1), 34–46. Crossref link
Hall, A.
(2008) Monster. London: Penguin Books.
Hall, S.
(1996) The problem of ideology: Marxism without guarantees. In D. Morely & K.-H. Chen (Eds.), Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies (pp. 25–46). London: Routledge.
Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J. & Roberts, B.
(1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan. Crossref link
(2013) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order (2nd edn.). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Halliday, M.A.K.
(1971) Linguistic function and literary style: An inquiry into the language of William Golding’s The Inheritors . In S. Chatman (Ed.), Literary Style: A Symposium (pp. 330–368). London: OUP.
(1985) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. Crossref link
Harcup, T.
(2004) Journalism: Principles and Practice. London: Sage. Crossref link
Harcup, T. & O’Neill, D.
(2001) What is news? Galtung and Ruge revisited. Journalism Studies, 2(2), 261–280. Crossref link
Hardie, A. & McEnery, T.
(2010) On two traditions in corpus linguistics, and what they have in common. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(3), 384–394. Crossref link
Hart, A.
(1991) Understanding the Media: A Practical Guide. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Hart, C.
(2011a) Force-interactive patterns in immigration discourse: A cognitive linguistic approach to CDA. Discourse & Society, 22(3), 269–286. Crossref link
(2011b) Legitimizing assertions and the logico-rhetorical module: Evidence and epistemic vigilance in media discourse on immigration. Discourse Studies, 13(6), 751–769. Crossref link
(2013) Event-construal in press reports of violence in two recent political protests. Journal of Language and Politics, 12(3), 400–423. Crossref link
Hayward, K. & Young, J.
(2004) Cultural criminology: Some notes on the script. Theoretical Criminology, 8(3), 259–273. Crossref link
(2007) Cultural criminology. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (pp. 102–121). Oxford: OUP. Crossref link
Helbig, G. & Buscha, J.
(2001) Deutsche Grammatik: Ein Handbuch für den Ausländerunterricht. Berlin: Langenscheidt.
Henley, N.M., Miller, M. & Beazley, J.A.
(1995) Syntax, semantics and sexual violence: Agency and the passive voice. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 14(1–2), 60–84. Crossref link
Henley, N.M., Miller, M.D., Beazley, J.A., Nguyen, D.N., Kaminski, D. & Sanders, R.
(2002) Frequency and specificity of referents to violence in news reports of anti-gay attacks. Discourse & Society, 13(1), 75–104. Crossref link
Henry, F. & Tator, C.
(2002) Discourse of Domination: Racial Bias in the Canadian English-language Press. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Crossref link
Hoey, M.
(2005) Lexical Priming: A New Theory of Words and Language. Abingdon: Routledge. Crossref link
(2007) Lexical priming and literary creativity. In M. Hoey, M. Mahlberg, M. Stubbs & W. Teubert (Eds.), Text, Discourse and Corpora (pp. 7–29). London: Continuum.
Hoffmann, S.
(2005) Grammaticalization and English Complex Prepositions: A Corpus-based Study. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Hoyle, C. & Zedner, L.
(2007) Victims, victimization, and criminal justice. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (pp. 461–495). Oxford: OUP.
Hughes, E.C.
(1945) Dilemmas and contradictions of status. American Journal of Sociology, 50(5 March), 353–359. Crossref link
Humboldt, W. von
([1812] 2002) Werke in fünf Bänden, Band V (2nd edn.). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Hunston, S.
(2007) Semantic prosody revisited. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 12(2), 249–268. Crossref link
Izadi, F. & Saghaye-Biria, H.
(2007) A discourse analysis of elite American newspaper editorials: The case of Iran’s nuclear program. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 31(2), 140–165. Crossref link
Jäger, S.
(2001) Discourse and knowledge: Theoretical and methodological aspects of a critical discourse and dispositive ananlysis. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. Crossref link
(2004) Kritische Diskursanalyse: Eine Einführung (4th edn.). Münster: Unrast-Verlag.
Jaworska, S. & Krishnamurthy, R.
(2012) On the F word: A corpus-based analysis of the media representation of feminism in British and German press discourse, 1990–2009. Language and Literature, 23(4), 401–431. Crossref link
Jefferson, T. & Shapland, J.
(1990) Criminal justice and the production of order and control: Trends since 1980 in the UK. Paper presented at the paper presented to GERN seminar on the production of order and control.
Jeffries, L.
(2000) Don’t throw out the baby with the bathwater: In defence of theoretical eclecticism in Stylistics. PALA, Occasional Papers, 12.
(2006) Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
(2007) Textual Construction of the Female Body: A Critical Discourse Approach. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
(2010a) Critical Stylistics. The Power of English. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
(2010b) Opposition in Discourse: The Construction of Oppositional Meaning. London: Continuum.
(2014a) Critical stylistics. In M. Burke (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Stylistics (pp. 408–420). Millbank: Routledge. Crossref link
(2014b) Interpretation. In P. Stockwell & S. Whiteley (Eds.), The Handbook of Stylistics (pp. 469–486). Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
. Forthcoming. Critical stylistics. In V. Sotirova (Ed.) A Companion to Stylistics. London: Bloomsbury. Crossref link
Jeffries, L. & McIntyre, D.
(2010) Stylistics. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Jeffries, L. & Walker, B.
(2012) Keywords in the press: A critical corpus-assisted analysis of ideology in the Blair years (1998–2007). English Text Construction, 5(2), 208–229. Crossref link
Jensen, L.C.
(2012) Norwegian petroleum extraction in Arctic waters to save the environment: Introducing ‘discourse co-optation’ as a new analytical term. Critical Discourse Studies, 9(1), 29–38. Crossref link
Jewkes, Y.
(2004a) The construction of crime news. In C. Greer (Ed.), Crime and Media: A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge. Crossref link
(2004b) Media & Crime. London: Sage. Crossref link
(2011) Media & Crime (2nd edn.). London: Sage.
(Ed.) (2009) Crime and Media (Vol. 2). London: Sage. Crossref link
Johnson, S., Culpeper, J. & Suhr, S.
(2003a) From ‘Politically Correct Councillors’ to ‘Blairite Nonsense’: Discourses of ‘Political Correctness’ in three British newspapers. Discourse & Society, 14(1), 29–47. Crossref link
Johnson, S. & Suhr, S.
(2003b) From ‘Political Correctness’ to ‘Politische Korrektheit’: Discourses of ‘PC’ in the German newspaper Die Welt . Discourse & Society, 14(1), 49–68. Crossref link
Julian, P.M.
(2011) Appraising through someone else’s words: The evaluative power of quotations in news reports. Discourse Society, 22(6), 766–780. Crossref link
Katz, J.
(1987) What makes crime ‘news’? Media, Culture and Society, 9(1), 47–75. Crossref link
Kennedy, G.
(1998) An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Kenny, D.
(2000) Translators at play: Exploitations of collocational norms in German-English translation. In B. Dodd (Ed.), Working with German Corpora (pp. 143–160). Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press.
KhosraviNik, M.
(2009) The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers during the Balkan conflict (1999) and the British general election (2005). Discourse & Society, 20(4), 477–498. Crossref link
Kilgarriff, A.
(2001) Comparing corpora. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 6(1), 97–133. Crossref link
(2005) Language is never, ever, ever, random. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 1(2), 263–275. Crossref link
Kitzinger, J.
(2009) Rape in the media. In M.A.H. Horvath & J.M. Brown (Eds.), Rape: Challenging Contemporary Thinking (pp. 74–98). Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
Kompisch, K. & Otto, F.
(2006) Teufel in Menschengestalt: Die Deutschen und ihre Serienmörder. Leipzig: Bastei Lübbe.
Kortmann, B.
(2005) English Linguistics: Essentials, Anglistik, Amerikanistik. Berlin: Cornelsen.
Kress, G. & Leeuwen, T. van
(1996) Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge. Crossref link
(2001) Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. London: Hodder Arnold. Crossref link
Kurtz, C.J. & Hunter, R.D.
(2004) Dark Truths: Enter the Twisted World of the Serial Killer. London: Virgin Books.
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M.
(2003) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Leech, G.
(1999) The distribution and function of vocatives in American and British English conversation. In H. Hasselgård & S. Oksefjell (Eds.), Out of Corpora: Studies in Honour of Stig Johansson (pp. 107–118). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
(2011) The modals ARE declining: Reply to Neil Millar’s “Modal verbs in TIME: Frequency changes 1923–2006”, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14:2 (2009), 191–220. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 16(4), 547–564. Crossref link
Leech, G. & Short, M.
(1981) Style in Fiction. London: Longman.
(2007) Style in Fiction (2nd edn.). London: Pearson Education.
Lemert, E.
(1951) Social Pathology: A Systematic Approach to the Theory of Sociopathic Behavior. New York, NY: Mcgraw-Hill. Crossref link
Lemnitzer, L. & Zinsmeister, H.
(2010) Korpuslinguistik: Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.
Levi, M., Maguire, M. & Brookman, F.
(2007) Violent crime. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (pp. 687–732). Oxford: OUP.
Levinson, S.C.
(1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: CUP.
Lippmann, W.
(1922) Public Opinion. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.
Loader, I. & Sparks, R.
(2011) Public Criminology? Abingdon: Routledge.
Löbner, S.
(1985) Definites. Journal of Semantics, 4(4), 279–326. Crossref link
(2011) Concept types and determination. Journal of Semantics, 28(3), 279–333. Crossref link
Lombroso, C.
(2006) Criminal Man. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Crossref link
Lombroso, C. & Ferrero, G.
(2004) Criminal Women, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman. Durham NC: Duke University Press. Crossref link
Louw, B.
(1993) Irony in the text or insincerity in the writer? The diagnostic potential of semantic prosodies. In M. Baker, G. Francis & E. Tognini-Bonelli (Eds.), Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair (157–176). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Machin, D.
(2007) Introduction to Multimodality. London: Arnold.
Machin, D. & Mayr, A.
(2012) How to do Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multimodal Introduction. London: Sage. Crossref link
(2013) Personalising crime and crime-fighting in factual television: An analysis of social actors and transitivity in language and images. Critical Discourse Studies, 10(4), 356–372. Crossref link
Mahlberg, M.
(2007) Clusters, key clusters and local textual functions in Dickens. Corpora, 2(1), 1–31. Crossref link
Mahlberg, M. & McIntyre, D.
(2011) A case for corpus stylistics: Ian Fleming’s Casino Royal . English Text Construction, 4(2), 204–227. Crossref link
Mason, P.
(2006) Lies, distortion and what doesn’t work: Monitoring prison stories in the British media. Crime, Media, Culture, 2(3), pp. 251–267. Crossref link
Mautner, G.
(2005) Time to get wired: Using web-based corpora in critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 6(6), 809–828. Crossref link
(2009) Checks and balances: How corpus linguistics can contribute to CDA. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (2nd edn., pp. 122–143). London: Sage.
Mawby, R.I. & Walklate, S.
(1994) Critical Victimology: International Perspectives. London: Sage. Crossref link
Maxwell, M.
(2010) Limitations of corpora. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 15(3), 379–383. Crossref link
Mayr, A.
(2008) Language and Power: An Introduction to Institutional Discourse. London: Continuum. Crossref link
(2012)  Chopper: From the inside: Discourses of the ‘celebrity’ criminal Mark Brandon Read. Language and Literature, 21(3), 260–273. Crossref link
Mayr, A. & Machin, D.
(2012) The Language of Crime and Deviance: An Introduction to Critical Linguistic Analysis in Media and Popular Culture. London: Continuum. Crossref link
Mazid, B.-e. M.
(2007) Presuppositions and strategic functions in Bush’s 20/9/2001 speech: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Journal of Language and Politics, 6(3), 351–375. Crossref link
McEnery, T.
(2006) Swearing in English: Bad Language, Purity and Power, 1586 to the Present. London: Routledge. Crossref link
(2009) Keywords and moral panics: Mary Whitehouse and media censorship. In D. Archer (Ed.), What’s in a Word-list? Investigating Word Frequency and Keyword Extraction (pp. 93–124). Surrey: Ashgate. Crossref link
McEnery, T. & Wilson, A.
(1996) Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction (2nd edn.). Edinburgh: EUP.
McEnery, T., Xiao, R. & Tono, Y.
(2006) Corpus-based Language Studies: An Advanced Resource Book. Abingdon: Routledge.
McGough, R.
(1979) Holiday on Death Row. London: Cape.
McIntyre, D.
(2010) Dialogue and characterization in Quentin Tarantino’s Reservoir Dogs: A corpus stylistic analysis. In D. McIntyre & B. Busse (Eds.), Language and Style (pp. 162–182). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
(2013) Corpora and literature. In C. Chappelle (Ed.), Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp. 1–6). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
McIntyre, D. & Walker, B.
(2010) How can corpora be used to explore the language of poetry and drama. In A. O’Keeffe & M. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics (pp. 516–530). Abingdon: Routledge. Crossref link
Miers, D.
(1989) Positivist victimology: A critique. International Review of Victimology, 1(1), 3–22. Crossref link
Millar, N.
(2009) Modal verbs in TIME. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14(2), 191–220. Crossref link
Miller, A.
(1983) Am Anfang war Erziehung. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch.
Moore, S.E.H.
(2014) Crime and the Media. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Crossref link
Mulderrig, J.
(2011) The grammar of governance. Critical Discourse Studies, 8(1), 45–68. Crossref link
(2012) Manufacturing consent: A corpus-based critical discourse analysis of New Labour’s educational governance. Journal of Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(6), 562–578. Crossref link
Mythen, G.
(2007) Cultural victimology: Are we all victims now? In S. Walklate (Ed.), Handbook of Victims and Victimology (pp. 464–483). Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
Nahajec, L.
(2009) Negation and the creation of implicit meaning in poetry. Language and Literature, 18(2), 109–127. Crossref link
Natarajan, M.
(Ed.) (2011) Crime Opportunity Theories. Farnham: Ashgate.
Newburn, T.
(2007) Criminology. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
O’Halloran, K.
(2007) Corpus-assisted literary evaluation. Corpora, 2(1), 33–63. Crossref link
O’Keefe, A., McCarthy, M.J. & Carter, R.A.
(2007) From Corpus to Classroom: Language Use and Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
O’Keeffe, A. & Breen, M.J.
(2007) At the hands of the brothers: A corpus-based lexico-grammatical analysis of stance in newspaper reporting of child sexual abuse cases. In J. Cotterill (Ed.), The Language of Sexual Crime (pp. 217–236). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
O’Malley, P.
(2000) Risk societies and the government of crime. In M. Brown & J. Pratt (Eds.), Dangerous Offenders: Punishment & Social Order (pp. 17–33). London: Routledge.
(2010) Crime and Risk. London: Sage.
Oakes, M.P.
(1998) Statistics for Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: EUP. Crossref link
Ohmann, R.
(1970a) Generative grammars and the concept of literary style. In Freeman, D.C. (Ed.), Linguistics and literary style (pp. 258–278). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
(1970b) Modes of order. In D.C. Freeman (Ed.), Linguistics and Literary Style (pp. 209–242). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
(1981) Speech, literature and the space between. In D.C. Freeman (Ed.), Essays in Modern Stylistics (pp. 361–376). London: Methuen & Co.
Page, R.
(2014) Counter narratives and controversial crimes: The Wikipedia article for the ‘Murder of Meredith Kercher’. Language and Literature, 23(1), 61–76. Crossref link
Partington, A.
(2010) Modern diachronic corpus-assisted discourse studies (MD-CADS) on UK newspapers: An overview of the project. Corpora, 5(2), 83–108. Crossref link
Parton, N. & O’Byrne, P.
(2000) Constructive Social Work: Towards a New Practice. Houndmills: Macmillan Press.
Peelo, M.
(2009) Framing homicide narratives in newspapers: Mediated witness and the construction of virtual victimhood. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Crime and Media (Vol. 2, pp. 143–157). London: Sage. Crossref link
Pfeiffer, C., Windzio, M. & Kleimann, M.
(2005) Media use and its impacts on crime perception, sentencing attitudes and crime policy. European Journal of Criminology, 2(3), 259–285. Crossref link
Pickering, M.
(2001) Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pollex, N.
(2008) Definiteness marking in English and German: A constrastive study. Universität Osnabrück, Osnabrück. http://​cogsci​.uni​-osnabrueck​.de​/~cl​/download​/BSc​_Pollex2008​.pdf
Quinney, R.
(1972) Who is the victim? Criminology, November, 309–329.
Quirk, R.
(1960) Towards a description of English usage. Transactions of the Philological Society, 40–61. Crossref link
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J.
(1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman. Crossref link
Rasinger, S.M.
(2010) ‘Lithuanian migrants send crime rocketing’: Representation of ‘new’ migrants in regional print media. Media, Culture & Society, 32(6), 1021–1030. Crossref link
Rayson, P.
(2008) From key words to key semantic domains. Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 13(4), 519–549. Crossref link
Rayson, P., Berridge, D. & Francis, B.
(2004) Extending the Cochran rule for the comparison of word frequencies between corpora. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Statistical analysis of textual data (JADT 2004), Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Rayson, P. & Garside, R.
(2000) Comparing corpora using frequency profiling. Paper presented at the 38th annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2000). Crossref link
Reeves, D.H. & Dunn, P.
(2010) The status of crime victims and witnesses in the twenty-first century. In A. Bottoms & J.V. Roberts (Eds.), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims and the State (pp. 46–71). Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crossref link
Reiner, R.
(2007) Media-made criminality: The representation of crime in the mass media. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (pp. 302–337). Oxford: OUP.
Reiner, R., Livingstone, S. & Allen, J.
(2003) From law and order to lynch mobs: Crime news since the Second World War. In P. Mason (Ed.), Criminal Visions: Media Representations of Crime and Justice (pp. 13–32). Devon: Willan Publishing.
Reisigl, M. & Wodak, R.
(2009) The discourse-historical approach (DHA). In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (2nd edn., pp. 87–121). London: Sage. Crossref link
Richardson, J.E.
(2007) Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Crossref link
Rissanen, M.
(2012) Corpora and the study of English historical syntax. In M. Kytö (Ed.), English Corpus Linguistics: Crossing Paths (pp. 197–220). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Rock, P.
(2004) Constructing Victim’s Rights: The Home Office, New Labour and Victims. Oxford: OUP. Crossref link
Rüger, B.
(2002) Test- und Schätztheorie (Vol. 2). Munich: R. Oldenbourg. Crossref link
Russell, P., Johnson, G. & Garofano, L.
(2010) Darkness Descending: The Murder of Meredith Kercher. London: Simon & Schuster UK.
Ryan, M.
(1991) Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press.
Saussure, F. de
(1986) Course in General Linguistics. Chicago, IL: Open Court.
Schegloff, E.
(1999a) Naivete vs sophistication or discipline vs self-indulgence: A rejoinder to Billig. Discourse & Society, 10(4), 577–578. Crossref link
(1999b) Schegloff’s texts as Billig’s data: A critical reply. Discourse & Society, 10(4), 558–572. Crossref link
Schiffrin, D.
(1994) Approaches to Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
Schmid, D.
(2005) Natural Born Celebrities: Serial Killers in American Culture. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Scott, M.
(2002) Picturing the key words of a very large corpus and their lexical upshots or getting at the Guardian’s view of the world. In B. Kettemann & G. Marko (Eds.), Teaching and Learning by Doing Corpus Analysis (pp. 43–50). Amsterdam: Rodopi. Crossref link
(2004) WordSmith Tools, version 4. Oxford: OUP.
(2009) In search of a bad reference corpus. In D. Archer (Ed.), What’s in a Word-list? Investigating Word Frequency and Keyword Extraction (pp. 79–91). Surrey: Ashgate.
Scott, M. & Tribble, C.
(2006) Textual Patterns: Key Words and Corpus Analysis in Language Education. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Semino, E.
(1997) Language and World Creation in Poems and Other Texts. Harlow: Longman.
Semino, E. & Short, M.
(2004) Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Shi-xu
(2005) A Cultural Approach to Discourse. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Short, M.
(1996) Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose. Essex: Pearson Education.
(2007) Thought presentation 25 years on. Style, 41(2), 227–257.
(2009) Language in Literature: Stylistics. In J. Culpeper, F. Katamba, P. Kerswill, R. Wodak, & T. McEnery (Eds.), English Language: Description, Variation and Context (pp. 464–476). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
(2012) Discourse presentation and speech (and writing, but not thought) summary. Language and Literature, 21(1), 18–32. Crossref link
Simpson, P.
(1993) Language, Ideology and Point of View. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Simpson, P. & Mayr, A.
(2010) Language and Power: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routlegde. Crossref link
Sinclair, J.
(1991) Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: OUP. Crossref link
(1997) Corpus evidence in language description. In A. Wichmann, S. Fligelstone, T. McEnery, & G. Knowles (Eds.), Teaching and Language Corpora. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.
(1998) The lexical item. In E. Weigand (Ed.), Contrastive Lexical Semantics (pp. 1–24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2003) Reading Concordances: An Introduction. Harlow: Pearson Education.
(2004) Trust the Text: Language, Corpus and Discourse. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Slobin, D.I.
(1994) Crosslinguistic aspects of child language acquisition. In J. Daigaku (Ed.), Sophia Linguistica Working Papers in Linguistics (Vol. 35, pp. 2–80). Tokyo: Tokyo University.
(Ed.) (1997) The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition: Expanding the Contexts (Vol. 5). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Crossref link
Smith, N. & McEnery, T.
(1998) Issues in transcribing a corpus of children’s handwritten projects. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 13(4), 217–225. Crossref link
Spitzmüller, J. & Warnke, I.H.
(2011) Diskurslinguistik: Eine Einführung in Theorien und Methoden der transtextuallen Sprachanalyse. Berlin: de Gruyter. Crossref link
Stanko, E.
(2000) Naturalising danger: Women, fear and personal safety. In M. Brown & J. Pratt (Eds.), Dangerous Offenders: Punishment & Social Order (pp. 147–163). London: Routledge.
Stelzl, I.
(1982) Fehler und Fallen der Statistik für Psychologen, Pädagogen und Sozialwissenschaftler. Münster: Waxmann. Crossref link
Stockwell, P. & Whiteley, S.
(Eds.) (2014) The Handbook of Stylistics. Cambridge: CUP. Crossref link
Stubbs, M.
(1996) Text and Corpus Analysis. Computer-assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
(1997) Whorf’s children: Critical comments on Critical Discours Analysis (CDA). In A. Ryan & A. Wray (Eds.), Evolving Models of Language: Papers from the Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics held at the University of Wales, Swansea, September 1996 (pp. 100–116). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
(2001) Words and Phrases. Corpus Studies of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
(2005) Conrad in the computer: Examples of quantitative stylistic methods. Language and Literature, 14(1), 5–24. Crossref link
Suhr, S. & Johnson, S.
(2003) Re-visiting ‘PC’: Introduction to special issue on ‘political correctness’. Discourse & Society, 14(1), 5–16. Crossref link
Surette, R.
(1998) Media, Crime, and Criminal Justice: Images and Realities (2nd edn.). Belmont: Wadsworth. Crossref link
(2009) The entertainment media and the social construction of crime and justice. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Crime and Media: Media Representations of Crime and Criminal Justice (Vol. 2, pp. 239–268). London: Sage. Crossref link
Svartvik, J.
(1996) Corpora are becoming mainstream. In J. Thomas & M. Short (Eds.), Using Corpora for Language Research (pp. 3–13). Essex: Longman.
Tabbert, U.
(2010) Review of Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse, Edited by A. Mayr 2008 London: Continuum. Language and Literature, 19(2), 224–226. Crossref link
(2012) Crime through a corpus: The linguistic construction of offenders in the British press. In C. Gregoriou (Ed.), Constructing Crime: Discourse and Cultural Representations of Crime and ‘Deviance’ (pp. 130–144). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
(2013) Crime through a Corpus: The Linguistic Construction of Offenders, Victims and Crimes in the German and UK Press. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Huddersfield. http://​eprints​.hud​.ac​.uk​/id​/eprint​/18078
Tannenbaum, F.
(1938) Crime and the Community. New York, NY: Ginn & Co.
Taylor, S.
(2008) Outside the outsiders: Media representations of drug use. Probation Journal, 55(4), 369–387. Crossref link
Teo, P.
(2000) Racism in the news: A critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers. Discourse & Society, 11(1), 7–49. Crossref link
Teubert, W.
(2005) My version of corpus linguistics. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 10(1), 1–13. Crossref link
Thomas, J.
(1995) Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. Essex: Pearson Education.
Thompson, J.B.
(1984) Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Crossref link
Tierney, J.
(2010) Criminology: Theory and Context (3rd edn.). Harlow: Person Education.
Timor, U. & Weiss, J.M.
(2008) Sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic indications of behavior disorders: Analysis of a prisoner’s discourse. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(1), 112–126. Crossref link
Tognini-Bonelli, E.
(2001) Corpus Linguistics at Work. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Ungerer, F. & Schmid, H.-J.
(2006) An Introduction to Cognitive Linguistics (2nd edn.). Harlow: Pearson Education.
Van Dijk, T.A.
(1985) Structures of news in the press. In T.A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse and Communication (pp. 69–93). Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
(1988) News as Discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(1993) Elite Discourse and Rasicm. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Crossref link
(2003) The discourse-knowledge interface. In G. Weiss & R. Wodak (Eds.), Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
(2006) Discourse and manipulation. Discourse & Society, 17(3), 359–383. Crossref link
(2009) Critical discourse studies: A sociocognitive approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (2nd edn., pp. 62–86). London: Sage. Crossref link
(2010) Critical discourse analysis. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H.E. Hamilton (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 352–371). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
(2011) Discourse studies and hermeneutics. Discourse Studies, 13(5), 609–621. Crossref link
Van Leeuwen, T.
(1996) The representation of social actors. In C.R. Caldas-Coulthard & M. Coulthard (Eds.), Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 32–70). London: Routledge. Crossref link
(2009) Discourse as the recontextualization of social practice: A guide. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (2nd edn., pp. 144–161). London: Sage. Crossref link
Viana, V., Zyngier, S. & Barnbrook, G.
(Eds.) (2011) Perspectives on Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Waddington, P.
(1986) Mugging as a moral panic: A question of proportion. British Journal of Sociology, 37(2), 245–259. Crossref link
Walker, B.
(2010) Wmatrix, key concepts and the narrators in Julian Barnes’s Talking It Over . In D. McIntyre & B. Busse (Eds.), Language and Style: In Honour of Mick Short (pp. 364–387). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Walklate, S.
(2007a) Imagining the Victim of Crime. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Crossref link
(2007b) Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates (3rd edn.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Weiss, G. & Wodak, R.
(Eds.) (2003) Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Werth, P.
(1999) Text Worlds: Representing Conceptual Space in Discourse. Harlow: Pearson Education. Crossref link
Whorf, B.L.
(1956) Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, J.B. Carroll (Ed.). New York, NY: Wiley. Crossref link
Widdowson, H.
(1995a) Discourse analysis: A critical view. Language and Literature, 4(3), 157–172. Crossref link
(1995b) Review of Fairclough: Discourse and social change . Applied Linguistics, 16(4), 510–516. Crossref link
(1996) Reply to Fairclough: Discourse and interpretation: Conjectures and refutations. Language and Literature, 5(1), 57–69. Crossref link
(1998) The theory of practice of critical discourse analysis. Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 136–151. Crossref link
Wilks, S.S.
(1962) Mathematical Statistics. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Crossref link
Williams, B.
(2005) Victims of Crime and Community Justice. London: Jessica Kingsley. Crossref link
Wodak, R.
(2001) What CDA is about – a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. Crossref link
(2006) Mediation between discourse and society: Assessing cognitive approaches in CDA. Discourse Studies, 8(1), 179–190. Crossref link
(2007) Turning the tables: Anti-semitic discourse in post-war Austria. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse Studies (Vol. V, pp. 250–375). London: Sage.
(2012) Language, power and identity. Language Teaching, 45(2), 215–233. Crossref link
Wodak, R. & Meyer, M.
(2009) Critical discourse analysis: History, agenda, theory and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. Crossref link
Woolf, B.
(1957) The log-likelihood ratio test (the G-test). Annals of Human Genetics, 21(4), 397–409. Crossref link
Wright, M.
(2008a) Making Good: Prisons, Punishment and Beyond. Hook: Waterside Press.
(2008b) Restoring Respect for Justice (2nd edn.). Hook: Waterside Press.
Xiao, Z. & McEnery, T.
(2005) Two approaches to genre analysis: Three genres in modern American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 33(1), 62–82. Crossref link
Zhang, H., Chilton, P., He, Y. & Jing, W.
(2011) Critique across cultures: Some questions for CDA. Critical Discourse Studies, 8(2), 95–107. Crossref link
Erratum

Erratum

Due to a mishap in the first printing of Crime and Corpus, Figure 6.1 on Page 92 contained a number of black circles, obscuring the text. Here is the page with the figure as it should be.

Subjects

Communication Studies

Communication Studies

Literature & Literary Studies

Theoretical literature & literary studies
BIC Subject: CFG – Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014047075