Language Proficiency in Native and Non-native Speakers

Theory and research

| University of Amsterdam
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027213242 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
 
PaperbackAvailable
ISBN 9789027213259 | EUR 33.00 | USD 49.95
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027269027 | EUR 95.00/33.00*
| USD 143.00/49.95*
 
This book, written for both seasoned and novice researchers, presents a theory of what is called Basic and Higher Language Cognition (BLC and HLC), a theory aimed at making some fundamental issues concerning first and second language learning and bilingualism (more) empirical. The first part of the book provides background for and explication of the theory as well as an agenda for future research, while the second part reports on selected studies of language proficiency in native speakers, as well as non-native speakers, and studies of the relationship between literacy in a first and second language. Conceptual and methodological problems in measuring language proficiency in research on second language acquisition and bilingualism are also discussed. Further, the notion of levels of language proficiency, as rendered by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), is critically examined, suggesting ways of empirically investigating a number of questions that the CEFR raises but is not capable of answering.
[Language Learning & Language Teaching, 41]  2015.  xi, 195 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Foreword
ix–xi
Part I. Theory
Chapter 1. Scientific inquiry
3–10
Chapter 2. Language acquisition and the need for a theory of language proficiency
11–18
Chapter 3. BLC-HLC Theory: Language proficiency in native speakers
19–36
Chapter 4. BLC-HLC Theory: Language proficiency in non-native speakers
37–50
Chapter 5. BLC-HLC Theory: Summary and discussion of Part One
51–56
Part II. Research
Chapter 6. Language proficiency of native speakers: Commonalities and differences
59–80
Chapter 7. Components of language proficiency
81–114
Chapter 8. Interdependence of L1 and L2 literacy
115–132
Chapter 9. Measuring language proficiency in research on L2 acquisition and bilingualism
133–141
Chapter 10. Levels of language proficiency in scales of educational assessment
143–155
Epilogue
157–158
References
159–179
Appendix 1
181–186
Person index
187–190
Subject index
191–195
“This book by an eminent applied linguist and scholar intends to encourage a dialogue about the nature of first, second and foreign language proficiency. I strongly recommend it to anybody interested in the similarities and differences between a native and a so-called non-native command of language, in how such command develops, how it is acquired, learned and used. It is not a textbook nor is it a balanced review of the literature. It is avowedly not neutral. Rather it expresses the author’s personal, biased views on the topic. That is not a criticism of the volume, far from it: it is deliberately provocative. Indeed, even the use and meaning of the term “non-native” is controversial and vague. As a consequence, the reader is challenged to decide what their own position is on the issues and positions discussed. This is a must-have book for applied linguists, second language researchers and assessors, indeed for anybody interested in empirical research into language teaching and assessment. Let the debate begin!”
“Readers will find in this book a fascinating journey through age (and critical periods), usage (and Zipfian distributions), individual differences (and literate and multiregister language repertoires), and nativeness (and bilingualism). Hulstijn’s seminal, original theory of language proficiency opens up tantalizing new insights into most Trojan horses of contemporary language acquisition research!”
“This book provides an excellent introduction to the topic of language proficiency and some of the recent work that has been done to attempt to measure it. It is sure to be useful to both beginning and experienced students or researchers in linguistics, and especially those who are looking for alternative ways to measure proficiency that do not ignore the concept of native language proficiency when thinking about non-native users.”
“Even though the topic areas are intricate and complex, it is difficult for readers to feel lost or academically misguided, because Hulstijn is very good at presenting facts and theory, summarising empirical studies, and putting forward methodological and conceptual problems, keeping the reader consistently on the track of his argument. He manages to present different approaches in an explanatory manner and bring them together in a conciliatory way that minimises confusion. The book should be considered as a seminal work for the presentation and analysis of complex phenomena such as language proficiency. Hulstijn, with his high academic style, has managed to present all the facets of a complicated linguistic phenomenon in a way that invites sober and well-rounded academic debate.”
“The book provides an excellent introduction to a theory of language proficiency. The concepts of BLC [Basic Language Cognition] and HLC [Higher Language Cognition] discussed extensively in this book are accessible to teachers and non-academics, as well as graduate students and researchers. Although the BLC-HLC is well thought out and grounded in the author’s own research, he humbly accepts that it is not the endpoint of the theory, stating, “I hope that empirical research will bring about an early ‘expiration date’ of BLC-HLC Theory” (p. 158). On the whole, the book reads well with a comprehensive overview of the theories, definitions of key concepts, detailed explanations of the related models, and comparisons with earlier models. The author is very thorough in the description of his own theory, clarifying the differences from the earlier models proposed by other researchers and his own models that are based on his earlier work. In other words, he clearly positions the BLC-HLC theory in the current theoretical discussions on language acquisition. His careful attempt to guide the reader through the chapters toward his own theory indicates his scholarship, which he has devoted to the enquiry of unveiling native and non-native proficiency for many years.”
“The most noteworthy contribution of this book is that it provides a new perspective on language proficiency for L1 acquisition, L2 acquisition, and bilingualism. As the author notes, the BLC-HLC [Basic Language Cognition-Higher Language Cognition] theory does not aim to serve as a fixed theory for language proficiency, but as a hermeneutic and strategic tool which can be falsified to increase the researchers' insight into the fundamental issues of language acquisition. At the same time, in line with Popper's (1959) view of critical rationalism, the book not only focuses on theoretical issues, but also endeavours to examine and address the issues with the proposed theory. One example of this is the critical examination of the CEFR [Common European Framework of Reference for Languages] levels of language proficiency and the attempt to investigate the issue with the BLC-HLC theory in Chapter 10. In addition, the book provides not only a systematic review of conceptual/theoretical issues on language proficiency, but critical reviews of methodological issues concerning empirical research in the area. Based on the reviews, it also gives suggestions for future research on various topics regarding language proficiency. In these terms, the book may serve both as an introductory book to researchers new to the area and as a reference to veteran researchers in the area.”
References

References

Aarnoutse, C.A.J., & Van Leeuwen, J.F.J.
(1988) Het belang van technisch lezen, woordenschat en ruimtelijke intelligentie voor begrijpend lezen [The importance of decoding, vocabulary, and spatial intelligence for reading comprehension]. Pedagogische Studiën, 65, 49–59.
Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K.
(2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249–306. Crossref link
Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S.F., & Perani, D.
(2001) The bilingual brain as revealed by functional neuroimaging. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 179–190. Crossref link
Alderson, J.C.
(1984) Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem? In J.C. Alderson & A.H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language (pp. 1–27). London: Longman.
2000Assessing Reading. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2005) Diagnosing foreign language proficiency: The interface between learning and assessment. London: Continuum.
(2007) The CEFR and the need for more research. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 659–663. Crossref link
Alderson, J.C., Bastien, S., & Madrazo, A-M.
(1977) A Comparison of Reading Comprehension in English and Spanish. Research and Development Unit Report 9, mimeo. Mexico City: UNAM.
Alderson, J.C., & Kremmel, B.
(2013) Re-examining the content validation of a grammar test: The (im)possibility of distinguishing vocabulary and structural knowledge. Language Testing, 30, 535–556. Crossref link
Alexander, P.A., Schallert, D.L., & Hare, V.C.
(1991) Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 61, 315–343. Crossref link
Anderson, J.
(1980) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. New York, NY: Freeman.
Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N., Van Beuningen, C., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.
(2012) Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: An individual differences approach. Language Learning, 62[Supplement], 49–78. Crossref link
Anglin, J.M.
(1993) Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58. Crossref link
Ardasheva, Y., Tretter, T.R., & Kinny, M.
(2012) English language learners and academic achievement: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis. Language Learning, 62, 769–812. Crossref link
Aron, H.
(1978) Comparing reading comprehension in Spanish and English by adult Hispanics entering a two-year college. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Language Proficiency and Language Dominance Testing, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, September 1978.
Baayen, R.H., Piepenbrock, R. & Gulikers, L.
(1995) The CELEX Lexical Database (CD-ROM). Philadelphia, PA: Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania.
Bachman, L.F.
(1990a) Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(1990b) Constructing measures and measuring constructs. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 26–38). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2009) Generalizability and research use arguments. In K. Ercikan & W.-M. Roth (Eds.), Generalizing from Educational Research: Beyond the Quantitative-qualitative Opposition (pp. 127–148). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bachman, L.F., & Cohen, A.D.
(Eds.) (1998) Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bachman, L.F., & Palmer, A.S.
(1982) The construct validation of some components of communicative proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 449–465. Crossref link
(1996) Language Testing in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bae, J., & Bachman, L.F.
(1998) A latent variable approach to listening and reading: Testing factorial invariance across two groups of children in the Korean/English Two-Way Immersion Program. Language Testing, 15, 380–414.Crossref link
Baley, R., & Lucas, C.
(Eds.) (2007) Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bartholomew, D.J.
(2004) Measuring Intelligence: Facets and Fallacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bartning, I., Martin, M., & Vedder, I.
(Eds.) Communicative Proficiency and Linguistic Development: Intersections between SLA and Language Testing Research. Eurosla Monographs Series, 1. http://​eurosla​.org​/monographs​/EM01​/EM01home​.html
Bates, E., & MacWhinney, B.
(1989) Functionalism and the Competition Model. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 3–73). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, E., Dale, P.S., & Thal, A.D.
(1995) Individual differences and their implications for theories of language development. In P. Fletcher & B. MacWhinney (Eds.), The Handbook of Child Language (pp. 96–151). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Battaglia, F.P., Borensztajn, G., & Bod, R.
(2012) Structured cognition and neural systems: From rats to language. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1626–1639. Crossref link
Berman, R.
(2007) Developing linguistic knowledge and language use across adolescence. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Language Development (pp. 347–367). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Crossref link
Berman, R.A., Slobin, D.I., & Aksu-Koç, A.
(1994)Relating Events in Narrative. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bernhardt, E., & Kamil, M.L.
(1995) Interpreting relationships between L1 and L2 reading: Consolidating the Linguistic Threshold and the Linguistic Interdependence Hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 16, 15–34. Crossref link
Bernhardt, E.B.
(2011) Understanding Advanced Second-language Reading. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bernstein, B.
(1971) Class, Codes and Control. Vol. 1: Theoretical Studies towards a Sociology of Language. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan. Crossref link
(1972) Social class, language and socialization. In P.P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social context: Selected readings (pp. 157–78). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Berwick, R.C., Friederici, A.D., Chomsky, C., & Bolhuis, J.J.
(2012) Evolution, brain, and the nature of language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 89–98. Crossref link
Bialystok, E.
(1978) A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning, 28, 69–83. Crossref link
(1982) On the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms. Applied Linguistics, 3, 181–206. Crossref link
(1986) Factors in the growth of linguistic awareness. Child Development, 57, 498–510. Crossref link
(1991) Metalinguistic dimensions of bilingual language proficiency. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processing in Bilingual Children (pp. 113–166). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2001) Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K.F., & Yang, S.
(2010) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525–531. Crossref link
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E.
(1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.
Biber, D., Reppen, R., & Conrad, S.
(2002) Developing linguistic literacy: Perspectives from corpus linguistics and multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of Child Language, 29, 449–488. Crossref link
Birdsong, D.
(2005) On the limits of attainments in late L2A. Presentation given at the 2005 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics.
(2006) Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language Learning, 56(Supplement), 7–49. Crossref link
Birdsong, D., & Gertken, L.M.
(2013) In faint praise of folly: A critical review of native/non-native speaker comparisons, with examples from native and bilingual processing of French complex syntax. Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 4, 107–133. Crossref link
Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W.
(Eds.) 2006Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (6th ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bloomfield, L.
(1933) Language. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bongaerts, T., van Summeren, C., Planken, B., & Schils, E.
(1997) Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 447–465. Crossref link
Borensztajn, G., Zuidema, W., & Bod, R.
(2009) Children’s grammars grow more abstract with age – Evidence from an automatic procedure for identifying the productive units of language. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 175–188. Crossref link
Borsboom, D.
(2006) The attack of the psychometricians. Psychometrika, 71, 425–440. Crossref link
Borsboom, D., & Markus, K.A.
(2013) Truth and evidence in validity theory. Journal of Educational Measurement, 50, 110–114. Crossref link
Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G.J., & Van Heerden, J.
(2004)The concept of validity. Psychological Review, 111, 1061–1071. Crossref link
Bossers, B.
(1991) On thresholds, ceilings and short-circuits: The relation between L1 reading, L2 reading and L2 knowledge. AILA Review, 8, 45–60.
Brindley, G.
(1998) Describing language development? Rating scales and SLA. In L.F. Bachman & A.D. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research (pp. 112–140). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brisbois, J.L.
(1995) Connection between first and second language reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27, 565–584.Crossref link
Brown, R.
(1958) Words and Things. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Buck, G.
(2001) Assessing Listening. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Bybee, J.
(2006) From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language, 82, 711–733. Crossref link
Byrnes, H.
(2007) Developing national language education policies: Reflections on the CEFR. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 679–685. Crossref link
Canale, M., & Swain, M.
(1980) Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1–47. Crossref link
Carey, S.T., & Cummins, J.
(1979) English and French achievement of grade 5 children from English and mixed French-English home backgrounds attending the Edmonton Separate School System English-French immersion program. Report submitted to the Edmonton Separate School System.
Carrell, P.L.
(1991) Second language reading: Reading ability or language proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 12, 159–179. Crossref link
Carroll, J.B.
(1961/1972) Fundamental considerations in testing for English language proficiency of foreign students. In Testing the English Proficiency of Foreign Students (1961). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Reprinted in Allen, H.B., & Campbell, R.N. (Eds.). 1972. Teaching English as a Second Language: A Book of Readings (pp. 313–320). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
(1981) Consciousness and automatic processes in language learning. Canadian Mondern Language Review, 37, 462–474.
(1983) Psychometric theory and language testing. In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.) (1993) Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 80–105). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
(1993) Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-analytic Studies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Carroll, J.B., & Sapon, S.
(1959) Modern Language Aptitude Test – Form A. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.
Carson, J.E., Carrell, P.L., Silberstein, S., Kroll, B., & Kuehn, P.A.
(1990) Reading-writing relationships in a first and second language. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 245–266. Crossref link
Cattell, R.B.
(1971) Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action. Oxford, UK: Houghton Mifflin.
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Central Bureau of statistics)
(2001) Standaard Beroepenclassificatie (Standard classification of professions). Voorburg/Heerlen, Netherlands.
Chalhoub-Deville, M.
(1997) Theoretical models, assessment frameworks and test construction. Language Testing, 14, 3–22. Crossref link
Chapelle, C.A.
(1998) Construct definition and validity inquiry in SLA research. In L.F. Bachman & A. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research (pp. 32–70). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, J.
(2011) Language assessment: Its development and future – An interview with Lyle F. Bachman. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 277–290. Crossref link
Chipere, N.
(2001) Native speaker variations in syntactic competence: Implications for first language teaching. Language Awareness, 10, 107–124. Crossref link
Chomsky, N.
(1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
(1968) Language and Mind. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovitch. Crossref link
(1976) Reflections on Language. London: Temple Smith.
(1981) Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2007) Biolinguistic explorations: Design, development, evolution. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 15, 1–21. Crossref link
Clarke, M.A.
(1979) Reading in Spanish and English: Evidence from ESL students. Language Learning, 29, 121–150. Crossref link
Conway, A.R.A., Jarrold, C., Kane, M.J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J.N.
(2007) Variation in working memory. In A.R.A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M.J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J.N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in Working Memory (pp. 3–17). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cook, V.J.
(1991) The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence. Second Language Research, 7, 103–17. Crossref link
(2003) Background to the L2 user. In V.J. Cook (Ed.). Portraits of the L2 User (pp. 1–28). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(Ed.) (2003) Effects of the L2 on the L1. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2010) Prolegomena to second language learning. In P. Seedhouse, S. Walsh, & C. Jenks (Eds.), Conceptualising Language Learning (pp. 6–22). Houndmills, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
(2012) Multi-competence. In C.A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
. (in preparation). Multi-competence premises. Crossref link
Council of Europe
(2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press & Council of Europe.
Craik, F.I.M., & Salthouse, T.A.
(Eds.) (2008)The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Croft, W.
(1995) Autonomy and functionalist linguistics. Language, 71, 490–532. Crossref link
Croft, W., & Cruse, D.A.
(2004) Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Cumming, A.
(1989) Writing expertise and second-language proficiency. Language Learning, 39, 81–141. Crossref link
Cumming, A. & Riazi, A.
(2000) Building models of adult second-language writing instruction. Learning and Instruction, 10, 55–71. Crossref link
Cummins, J.
(1978) Educational implications of mother tongue maintenance in minority-language groups. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 395–416.
(1979) Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222–251. Crossref link
(1980a) The construct of language proficiency in bilingual education. In J.E. Alatis (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 1980 (pp. 81–103). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
(1980b) The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 175–187. Crossref link
(1984) Bilingualism and special eduction: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(1991a) Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processing in Bilingual Children (pp. 70–89). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(1991b) Conversational and academic language proficiency in bilingual contexts. AILA Review, 8, 75–89.
Cummins, J., & Swain, M.
(1986) Bilingualism in Education. London: Longman.
Cunninham, A.E., Stanovich, K.E., & Wilson, M.R.
(1990) Cognitive variation in adult college students differing in reading ability. In T.H. Carr & B.A. Levy (Eds.), Reading and its Development, (pp. 129–160), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cutler, A.
(2012) Native Listening: Language Experience and the Recognition of Spoken Words. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Dąbrowska, E.
(1997) The LAD goes to school: A cautionary tale for nativists. Linguistics, 35, 735–766. Crossref link
(2008a) The later development of an early-emerging system: The curious case of the Polish genitive. Linguistics, 46, 629–650. Crossref link
(2008b) The effects of frequency and neighbourhood density on adult speakers’ productivity with Polish case infiections: An empirical test of usage-based approaches to morphology. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 931–951. Crossref link
(2010) Naive v. expert intuitions: An empirical study of acceptability judgments. The Linguistic Review, 27, 1–23. Crossref link
(2012a) Response to the commentaries: Explaining individual differences in linguistic proficiency. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 324–335. Crossref link
(2012b) Different speakers, different grammars: Individual differences in native language attainment. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 219–253. Crossref link
Dąbrowska, E., & Street, J.
(2006) Individual differences in language attainment: Comprehension of passive sentences by native and non-native Englisb speakers. Language Sciences, 28, 604–615. Crossref link
Dąbrowska, E., & Szczerbinski, M.
(2006) Polish children’s productivity with case marking: The role of regularity, type frequency, and phonological coherence. Journal of Child Language, 33, 559–597. Crossref link
Daller, M.H., Yldiz, C., & de Jong, N.H.
(2011) Language dominance in Turkish-German bilinguals: Methodological aspects of measurements in structurally different languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 215–236. Crossref link
Dalton-Puffer, C., Nikula, T., & Smit, U.
(2010) Language use and language learning in CLIL classrooms. Amsterdam : John Benjamins. Crossref link
Damico, J.S., Müller, N., & Ball, M.J.
(Eds.) (2010) The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders. Chichester, UK : Wiley-Blackwell. Crossref link
Darwin, C.
(1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, (1st ed.). London: John Murray.
Davies, A.
(2003) The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
(2011) Does language testing need the native speaker? Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 291–308. Crossref link
Davies, A., & Elder, C.
(2005) Validity and validation in language testing. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 795–813). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
De Bot, C.L.J., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M.
(2007) A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7–21. Crossref link
De Bot, K., & Schrauf, R.W.
(Eds.) (2009)Language Development over the Lifespan. New York, NY: Routledge.
De Groot, A.M.B.
(2011) Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Multilinguals. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
De Jong, J.H.A.L.
(2004) Comparing the Psycholinguistic and the Communicative Paradigm of Language Proficiency. Presentation given at international workshop “Psycholinguistic and psychometric aspects of language assessment in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages”. University of Amsterdam, 13–14 February, 2004.
De Jong, N.H., Groenhout, R., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2013) L2 fluency: Speaking style or proficiency? Correcting measures of L2 fluency for L1 behavior. Applied Psycholinguistics. Published online 11 March 2013. Crossref link
De Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., Florijn, A.F., Schoonen, R. & Hulstijn J.H.
(2012) Facets of speaking proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 5–34. Crossref link
De Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., Florijn, A., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2013) Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 893–916. Crossref link
De Saussure, F.
(1916) Cours de linguistique générale, edited by C. Bally & A. Sechehaye, with the collaboration of A. Riedlinger. Lausanne: Payot.
Decoo, W.
(2011) Systemization in Foreign Language Teaching: Monitoring Content Progression. New York NY: Routledge.
DeKeyser, R.M.
(2012) Individual differences in native language attainment and their implications for research on second language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 260–268. Crossref link
Donaldson, M.
(1978) Children’s Minds. Glasgow, UK: Collins.
Dufva, M., & Voeten, M.J.M.
(1999) Native language literacy and phonological memory as prerequisites for learning English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 329–348. Crossref link
Dunn, A.L., & Fox Tree, J.E.
(2009) A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 273–289. Crossref link
Edelsky, C.
(1982) Writing in a bilingual program: The relation of L1 and L2 texts. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 211–228. Crossref link
Ellis, N.C.
(2008) The dynamics of second language emergence: Cycles of language use, language change, and language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 92, 232–249. Crossref link
(2012) Variable competence. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 264–268. Crossref link
Ellis, N.C., & Larsen-Freeman, D.
(Eds.) (2006) Language emergence: Implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 27(4). (special issue). Crossref link
Ellis, N.C. & Robinson, P.
(2008) An introduction to cognitive linguistics, second language acquisition, and language instruction. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 30–24). New York, NY: Routledge.
Ellis, R.
(2005) Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141–172. Crossref link
Engelen, J.
(2009) First and Second Language Listening Ability in Noise: A Within-subject Comparison. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Amsterdam.
Escudero, P., & Sharwood Smith, M.
(2001) Reinventing the native speaker: Or “What you never wanted to know about the native speaker so never dared to ask”. EUROSLA Yearbook, 1, 275–286. Crossref link
Evans, N., & Levinson, S.C.
(2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 429–448. Crossref link
Favreau, M., & Segalowitz, N.S.
(1982) Second language reading in fluent bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 329–341. Crossref link
Ferreira, F.
(2003) The misinterpretation of noncanonical sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 47, 164–203. Crossref link
Ferreira, F., Henderson, J.M., Anes, M.D., Weeks, P.A., & McFarlane, D.K.
(1996) Effects of lexical frequency and syntactic complexity in spoken-language comprehension: Evidence from the auditory moving-window technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 324–335. Crossref link
Field, A.
(2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS, (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Field, J.
(Ed.) (2008) Listening. System, 36(1). (special issue).
Figueras, N.
(2012) The impact of the CEFR. ELT Journal, 66, 477–485. Crossref link
Fitch, K.L., & Sanders, R.E.
(Eds.) (2005) Handbook of Language and Social Interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fitch, W.T., Hauser, M.D., & Chomsky, N.
(2005) The evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition, 97, 179–210. Crossref link
Flower, L.S. & Hayes, J.R.
(1981) A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365–387. Crossref link
Fraser, C.A.
(2007) Reading rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across five reading tasks. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 372–394. Crossref link
Fukkink, R.G., Hulstijn, J., & Simis, A.
(2005) Does training of second-language word recognition skills affect reading comprehension? An experimental study. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 54–75. Crossref link
Gauvin, H.S., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2010) Exploring a new technique for comparing bilinguals L1 and L2 reading speed. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22, 84–103.
Geva, E., & Ryan, E.B.
(1993) Linguistic and cognitive correlates of academic skills in first and second languages. Language Learning, 43, 5–42. Crossref link
Gibson, J.J.
(1941) A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 38, 781–817. Crossref link
Givón, T.
(1999) Generativity and variation: The notion ‘rule of grammar’ revisited. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), The Emergence of Language (pp. 81–114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2001) Syntax, Vol. I. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Gleitman, L.R., & Gleitman, H.
(1970) Phrase and Paraphrase: Some Innovative Uses of Language. New York, NY: Norton & Company.
Goldberg, A.E.
(1995) Constructions. A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
(2003) Constructions: A new theoretical approach to language. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 219–224. Crossref link
(2006) Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Goldman-Eisler, F.
(1968) Psycholinguistics: Experiments in Spontaneous Speech. London: Academic Press.
Goldschneider, J.M., & DeKeyser, R.M.
(2001) Explaining the “Natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning, 51, 1–50. Crossref link
Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E.
(1983) The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Philadelphia: Lea & Fébiger.
Goodman, K.S.
(1971) Psycholinguistic universals in the reading process. In P. Pimsleur & T. Quinn (Eds.), The Psychology of Second Language Learning (pp. 135–142). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gottfredson, L.S.
(1998) The general intelligence factor. Scientific American Presents, 9, 24–29.
Grabe, W.
(2009) Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R.B.
(1996) Theory & Practice of Writing. An Applied Linguistic Perspective. London: Longman.
Grabe, W. & Stoller, F.L.
(2011) Teaching and Researching Reading, (2nd ed.). New York NY: Longman.
Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Chorzempa, B.F.
(2002) Contribution of spelling instruction to the spelling, writing, and reading of poor spellers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 669–686. Crossref link
Granena, G., & Long, M.
(Eds.) (2013) Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Grosjean, F.
(1989) Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain & Language, 36, 3–15. Crossref link
(1998) Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 131–149. Crossref link
Grosjean, F., Li, P., Munte, T.F., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A.
(2003) Imaging bilinguals: When the neurosciences meet the language sciences. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 159–165. Crossref link
Gu, L.
(2014) At the interface between language testing and second language acquisition: Language ability and context of learning. Language Testing, 31, 111–133. Crossref link
Guilford, J.P.
(1971) The Nature of Human Intelligence. London: McGraw-Hill.
Hacquebord, H.
(1989) Tekstbegrip van Turkse en Nederlandse leerlingen in het voortgezet onderwijs. [Text comprehension in Turkish and Dutch high school students.] Unpublished PhD dissertation, Groningen University.
Halliday, M.A.L., & Hasan, R.
(1978) Cohesion in English. London, UK: Longman.
Harley, B., Cummins, J., Swain, M., & Allen, P.
(1990) The nature of language proficiency. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 7–38). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M.
(1992) L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38. Crossref link
Hawkins, J.A., & Filipović, L.
(2012) Critical Features in L2 English. Specifying the Reference Levels of the Common European Framework. English Profile Studies 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, J.R.
(2006) New directions in writing theory. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 28–40). New York NY: Guilford.
Hazenberg, S., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(1996) Defining a minimal receptive second-language vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation. Applied Linguistics, 17, 145–163. Crossref link
Hellinger, M., & Pauwels, A.
(Eds.) (2007) Handbook of Language and Communication: Diversity and Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Hemphill, L.
(2011) Orality and literacy in sociolinguistics. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics (pp. 70–82). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Higgs, T.V., & Clifford, R.
(1982) The push toward communication. In T.V. Higgs (Ed.), Curriculum, Competence and the Foreign Language Teacher (pp. 243–265). Skokie, IL: National Textbook Company.
Hoff, E.
(2006) How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26, 55–88. Crossref link
Hopper, P.J.
(1998) Emergent grammar. In M. Tomasello (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure (pp. 155–176). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M.
(1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H.
(1983) Communicative Skills of Young Second Language Learners: Issues in Coding Speech Data from Face-to-face Conversations. Report prepared in the framework of the Development of Bilingual Proficiency Project, for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
(2007) The shaky ground beneath the CEFR: Quantitative and qualitative dimensions of language proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 663–667. Crossref link
(2010a) Measuring second language proficiency. In E. Blom & S. Unsworth (Eds.), Experimental Methods in Language Acquisition Research (pp. 185–199). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(2010b) Linking L2 proficiency to L2 acquisition: Opportunities and challenges of profiling research. In I. Bartning, M. Martin & I. Vedder (Eds.), Communicative Proficiency and Linguistic Development: Intersections between SLA and Language Testing Research (pp. 233–238). Eurosla Monographs Series, 1. http://​eurosla​.org​/monographs​/EM01​/EM01home​.html
(2011a) Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 229–249. Crossref link
(2011b) Explanations of associations between L1 and L2 literacy skills. In M.S. Schmid & W. Lowie (Eds.), Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos (pp. 85–111). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.
(2011c) Foreign-language syllabus design and the Common European Framework for Languages in revolutionary times: 1971–2001. In M. Simons & J. Colpaert (Eds.), Peer Perspectives on Systemization. A Book Review of Wilfried Decoo’s Systemization in Foreign Language Teaching (pp. 87–96). Antwerpen: Universiteit Antwerpen.
Hulstijn, J.H.
(2012a) The construct of language proficiency in the study of bilingualism from a cognitive perspective. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 422–433. Crossref link
(2012b) Different speakers but same language acquisition device? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 273–276. Crossref link
(2013) Is the second language acquisition discipline disintegrating? Language Teaching, 46, 511–517. Crossref link
. (in press). Implicit and explicit second-language acquisition: The virtues and pitfalls of a two-system view. In P. Rebuschat (Ed.) Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. Amsterdam: John Banjamins.
Hulstijn, J.H., & Andringa, S.
(2014) The effects of age and level of education on the ability of adult native speakers of Dutch to segment speech into words. In J. Caspers, Y. Chen, W. Heeren, J. Pacilly, N. Schiller, & E. van Zanten (Eds.), Above and Beyond the Segments: Experimental Linguistics and Phonetics, 152–164. (pp. 152–164. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., & Marchena, E.
(1989) Avoidance: Grammatical or semantic causes? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 241–255. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., Schoonen, R., de Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., & Florijn, A.F.
(2012) Linguistic competences of learners of Dutch as a second language at the B1 and B2 levels of speaking proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Language Testing, 29, 202–220. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., van Beuningen, C., Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N.M., & Schoonen, R.
(2012) Speech processing in native speakers as a function of age and level of education: What do adult native speakers have in common? Unpublished research report. Availabe from: j.h.hulstijn at uva.nl.
Hulstijn, J.H., van Gelderen, A., & Schoonen, R.
(2009) Automatization in second-language acquisition: What does the coefficient of variation tell us? Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 555–582. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., Young, R.F., Ortega, L., Bigelow, M., DeKeyser, R., Ellis, N.C., Lantolf, J.P., Mackey, A., & Talmy, S.
(2014) Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36(3), 361–421. Crossref link
Hunt, K.
(1970)Syntactic maturity in school-children and adults. Monographs of the Society for Research into Child Development, 35, 1–61. Crossref link
Hyltenstam, K., & Abrahamsson, N.
(2003) Maturational constraints in SLA. In C.J. Doughty & M.H. Long (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 539–599). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hymes, D.
(1972)On communicative competence. In J.B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269–293). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.
Jensen, A.R.
(1998) The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.
Jeon, E.H., & Yamashita, J.
(2014) L2 reading comprehension and its correlates: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 64, 160–212. Crossref link
Jordan, G.
(2004) Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Crossref link
Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S.
(1983) Boston Naming Test. Philadelphia PA: Lea & Febiger.
Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A.
(2001) Pathways to Language: From Fetus to Adolescent. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kelley, T.L.
(1927) Interpretation of Educational Measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan.
Kerlinger, F.N.
(1979) Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Approach. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kim, H., & Na, D.L.
(1999) Normative data on the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21, 127–133. Crossref link
Kline, R.B.
(2005) Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, (2nd ed.). New York, NY : The Guilford Press.
Koda, K.
(1996) L2 word recognition research: A critical review. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 450–460. Crossref link
(2005) Insights into Second Language Reading: A Cross-linguistic Approach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
(2012) Development of second language reading skills: Cross-linguistic perspectives. In S.M. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 310–318). London: Routledge.
Kormos, J.
(2006) Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kramsch, C.
(Ed.) (2002) Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives. London, UK: Continuum.
Kramsch, C., & Whiteside, A.
(2008) Language ecology in multilingual settings: Towards a theory of symbolic competence. Applied Linguistics, 29, 645–671. Crossref link
Krashen, S.
(1985) The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.
Kroll, J.F., Bobb, S.C., & Wodniecka, Z.
(2006) Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119–135. Crossref link
Kunnan, A.J.
(1998) An introduction to structural equation modelling for language assessment research. Language Testing, 15, 295–332. Crossref link
Lado, R.
(1961) Language Testing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lahmann, C.
(2011) Uniform of Not? An Exploratory Study of Native Language Proficiency. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Amsterdam.
Landauer, T, & Dumais, S.T.
(1997) A solution to Plato’s Problem: The Latent Analysis Theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104, 211–240. Crossref link
Langacker, R.W.
(2008) Cognitive grammar as a basis for language instruction. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 66–88). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lantolf, J.P., & Frawley, W.
(1988)Proficiency: Understanding the construct. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10, 181–195. Crossref link
Lantolf, J.P.
(2011) Sociocultural theory: A dialectical approach to L2 research. In S.M. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 57–72). London: Routledge.
Larsen-Freeman, D.
(2011) A complexity theory approach to second language development/acquisition. In D. Atkinson (Ed.), Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Routledge.
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L.
(2008) Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Le Dorze, G., & Bedard, C.
(1998) Effects of age and education on the lexico-semantic content of connected speech in adults. Journal of Communication Disorders, 31, 53–71. Crossref link
Lee, J.-W., & Schallert, D.L.
(1997) The relative contribution of L2 language proficiency and L1 reading ability to L2 reading performance: A test of the Threshold Hypothesis in an EFL context. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 713–739. Crossref link
Levelt, W.J.M.
(1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: Bradford & The MIT Press.
(2013) A History of Psycholinguistics: The Pre-Chomskyan Era. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Li, D., Zhang, X, & Wang, G.
(2011) Senior Chinese high school students’ awareness of thematic and taxonomic relations in L1 and L2. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 444–457. Crossref link
Lieven, E.
(2006) Variation in first language acquisition. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (2nd ed.), (Vol. B; pp. 350–354). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Crossref link
(2009) Developing constructions. Cognitive Linguistics, 20, 191–199. Crossref link
Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M.
(2008) Children’s first language acquisition from a usage-based perspective. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 168–196). New York, NY: Routledge.
Little, D.
(2007) The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Perspectives on the making of supranational language education policy. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 645–653. Crossref link
Long, M.
(2013) Maturational constraints on child and adult SLA. In G. Granena & M. Long (Eds.), Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment (pp. 3–141). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Long, M.H., Gor, K., & Jackson, S.
(2012) Linguistic correlates of second language proficiency: Proof of concept with IRL 2-3 in Russian. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 99–126. Crossref link
Luoma, S.
2004Assessing Speaking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
MacDonald, M.C., & Christiansen, M.H.
(2002) Reassessing working memory: A comment on Just & Carpenter (1992) and Waters & Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 35–54. Crossref link
Mackenzie, C.
(2000) Adult spoken discourse: The influences of age and education. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35, 269–285. Crossref link
Mackenzie, C., Brady M. , Norrie J. , & Poedjianto, N.
(2007) Picture description in neurologically normal adults: Concepts and topic coherence. Aphasiology, 21, 340–354. Crossref link
MacWhinney, B.
(1989) Competition and connectionism. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 422–457). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
(Ed.) (1999) The Emergence of Language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2008) A unified model. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 341–371). New York, NY: Routledge.
(2011) The logic of the Unified Model. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Routledge.
McNamara, T.
(1996) Measuring Second Language Performance. London, UK: Addison-Wesley Longman.
(2014) 30 Years on – Evolution or revolution? Language Assessment Quarterly, 11, 226–232. Crossref link
Mandler, J.
(2004) The Foundations of Mind: Origins of Conceptual Thought. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Meara, P.M., Olmos, A., & Juan, C.
(2010) Words as species: An alternative approach to estimating productive vocabulary size. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22, 222–236.
Meijer, A., de Groot, H.M., van Boxtel, P.J., van Gerven, W.M., & Jolles, J.
(2008) Are age differences in verbal learning related to interstimulus interval and education? Experimental Aging Research, 34, 323–339. Crossref link
Meisel, J.M.
(2011) First and Second Language Acquisition: Parallels and Differences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Messick, S.
(1989) Validity. In R.L. Linn (Ed.), Educational Measurement (pp. 13–103). Washington, DC: American Council on Education and National Council on Measurement in Education.
Mesthrie, R.
(2001) Concise Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Mesthrie, R., Swann, J., Deumert, A., & Leap, W.L.
(2009) Introducing sociolinguistics (2nd Ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Mills, J.A., & Hemsley, G.D.
(1976) The effect of level of education on judgments of grammatical acceptability. Language and Speech, 19, 324–342.Crossref link
Milton, J.
(2009) Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Mitchell, M.
(2009) Complexity. A Guided Tour. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Montrul, S.A.
(2008) Incomplete Acquisition in Bilingualism: Re-examining the Age Factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Mulder, K., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2011) Linguistic skills of adult native speakers, as a function of age and level of education. Applied Linguistics, 32, 475–494. Crossref link
Munby, J.
(1978) Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nagy, W.E., & Herman, P.A.
(1987) Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M.G. McKeown & M. Curtis (Eds.), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nation, I.S.P.
(1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Neils, J., Baris, J., Carter, C., Delláira, A., Nordloh, S., Weiler, E., & Wesiger, B.
(1995) Effects of age, education, and living environment on Boston Naming Test performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1143–1149. Crossref link
Nippold, M.A.
(2006) Language development in school-age children, adolescents, and adults. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Norris, J.M., & Ortega, L.
(2012) Assessing learner knowledge. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 573–589). London: Routledge.
North, B.
(2007) The CEFR illustrative descriptor scales. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 656–659. Crossref link
North, B., & Schneider, G.
(1998) Scaling descriptors for language proficiency scales. Language Testing, 15, 217–262. Crossref link
O’Grady, W.
(2005) Syntactic Carpentry: An Emergentist Approach to Syntax. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2012) Language acquisition without an acquisition device. Language Teaching, 45, 116–130. Crossref link
OECD
(2013) OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Publishing. Crossref link
Oller Jr., J.W.
(1981) Language as intelligence? Language Learning, 31, 465–492. Crossref link
(1983a) Evidence for a general language proficiency factor: An expectancy grammar. In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.), Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 3–10). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
(1983b) A consensus for the eighties? In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.), Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 351–356). Rowley MA: Newbury House.
Olson, D.R.
(2003) The cognitive consequences of literacy. In T. Nunes & P. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of Children’s Literacy (pp. 539–555). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Olson. D.R.
(1977) From utterace to text: The bias of language in speech and writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257–281. Crossref link
Ortega, L.
(2014) Trying out theories on interlanguage: Description and explanation over 40 years of L2 negation research. In Z. Han & E. Tarone (Eds.). Interlanguage: 40 Years Later (pp. 173–201). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pakulak, E., & Neville, H.J.
(2010) Proficiency differences in syntactic processing of monolingual native speakers indexed by event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2728–2744. Crossref link
Paradis, M.
(2004) A Neurolinguistic Theory of Bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Patricacou, A., Psallida, E., Pring, T., & Dipper, L.
(2007) The Boston Naming Test in Greek: Normative data and the effects of age and education on naming. Aphasiology, 21, 1157–1170. Crossref link
Pavlenko, A., & Blackledge, A.
(2004) New theoretical approaches of the study of negotiation of identity in multilingual contexts. In A. Pavlenko & A. Blackledge (Eds.), Negotiation of Identity in Multilingual Contexts (pp. 1–33). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Pennington, M.C., & So, S.
(1993) Comparing writing processes and product across two languages: A study of 6 Singaporean university student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2, 41–63. Crossref link
Perfetti, C.A.
(1985) Reading Ability. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
(1999) Comprehending written language: A blueprint for the reader. In C. Brown & P. Hagoort (Eds.), Neurocognition of Language (pp. 167–208). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Perkins, K., Brutten, S.R., & Pohlmann, J.T.
(1989) First and second reading comprehension. RELC Journal, 20, 1–9. Crossref link
Pichette, F., Segalowitz, N., & Connors, K.
(2003) Impact of maintaining L1 reading skills on L2 reading skill development in adults: Evidence from speakers of Serbo-Croatian learning French. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 391–403. Crossref link
Pienemann, M.
(2005) Cross-linguistic Aspects of Processability Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Pienemann, M., Keßler, J-U., & Itani-Adams, Y.
(2011) Comparing processability across languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 128–146. Crossref link
Plomin, R., & Spinath, F.M.
(2004) Intelligence: genetics, genes, and genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 112–129. Crossref link
Popper, K.R.
(1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson.
Purpura, J.E.
(1998) Investigating the effects of strategy use and second language test performance with high- and low-ability test takers: A structural equation modelling approach. Language Testing, 15, 333–379.Crossref link
(2008) Assessing communicative language ability: Models and their components. In E. Shohamy & N.H. Hornberger (eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, (2nd ed.), Language Testing and Assessment (Vol. 7; pp. 53–68). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Raoofi, S., Chan, S.-H., Mukundan, J., & Rashid, S.M.
(2014) Metacognition and second-foreign language learning. English Language Teaching, 7, 36–49. Crossref link
Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G.A.
(2000) A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Rebuschat, P., & Williams, J.
(Eds.) (2012) Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Reuland, E.
(2012) How linguistic performance may differ accorss speakers? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 287–292. Crossref link
Roeper, T.
(2012) Empty myth-making. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 293–297. Crossref link
Rost, M.
(2002) Teaching and Researching Listening. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Salthouse, T.A.
(2009) When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiology of aging, 30, 507–514. Crossref link
Sampson, G.
(2001) Empirical Linguistics. London, UK: Continuum.
Sasaki, M.
(1993) Relationships among second language proficiency, foreign language aptitude, and intelligence: A structural equation modeling approach. Language Learning, 43, 313–344. Crossref link
Sasaki, M., & Hirose, K.
(1996) Explanatory variables for EFL students’ expository writing. Language Learning, 46, 137–174. Crossref link
Saville, N., & R. Hawkey
(2010) The English Profile Programme: The first three years. English Profile Journal, 1, 1–14. Crossref link
Schachter, J.
(1990) Communicative competence revisited. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 39–49). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Schmid, M.S.
(2011) Language Attrition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Schmid, M.S., & Mehotcheva, T.
(2012) Foreign language attrition. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1, 102–124. Crossref link
Schmitt, N.
(2008) Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, 329–363. Crossref link
Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R.M.
(1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing, I: Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1–66. Crossref link
Schoonen, R.
(2005) Generalizability of writing scores: An application of structural equation modeling. Language Testing, 22, 1–30. Crossref link
(2011) How language ability is assessed. In E. Hikel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, (Vol. II; pp. 701–716). New York, NY: Routledge.
Schoonen, R., & De Glopper, K.
(1996) Writing performance and knowledge about writing. In G. Rijlaarsdam, H. v. d. Bergh, & M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research (pp. 87–107). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Schoonen, R., Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B.
(1998) Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language Learning, 48, 71–106. Crossref link
Schoonen, R., Snellings, P., Stevenson, M., & van Gelderen, A.
(2009) Towards a blueprint of the foreign language writer: The linguistic and cognitive demands of foreign language writing. In R.M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in Foreign Language Contexts. Learning, Teaching, and Research (pp. 77–101). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M.
(2003) First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic fluency, linguistic knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53, 165–202. Crossref link
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Snellings, P., Simis, A., & Stevenson, M.
(2002) Linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and retrieval speed in L1, L2 and EFL writing. A structural equation modeling approach. In S. Ransdell & M.-L. Barbier (Eds.), New Directions for Research in L2 Writing (pp. 101–122). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Crossref link
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., Stoel, R., Hulstijn, J. & de Glopper, K.
(2011) Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary-school students. Language Learning, 61, 31–79. Crossref link
Segalowitz, N.
(2000) Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on Fluency (pp. 200–219). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
(2010) Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency. New York, NY: Routledge.
Shiotsu, T., & Weir, C.J.
(2007) The relative significance of syntactic knowledge and vocabulary breadth in the prediction of reading comprehension performance. Language Testing, 24, 99–128. Crossref link
Simos, P., Kasselimis, D., & Mouzaki, A.
(2011) Age, gender, and education effects on vocabulary measures in Greek. Aphasiology, 25, 475–491. Crossref link
Sinclair, J.
(1991) Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: OUP.
(2004) Trust the Text: Language, Corpus and Discourse. London: Routledge.
Skehan, P.
(1989) Individual Differences in Second-language Learning. London: Arnold.
Slobin, D.I.
(1997) The origins of grammaticizable notions: Beyond the individual mind. In D.I. Slobin (Ed.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition (Vol. 5; pp. 265–323). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Smith, M.
(1941) Measurement of the size of general English vocabulary through the elementary grades and high school. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 24, 311–345.
Snellings, P., van Gelderen, A. & de Glopper, K.
(2004) The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on L2 writing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 175–200. Crossref link
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L.
(2012) Profiles of more and less successful L2 learners: A cluster analysis study. Language and Individual differences, 22, 463–472. Crossref link
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N.
(2009a) Long-term relationships among early first language skills, second language aptitude, second language affect, and later second language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 725–755. Crossref link
(2009b) Long-term crosslinguistic transfer of skills from L1 to L2. Language Learning, 59, 203–243. Crossref link
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J.
(2008) Early first-language reading and spelling skills predict later second-language reading and spelling skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 162–174. Crossref link
Spearman, C.
(1927) The Abilities of Man. London, UK: McMillan.
Spolsky, S.
(1989) Conditions for Second Language Learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Stanovich, K.E.
(1991) Word recognition: Changing perspectives. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. 2, pp. 418–452). New York, NY: Longman.
Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L.
(Eds.) (2000) The General Factor of Intelligence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Street, J.A., & Dąbrowska, E.
(2010) More individual differences in language attainment: How much do adult native speakers of English know about passives and quantifiers? Lingua, 120, 2080–2094. Crossref link
Street, J., & Dąbrowska, E.
(2014) Lexically specific knowledge and individual differences in adult native speakers’ processing of the English passive. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 97–118. Crossref link
Swain, M.
(1993) Second language testing and second language acquisition: Is there a conflict with traditional psychometrics? Language Testing, 10, 193–207. Crossref link
Swain, M., Lapkin, S., & Barik, H.C.
(1976) The cloze test as a measure of second language proficiency among young children. Working Papers in Bilingualism, 11, 32–42.
Taillefer, G.F.
(1996) L2 reading ability: Further insight into the Short-Circuit Hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 461–477. Crossref link
Tallberg, I.M.
(2005) The Boston Naming Test in Swedish: Normative data. Brain and Language, 94, 19–31. Crossref link
Talmy, L.
(2008) Aspects of attention in language. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 27–38). New York, NY: Routledge.
Thomas, M.
(1994)Assessment of L2 proficiency in second language acquisition research. Language Learning, 44, 307–336. Crossref link
Thorndike, R.L.
(1973–1974) Reading as reasoning. Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 135–147. Crossref link
(1994) g. Intelligence, 19, 145–155. Crossref link
Thurstone, L.L.
(1938) Primary mental abilities. Psychometric Monographs, 1.
Tinbergen, N.
(1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–433. Crossref link
Tokowicz, N., Michael, E.B., & Kroll, J.F.
(2004) The roles of study-abroad experience and working-memory capacity in the types of errors made during translation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 255–272. Crossref link
Tomasello, M.
(2008) The Origins of Communication. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Towell, R., & Hawkins, R.
(1994) Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Trapman, M.
. (in preparation, a). Reading comprehension level and development in monolingual and bilingual adolescent low achievers: Roles of linguistic and metacognitive knowledge and fluency.
. (in preparation, b). Components of writing proficiency level and writing development of low-achieving adolescents; the roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge.
Trapman, M., van Gelderen, A., van Steensel, R., van Schooten, E., & Hulstijn, J.
(2014) Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: Differences between monolinguals and bilinguals. Journal of Research in Reading, 37, Special Issue, S3–S21. Crossref link
Treffers-Daller, J.
(2011) Operationalizing and measuring language dominance. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 147–163. Crossref link
Trim, J.
(2012) The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and its background: A case study of cultural politics and educational influences. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The Globalisation of Language Education Policy (pp. 14–33). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Trout, J.D.
(1999) Measurement. In W.H. Newton-Smith (Ed.), A companion to the philosophy of science (pp. 265–276). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Turner, J.
(1998) Assessing speaking. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 192–207. Crossref link
Ullman, M.T.
(2004) Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92, 231–270. Crossref link
Umbel, V.M., & Oller, D.K.
(1994) Developmental changes in receptive vocabulary in Hispanic bilingual school children. Language Learning, 44, 221–242. Crossref link
Uzawa, K.
(1996) Second language learners’ processes of L1 writing, L2 writing, and translation from L1 into L2. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 271–294. Crossref link
Van Boxtel, S., Bongaerts, T., & Coppen, P.-A.
(2005) Native-like attainment of dummy subjects in Dutch and the role of the L1. IRAL, 43, 355–380. Crossref link
Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M.P., van Breukelen, G.J., & Jolles, J.
(2005) Rey’s verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 290–302. Crossref link
Van der Maas, H.L.J., Dolan, C.V., Grasman, R.P.P.P., Wicherts, J.M., Huizinga, H.M., & Raijmakers, M.E.J.
(2006) A dynamic model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychological Review, 113, 842–861. Crossref link
Van Ek, J.A.
(1976) The Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning in Schools. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Van Gelderen, A. & Oostdam, R.J.
(2005) Effects of fluency training on the application of linguistic operations in writing. L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 5(2), 215–240. Crossref link
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M.
(2004) Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension: A componential analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 19–30. Crossref link
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Snellings, P., Simis, A. & Stevenson, M.
(2003) Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Bilingualism, 7, 7–25. Crossref link
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., Stoel, R.D., de Glopper, K., & Hulstijn, J.
(2007) Development of adolescent reading comprehension in language 1 and language 2: A longitudinal analysis of constituent components. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 477–491. Crossref link
Van Steensel, R., Oostdam, R., van Gelderen, A., & van Schooten, E.
. (under revision). The role of word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge in mono- and bilingual low achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension.
Vandergrift, L.
(2007) Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40, 191–210. Crossref link
VanPatten, B., & Williams, J.
(2007) Introduction: The nature of theories. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams, Theories in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 1–16). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M.P.J., van Breukelen, G.J.P., & Jolles, J.
(2005) Ray’s verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 290–302. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L.T.
(1994) Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44, 381–415. Crossref link
Vermeer, A.
(2001) Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217–234. Crossref link
Vollmer, H.J.
(1983) The structure of foreign language competence. In A. Hughes & D. Porter (Eds.), Current Developments in Language Testing (pp. 3–30). London, UK: Academic Press.
Von Studnitz, R.E., & Green, D.W.
(2002a) Interlingual homograph interference in German-English bilinguals: Its modulation and locus of control. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 1–23. Crossref link
Wardhaugh, R.
(2010) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, (8th ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Weigle, S.C.
(2002) Assessing Writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Wells, G.
(1986) Variation in child language. In P. Fletcher & M. Garman (Eds.), Language Acquisition (pp. 109–139). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
White, L.
(2003) Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge, UK: Cambrdige University Press. Crossref link
Widdowson, H.G.
(1978) Teaching English as Communication. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wray, A.
(2002) Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Wright, H.H., & Capilouto, G.J.
(2009) Manipulating task instructions to change narrative discourse performance. Aphasiology, 23, 1295–1308. Crossref link
Wright, H.H., Koutsoftas, A.D., Capilouto, G.J., & Fergadiotis, G.
. (in press). Global coherence in younger and older adults: Influence of cognitive processes and discrouse type. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition: A Journal on Normal and Dysfunctional Development. First view online. Crossref link
Yamashita, J.
(2002) Mutual compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 language proficiency in L2 reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 81–95. Crossref link
Zechmeister, E.B., D’Anna, C., Hall, J.W., Paus, C.H., & Smith, J. A.
(1993) Metacognitive and other knowledge about the mental lexicon: Do we know how many words we know? Applied Linguistics, 14, 188–206. Crossref link
Zipf, G.K.
(1935) The Psycho-biology of Language: An Introduction to Dynamic Philology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Bell, Philippa, Véronique Fortier & Isabelle Gauvin
2020. Using L1 knowledge about language during L2 error correction: do students make cross-linguistic connections?. Language Awareness 29:2  pp. 95 ff. Crossref logo
Berthele, Raphael & Jan Vanhove
2020. What would disprove interdependence? Lessons learned from a study on biliteracy in Portuguese heritage language speakers in Switzerland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23:5  pp. 550 ff. Crossref logo
BLAKE, ROBERT
2015. The Messy Task of Evaluating Proficiency in Online Language Courses. The Modern Language Journal 99:2  pp. 408 ff. Crossref logo
Blake, Robert J.
2017.  In The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning,  pp. 107 ff. Crossref logo
Annick De Houwer & Lourdes Ortega
2018.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism, Crossref logo
Deygers, Bart
2019. The CEFR Companion Volume: Between Research-Based Policy and Policy-Based Research. Applied Linguistics Crossref logo
Deygers, Bart, Beate Zeidler, Dina Vilcu & Cecilie Hamnes Carlsen
2018. One Framework to Unite Them All? Use of the CEFR in European University Entrance Policies. Language Assessment Quarterly 15:1  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
Duran-Karaoz, Zeynep & Parvaneh Tavakoli
2020. PREDICTING L2 FLUENCY FROM L1 FLUENCY BEHAVIOR. Studies in Second Language Acquisition  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Dąbrowska, Ewa
2019. Experience, Aptitude, and Individual Differences in Linguistic Attainment: A Comparison of Native and Nonnative Speakers. Language Learning 69  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
Ellis, Rod, Peter Skehan, Shaofeng Li, Natsuko Shintani & Craig Lambert
2019.  In Task-Based Language Teaching, Crossref logo
Heeren, Jordi, Dirk Speelman & Lieve De Wachter
2020. A practical academic reading and vocabulary screening test as a predictor of achievement in first-year university students: implications for test purpose and use. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2015.  In Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages [Studies in Bilingualism, 48],  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2019. An Individual-Differences Framework for Comparing Nonnative With Native Speakers: Perspectives From BLC Theory. Language Learning 69  pp. 157 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2020. Proximate and ultimate explanations of individual differences in language use and language acquisition. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H. & S.J. Andringa
2014.  In Above and Beyond the Segments,  pp. 152 ff. Crossref logo
Jakobson, Liivi
2018. Teacher written feedback on adult beginners’ writing in a second language. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 169:2  pp. 235 ff. Crossref logo
Koda, Keiko & Sihui Echo Ke
2018.  In The Handbook of Advanced Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition,  pp. 483 ff. Crossref logo
MARSDEN, EMMA, SOPHIE THOMPSON & LUKE PLONSKY
2018. A methodological synthesis of self-paced reading in second language research. Applied Psycholinguistics 39:5  pp. 861 ff. Crossref logo
Moore, Paul J. & Michael Harrington
2016. Fractionating English language proficiency: policy and practice in Australian higher education. Current Issues in Language Planning 17:3-4  pp. 385 ff. Crossref logo
Morton, Tom
2018. Reconceptualizing and describing teachers’ knowledge of language for content and language integrated learning (CLIL). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 21:3  pp. 275 ff. Crossref logo
Pallotti, Gabriele
2019. Assessing Tasks: The Case of Interactional Difficulty. Applied Linguistics 40:1  pp. 176 ff. Crossref logo
Paquot, Magali
2018. Phraseological Competence: A Missing Component in University Entrance Language Tests? Insights From a Study of EFL Learners’ Use of Statistical Collocations. Language Assessment Quarterly 15:1  pp. 29 ff. Crossref logo
Son, Young-A
2017. Toward Useful Assessment and Evaluation of Heritage Language Learning. Foreign Language Annals 50:2  pp. 367 ff. Crossref logo
Ströbel, Marcus, Elma Kerz & Daniel Wiechmann
2020. The Relationship Between First and Second Language Writing: Investigating the Effects of First Language Complexity on Second Language Complexity in Advanced Stages of Learning. Language Learning Crossref logo
Tiselius, Elisabet & Birgitta Englund Dimitrova
2019. Asymmetrical language proficiency in dialogue interpreters. Translation, Cognition & Behavior 2:2  pp. 305 ff. Crossref logo
TORRES, JULIO & BIANCA CUNG
2019. A Comparison of Advanced Heritage Language Learners’ Peer Interaction Across Modes and Pair Types. The Modern Language Journal 103:4  pp. 815 ff. Crossref logo
Trapman, Mirjam, Amos van Gelderen, Erik van Schooten & Jan Hulstijn
2017. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency. Reading & Writing Quarterly 33:3  pp. 239 ff. Crossref logo
Trapman, Mirjam, Amos van Gelderen, Erik van Schooten & Jan Hulstijn
2018. Writing proficiency level and writing development of low-achieving adolescents: the roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency, and metacognitive knowledge. Reading and Writing 31:4  pp. 893 ff. Crossref logo
Wang, Zhan, Peter Skehan & Gaowei Chen
2019. The effects of hybrid online planning and L2 proficiency on video-based speaking task performance. Instructed Second Language Acquisition 3:1  pp. 53 ff. Crossref logo
Xiao, Feng, Naoko Taguchi & Shuai Li
2019. EFFECTS OF PROFICIENCY SUBSKILLS ON PRAGMATIC DEVELOPMENT IN L2 CHINESE STUDY ABROAD. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 41:2  pp. 469 ff. Crossref logo
Zyzik, Eve C. & Ruben A. Sanchez
2019. Beyond accuracy: Heritage speakers’ performance on two kinds of acceptability judgment tasks. Applied Psycholinguistics 40:03  pp. 645 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 may 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CFDC – Language acquisition
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014044220