Language Proficiency in Native and Non-native Speakers

Theory and research

| University of Amsterdam
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027213242 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
 
PaperbackAvailable
ISBN 9789027213259 | EUR 33.00 | USD 49.95
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027269027 | EUR 95.00/33.00*
| USD 143.00/49.95*
 
This book, written for both seasoned and novice researchers, presents a theory of what is called Basic and Higher Language Cognition (BLC and HLC), a theory aimed at making some fundamental issues concerning first and second language learning and bilingualism (more) empirical. The first part of the book provides background for and explication of the theory as well as an agenda for future research, while the second part reports on selected studies of language proficiency in native speakers, as well as non-native speakers, and studies of the relationship between literacy in a first and second language. Conceptual and methodological problems in measuring language proficiency in research on second language acquisition and bilingualism are also discussed. Further, the notion of levels of language proficiency, as rendered by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), is critically examined, suggesting ways of empirically investigating a number of questions that the CEFR raises but is not capable of answering.
[Language Learning & Language Teaching, 41]  2015.  xi, 195 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Foreword
ix–xi
Part I. Theory
Chapter 1. Scientific inquiry
3–10
Chapter 2. Language acquisition and the need for a theory of language proficiency
11–18
Chapter 3. BLC-HLC Theory: Language proficiency in native speakers
19–36
Chapter 4. BLC-HLC Theory: Language proficiency in non-native speakers
37–50
Chapter 5. BLC-HLC Theory: Summary and discussion of Part One
51–56
Part II. Research
Chapter 6. Language proficiency of native speakers: Commonalities and differences
59–80
Chapter 7. Components of language proficiency
81–114
Chapter 8. Interdependence of L1 and L2 literacy
115–132
Chapter 9. Measuring language proficiency in research on L2 acquisition and bilingualism
133–141
Chapter 10. Levels of language proficiency in scales of educational assessment
143–155
Epilogue
157–158
References
159–179
Appendix 1
181–186
Person index
187–190
Subject index
191–195
“This book by an eminent applied linguist and scholar intends to encourage a dialogue about the nature of first, second and foreign language proficiency. I strongly recommend it to anybody interested in the similarities and differences between a native and a so-called non-native command of language, in how such command develops, how it is acquired, learned and used. It is not a textbook nor is it a balanced review of the literature. It is avowedly not neutral. Rather it expresses the author’s personal, biased views on the topic. That is not a criticism of the volume, far from it: it is deliberately provocative. Indeed, even the use and meaning of the term “non-native” is controversial and vague. As a consequence, the reader is challenged to decide what their own position is on the issues and positions discussed. This is a must-have book for applied linguists, second language researchers and assessors, indeed for anybody interested in empirical research into language teaching and assessment. Let the debate begin!”
“Readers will find in this book a fascinating journey through age (and critical periods), usage (and Zipfian distributions), individual differences (and literate and multiregister language repertoires), and nativeness (and bilingualism). Hulstijn’s seminal, original theory of language proficiency opens up tantalizing new insights into most Trojan horses of contemporary language acquisition research!”
“This book provides an excellent introduction to the topic of language proficiency and some of the recent work that has been done to attempt to measure it. It is sure to be useful to both beginning and experienced students or researchers in linguistics, and especially those who are looking for alternative ways to measure proficiency that do not ignore the concept of native language proficiency when thinking about non-native users.”
“Even though the topic areas are intricate and complex, it is difficult for readers to feel lost or academically misguided, because Hulstijn is very good at presenting facts and theory, summarising empirical studies, and putting forward methodological and conceptual problems, keeping the reader consistently on the track of his argument. He manages to present different approaches in an explanatory manner and bring them together in a conciliatory way that minimises confusion. The book should be considered as a seminal work for the presentation and analysis of complex phenomena such as language proficiency. Hulstijn, with his high academic style, has managed to present all the facets of a complicated linguistic phenomenon in a way that invites sober and well-rounded academic debate.”
“The book provides an excellent introduction to a theory of language proficiency. The concepts of BLC [Basic Language Cognition] and HLC [Higher Language Cognition] discussed extensively in this book are accessible to teachers and non-academics, as well as graduate students and researchers. Although the BLC-HLC is well thought out and grounded in the author’s own research, he humbly accepts that it is not the endpoint of the theory, stating, “I hope that empirical research will bring about an early ‘expiration date’ of BLC-HLC Theory” (p. 158). On the whole, the book reads well with a comprehensive overview of the theories, definitions of key concepts, detailed explanations of the related models, and comparisons with earlier models. The author is very thorough in the description of his own theory, clarifying the differences from the earlier models proposed by other researchers and his own models that are based on his earlier work. In other words, he clearly positions the BLC-HLC theory in the current theoretical discussions on language acquisition. His careful attempt to guide the reader through the chapters toward his own theory indicates his scholarship, which he has devoted to the enquiry of unveiling native and non-native proficiency for many years.”
“The most noteworthy contribution of this book is that it provides a new perspective on language proficiency for L1 acquisition, L2 acquisition, and bilingualism. As the author notes, the BLC-HLC [Basic Language Cognition-Higher Language Cognition] theory does not aim to serve as a fixed theory for language proficiency, but as a hermeneutic and strategic tool which can be falsified to increase the researchers' insight into the fundamental issues of language acquisition. At the same time, in line with Popper's (1959) view of critical rationalism, the book not only focuses on theoretical issues, but also endeavours to examine and address the issues with the proposed theory. One example of this is the critical examination of the CEFR [Common European Framework of Reference for Languages] levels of language proficiency and the attempt to investigate the issue with the BLC-HLC theory in Chapter 10. In addition, the book provides not only a systematic review of conceptual/theoretical issues on language proficiency, but critical reviews of methodological issues concerning empirical research in the area. Based on the reviews, it also gives suggestions for future research on various topics regarding language proficiency. In these terms, the book may serve both as an introductory book to researchers new to the area and as a reference to veteran researchers in the area.”
References

References

Aarnoutse, C.A.J., & Van Leeuwen, J.F.J.
(1988) Het belang van technisch lezen, woordenschat en ruimtelijke intelligentie voor begrijpend lezen [The importance of decoding, vocabulary, and spatial intelligence for reading comprehension]. Pedagogische Studiën, 65, 49–59.Google Scholar
Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K.
(2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S.F., & Perani, D.
(2001) The bilingual brain as revealed by functional neuroimaging. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 179–190. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Alderson, J.C.
(1984) Reading in a foreign language: A reading problem or a language problem? In J.C. Alderson & A.H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language (pp. 1–27). London: Longman.Google Scholar
2000Assessing Reading. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2005) Diagnosing foreign language proficiency: The interface between learning and assessment. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
(2007) The CEFR and the need for more research. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 659–663. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Alderson, J.C., Bastien, S., & Madrazo, A-M.
(1977) A Comparison of Reading Comprehension in English and Spanish. Research and Development Unit Report 9, mimeo. Mexico City: UNAM.Google Scholar
Alderson, J.C., & Kremmel, B.
(2013) Re-examining the content validation of a grammar test: The (im)possibility of distinguishing vocabulary and structural knowledge. Language Testing, 30, 535–556. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Alexander, P.A., Schallert, D.L., & Hare, V.C.
(1991) Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 61, 315–343. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J.
(1980) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. New York, NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N., Van Beuningen, C., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.
(2012) Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: An individual differences approach. Language Learning, 62[Supplement], 49–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anglin, J.M.
(1993) Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ardasheva, Y., Tretter, T.R., & Kinny, M.
(2012) English language learners and academic achievement: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis. Language Learning, 62, 769–812. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Aron, H.
(1978) Comparing reading comprehension in Spanish and English by adult Hispanics entering a two-year college. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Language Proficiency and Language Dominance Testing, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, September 1978.
Baayen, R.H., Piepenbrock, R. & Gulikers, L.
(1995) The CELEX Lexical Database (CD-ROM). Philadelphia, PA: Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Bachman, L.F.
(1990a) Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
(1990b) Constructing measures and measuring constructs. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 26–38). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009) Generalizability and research use arguments. In K. Ercikan & W.-M. Roth (Eds.), Generalizing from Educational Research: Beyond the Quantitative-qualitative Opposition (pp. 127–148). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Bachman, L.F., & Cohen, A.D.
(Eds.) (1998) Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bachman, L.F., & Palmer, A.S.
(1982) The construct validation of some components of communicative proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 449–465. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1996) Language Testing in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bae, J., & Bachman, L.F.
(1998) A latent variable approach to listening and reading: Testing factorial invariance across two groups of children in the Korean/English Two-Way Immersion Program. Language Testing, 15, 380–414.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baley, R., & Lucas, C.
(Eds.) (2007) Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, D.J.
(2004) Measuring Intelligence: Facets and Fallacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bartning, I., Martin, M., & Vedder, I.
(Eds.) Communicative Proficiency and Linguistic Development: Intersections between SLA and Language Testing Research. Eurosla Monographs Series, 1. http://​eurosla​.org​/monographs​/EM01​/EM01home​.html
Bates, E., & MacWhinney, B.
(1989) Functionalism and the Competition Model. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 3–73). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bates, E., Dale, P.S., & Thal, A.D.
(1995) Individual differences and their implications for theories of language development. In P. Fletcher & B. MacWhinney (Eds.), The Handbook of Child Language (pp. 96–151). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Battaglia, F.P., Borensztajn, G., & Bod, R.
(2012) Structured cognition and neural systems: From rats to language. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1626–1639. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Berman, R.
(2007) Developing linguistic knowledge and language use across adolescence. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Language Development (pp. 347–367). Malden, MA: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Berman, R.A., Slobin, D.I., & Aksu-Koç, A.
(1994)Relating Events in Narrative. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Bernhardt, E., & Kamil, M.L.
(1995) Interpreting relationships between L1 and L2 reading: Consolidating the Linguistic Threshold and the Linguistic Interdependence Hypotheses. Applied Linguistics, 16, 15–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bernhardt, E.B.
(2011) Understanding Advanced Second-language Reading. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bernstein, B.
(1971) Class, Codes and Control. Vol. 1: Theoretical Studies towards a Sociology of Language. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1972) Social class, language and socialization. In P.P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social context: Selected readings (pp. 157–78). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
Berwick, R.C., Friederici, A.D., Chomsky, C., & Bolhuis, J.J.
(2012) Evolution, brain, and the nature of language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 89–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E.
(1978) A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning, 28, 69–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1982) On the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms. Applied Linguistics, 3, 181–206. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1986) Factors in the growth of linguistic awareness. Child Development, 57, 498–510. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1991) Metalinguistic dimensions of bilingual language proficiency. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processing in Bilingual Children (pp. 113–166). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2001) Bilingualism in Development: Language, Literacy, and Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K.F., & Yang, S.
(2010) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525–531. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E.
(1999) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Biber, D., Reppen, R., & Conrad, S.
(2002) Developing linguistic literacy: Perspectives from corpus linguistics and multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of Child Language, 29, 449–488. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Birdsong, D.
(2005) On the limits of attainments in late L2A. Presentation given at the 2005 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics.
(2006) Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language Learning, 56(Supplement), 7–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Birdsong, D., & Gertken, L.M.
(2013) In faint praise of folly: A critical review of native/non-native speaker comparisons, with examples from native and bilingual processing of French complex syntax. Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 4, 107–133. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W.
(Eds.) 2006Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (6th ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bloomfield, L.
(1933) Language. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
Bongaerts, T., van Summeren, C., Planken, B., & Schils, E.
(1997) Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 447–465. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Borensztajn, G., Zuidema, W., & Bod, R.
(2009) Children’s grammars grow more abstract with age – Evidence from an automatic procedure for identifying the productive units of language. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 175–188. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Borsboom, D.
(2006) The attack of the psychometricians. Psychometrika, 71, 425–440. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Borsboom, D., & Markus, K.A.
(2013) Truth and evidence in validity theory. Journal of Educational Measurement, 50, 110–114. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G.J., & Van Heerden, J.
(2004)The concept of validity. Psychological Review, 111, 1061–1071. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bossers, B.
(1991) On thresholds, ceilings and short-circuits: The relation between L1 reading, L2 reading and L2 knowledge. AILA Review, 8, 45–60.Google Scholar
Brindley, G.
(1998) Describing language development? Rating scales and SLA. In L.F. Bachman & A.D. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research (pp. 112–140). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Brisbois, J.L.
(1995) Connection between first and second language reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27, 565–584.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, R.
(1958) Words and Things. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
Buck, G.
(2001) Assessing Listening. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bybee, J.
(2006) From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language, 82, 711–733. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Byrnes, H.
(2007) Developing national language education policies: Reflections on the CEFR. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 679–685. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Canale, M., & Swain, M.
(1980) Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carey, S.T., & Cummins, J.
(1979) English and French achievement of grade 5 children from English and mixed French-English home backgrounds attending the Edmonton Separate School System English-French immersion program. Report submitted to the Edmonton Separate School System.Google Scholar
Carrell, P.L.
(1991) Second language reading: Reading ability or language proficiency? Applied Linguistics, 12, 159–179. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, J.B.
(1961/1972) Fundamental considerations in testing for English language proficiency of foreign students. In Testing the English Proficiency of Foreign Students (1961). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Reprinted in Allen, H.B., & Campbell, R.N. (Eds.). 1972. Teaching English as a Second Language: A Book of Readings (pp. 313–320). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
(1981) Consciousness and automatic processes in language learning. Canadian Mondern Language Review, 37, 462–474.Google Scholar
(1983) Psychometric theory and language testing. In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.) (1993) Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 80–105). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
(1993) Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-analytic Studies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, J.B., & Sapon, S.
(1959) Modern Language Aptitude Test – Form A. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Carson, J.E., Carrell, P.L., Silberstein, S., Kroll, B., & Kuehn, P.A.
(1990) Reading-writing relationships in a first and second language. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 245–266. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cattell, R.B.
(1971) Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action. Oxford, UK: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Central Bureau of statistics)
(2001) Standaard Beroepenclassificatie (Standard classification of professions). Voorburg/Heerlen, Netherlands.Google Scholar
Chalhoub-Deville, M.
(1997) Theoretical models, assessment frameworks and test construction. Language Testing, 14, 3–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chapelle, C.A.
(1998) Construct definition and validity inquiry in SLA research. In L.F. Bachman & A. Cohen (Eds.), Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research (pp. 32–70). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Chen, J.
(2011) Language assessment: Its development and future – An interview with Lyle F. Bachman. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 277–290. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chipere, N.
(2001) Native speaker variations in syntactic competence: Implications for first language teaching. Language Awareness, 10, 107–124. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N.
(1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
(1968) Language and Mind. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovitch. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1976) Reflections on Language. London: Temple Smith.Google Scholar
(1981) Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
(2007) Biolinguistic explorations: Design, development, evolution. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 15, 1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, M.A.
(1979) Reading in Spanish and English: Evidence from ESL students. Language Learning, 29, 121–150. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Conway, A.R.A., Jarrold, C., Kane, M.J., Miyake, A., & Towse, J.N.
(2007) Variation in working memory. In A.R.A. Conway, C. Jarrold, M.J. Kane, A. Miyake, & J.N. Towse (Eds.), Variation in Working Memory (pp. 3–17). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cook, V.J.
(1991) The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence. Second Language Research, 7, 103–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2003) Background to the L2 user. In V.J. Cook (Ed.). Portraits of the L2 User (pp. 1–28). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(Ed.) (2003) Effects of the L2 on the L1. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(2010) Prolegomena to second language learning. In P. Seedhouse, S. Walsh, & C. Jenks (Eds.), Conceptualising Language Learning (pp. 6–22). Houndmills, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
(2012) Multi-competence. In C.A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
. (in preparation). Multi-competence premises. Crossref
Council of Europe
(2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press & Council of Europe.Google Scholar
Craik, F.I.M., & Salthouse, T.A.
(Eds.) (2008)The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Croft, W.
(1995) Autonomy and functionalist linguistics. Language, 71, 490–532. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Croft, W., & Cruse, D.A.
(2004) Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cumming, A.
(1989) Writing expertise and second-language proficiency. Language Learning, 39, 81–141. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cumming, A. & Riazi, A.
(2000) Building models of adult second-language writing instruction. Learning and Instruction, 10, 55–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cummins, J.
(1978) Educational implications of mother tongue maintenance in minority-language groups. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 395–416.Google Scholar
(1979) Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222–251. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1980a) The construct of language proficiency in bilingual education. In J.E. Alatis (Ed.), Current issues in bilingual education. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 1980 (pp. 81–103). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
(1980b) The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 175–187. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1984) Bilingualism and special eduction: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(1991a) Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processing in Bilingual Children (pp. 70–89). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1991b) Conversational and academic language proficiency in bilingual contexts. AILA Review, 8, 75–89.Google Scholar
Cummins, J., & Swain, M.
(1986) Bilingualism in Education. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Cunninham, A.E., Stanovich, K.E., & Wilson, M.R.
(1990) Cognitive variation in adult college students differing in reading ability. In T.H. Carr & B.A. Levy (Eds.), Reading and its Development, (pp. 129–160), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Cutler, A.
(2012) Native Listening: Language Experience and the Recognition of Spoken Words. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Dąbrowska, E.
(1997) The LAD goes to school: A cautionary tale for nativists. Linguistics, 35, 735–766. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2008a) The later development of an early-emerging system: The curious case of the Polish genitive. Linguistics, 46, 629–650. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2008b) The effects of frequency and neighbourhood density on adult speakers’ productivity with Polish case infiections: An empirical test of usage-based approaches to morphology. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 931–951. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010) Naive v. expert intuitions: An empirical study of acceptability judgments. The Linguistic Review, 27, 1–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012a) Response to the commentaries: Explaining individual differences in linguistic proficiency. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 324–335. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012b) Different speakers, different grammars: Individual differences in native language attainment. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 219–253. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dąbrowska, E., & Street, J.
(2006) Individual differences in language attainment: Comprehension of passive sentences by native and non-native Englisb speakers. Language Sciences, 28, 604–615. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dąbrowska, E., & Szczerbinski, M.
(2006) Polish children’s productivity with case marking: The role of regularity, type frequency, and phonological coherence. Journal of Child Language, 33, 559–597. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daller, M.H., Yldiz, C., & de Jong, N.H.
(2011) Language dominance in Turkish-German bilinguals: Methodological aspects of measurements in structurally different languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 215–236. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dalton-Puffer, C., Nikula, T., & Smit, U.
(2010) Language use and language learning in CLIL classrooms. Amsterdam : John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Damico, J.S., Müller, N., & Ball, M.J.
(Eds.) (2010) The Handbook of Language and Speech Disorders. Chichester, UK : Wiley-Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Darwin, C.
(1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, (1st ed.). London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Davies, A.
(2003) The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
(2011) Does language testing need the native speaker? Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 291–308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davies, A., & Elder, C.
(2005) Validity and validation in language testing. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 795–813). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
De Bot, C.L.J., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M.
(2007) A Dynamic Systems Theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 7–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
De Bot, K., & Schrauf, R.W.
(Eds.) (2009)Language Development over the Lifespan. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
De Groot, A.M.B.
(2011) Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Multilinguals. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
De Jong, J.H.A.L.
(2004) Comparing the Psycholinguistic and the Communicative Paradigm of Language Proficiency. Presentation given at international workshop “Psycholinguistic and psychometric aspects of language assessment in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages”. University of Amsterdam, 13–14 February, 2004.
De Jong, N.H., Groenhout, R., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2013) L2 fluency: Speaking style or proficiency? Correcting measures of L2 fluency for L1 behavior. Applied Psycholinguistics. Published online 11 March 2013. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
De Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., Florijn, A.F., Schoonen, R. & Hulstijn J.H.
(2012) Facets of speaking proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 5–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
De Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., Florijn, A., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2013) Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 893–916. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
De Saussure, F.
(1916) Cours de linguistique générale, edited by C. Bally & A. Sechehaye, with the collaboration of A. Riedlinger. Lausanne: Payot.Google Scholar
Decoo, W.
(2011) Systemization in Foreign Language Teaching: Monitoring Content Progression. New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
DeKeyser, R.M.
(2012) Individual differences in native language attainment and their implications for research on second language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 260–268. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Donaldson, M.
(1978) Children’s Minds. Glasgow, UK: Collins.Google Scholar
Dufva, M., & Voeten, M.J.M.
(1999) Native language literacy and phonological memory as prerequisites for learning English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 329–348. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, A.L., & Fox Tree, J.E.
(2009) A quick, gradient bilingual dominance scale. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 273–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Edelsky, C.
(1982) Writing in a bilingual program: The relation of L1 and L2 texts. TESOL Quarterly, 16, 211–228. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N.C.
(2008) The dynamics of second language emergence: Cycles of language use, language change, and language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 92, 232–249. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) Variable competence. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3, 264–268. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N.C., & Larsen-Freeman, D.
(Eds.) (2006) Language emergence: Implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 27(4). (special issue). CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N.C. & Robinson, P.
(2008) An introduction to cognitive linguistics, second language acquisition, and language instruction. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 30–24). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ellis, R.
(2005) Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141–172. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Engelen, J.
(2009) First and Second Language Listening Ability in Noise: A Within-subject Comparison. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Escudero, P., & Sharwood Smith, M.
(2001) Reinventing the native speaker: Or “What you never wanted to know about the native speaker so never dared to ask”. EUROSLA Yearbook, 1, 275–286. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Evans, N., & Levinson, S.C.
(2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 429–448. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Favreau, M., & Segalowitz, N.S.
(1982) Second language reading in fluent bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 329–341. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, F.
(2003) The misinterpretation of noncanonical sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 47, 164–203. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, F., Henderson, J.M., Anes, M.D., Weeks, P.A., & McFarlane, D.K.
(1996) Effects of lexical frequency and syntactic complexity in spoken-language comprehension: Evidence from the auditory moving-window technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 324–335. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Field, A.
(2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS, (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Field, J.
(Ed.) (2008) Listening. System, 36(1). (special issue).Google Scholar
Figueras, N.
(2012) The impact of the CEFR. ELT Journal, 66, 477–485. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fitch, K.L., & Sanders, R.E.
(Eds.) (2005) Handbook of Language and Social Interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Fitch, W.T., Hauser, M.D., & Chomsky, N.
(2005) The evolution of the Language Faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition, 97, 179–210. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Flower, L.S. & Hayes, J.R.
(1981) A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32, 365–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, C.A.
(2007) Reading rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across five reading tasks. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 372–394. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fukkink, R.G., Hulstijn, J., & Simis, A.
(2005) Does training of second-language word recognition skills affect reading comprehension? An experimental study. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 54–75. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gauvin, H.S., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2010) Exploring a new technique for comparing bilinguals L1 and L2 reading speed. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22, 84–103.Google Scholar
Geva, E., & Ryan, E.B.
(1993) Linguistic and cognitive correlates of academic skills in first and second languages. Language Learning, 43, 5–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, J.J.
(1941) A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 38, 781–817. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Givón, T.
(1999) Generativity and variation: The notion ‘rule of grammar’ revisited. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), The Emergence of Language (pp. 81–114). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(2001) Syntax, Vol. I. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gleitman, L.R., & Gleitman, H.
(1970) Phrase and Paraphrase: Some Innovative Uses of Language. New York, NY: Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Goldberg, A.E.
(1995) Constructions. A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
(2003) Constructions: A new theoretical approach to language. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 219–224. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2006) Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Goldman-Eisler, F.
(1968) Psycholinguistics: Experiments in Spontaneous Speech. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Goldschneider, J.M., & DeKeyser, R.M.
(2001) Explaining the “Natural order of L2 morpheme acquisition” in English: A meta-analysis of multiple determinants. Language Learning, 51, 1–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E.
(1983) The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Philadelphia: Lea & Fébiger.Google Scholar
Goodman, K.S.
(1971) Psycholinguistic universals in the reading process. In P. Pimsleur & T. Quinn (Eds.), The Psychology of Second Language Learning (pp. 135–142). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gottfredson, L.S.
(1998) The general intelligence factor. Scientific American Presents, 9, 24–29.Google Scholar
Grabe, W.
(2009) Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R.B.
(1996) Theory & Practice of Writing. An Applied Linguistic Perspective. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Grabe, W. & Stoller, F.L.
(2011) Teaching and Researching Reading, (2nd ed.). New York NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Graham, S., Harris, K.R., & Chorzempa, B.F.
(2002) Contribution of spelling instruction to the spelling, writing, and reading of poor spellers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 669–686. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Granena, G., & Long, M.
(Eds.) (2013) Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F.
(1989) Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain & Language, 36, 3–15. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1998) Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 131–149. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F., Li, P., Munte, T.F., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A.
(2003) Imaging bilinguals: When the neurosciences meet the language sciences. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 159–165. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gu, L.
(2014) At the interface between language testing and second language acquisition: Language ability and context of learning. Language Testing, 31, 111–133. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guilford, J.P.
(1971) The Nature of Human Intelligence. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Hacquebord, H.
(1989) Tekstbegrip van Turkse en Nederlandse leerlingen in het voortgezet onderwijs. [Text comprehension in Turkish and Dutch high school students.] Unpublished PhD dissertation, Groningen University.
Halliday, M.A.L., & Hasan, R.
(1978) Cohesion in English. London, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
Harley, B., Cummins, J., Swain, M., & Allen, P.
(1990) The nature of language proficiency. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 7–38). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harrington, M., & Sawyer, M.
(1992) L2 working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 25–38. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, J.A., & Filipović, L.
(2012) Critical Features in L2 English. Specifying the Reference Levels of the Common European Framework. English Profile Studies 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hayes, J.R.
(2006) New directions in writing theory. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 28–40). New York NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
Hazenberg, S., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(1996) Defining a minimal receptive second-language vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation. Applied Linguistics, 17, 145–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hellinger, M., & Pauwels, A.
(Eds.) (2007) Handbook of Language and Communication: Diversity and Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hemphill, L.
(2011) Orality and literacy in sociolinguistics. In R. Mesthrie (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics (pp. 70–82). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Higgs, T.V., & Clifford, R.
(1982) The push toward communication. In T.V. Higgs (Ed.), Curriculum, Competence and the Foreign Language Teacher (pp. 243–265). Skokie, IL: National Textbook Company.Google Scholar
Hoff, E.
(2006) How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26, 55–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hopper, P.J.
(1998) Emergent grammar. In M. Tomasello (Ed.), The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure (pp. 155–176). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M.
(1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H.
(1983) Communicative Skills of Young Second Language Learners: Issues in Coding Speech Data from Face-to-face Conversations. Report prepared in the framework of the Development of Bilingual Proficiency Project, for the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.Google Scholar
(2007) The shaky ground beneath the CEFR: Quantitative and qualitative dimensions of language proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 663–667. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010a) Measuring second language proficiency. In E. Blom & S. Unsworth (Eds.), Experimental Methods in Language Acquisition Research (pp. 185–199). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2010b) Linking L2 proficiency to L2 acquisition: Opportunities and challenges of profiling research. In I. Bartning, M. Martin & I. Vedder (Eds.), Communicative Proficiency and Linguistic Development: Intersections between SLA and Language Testing Research (pp. 233–238). Eurosla Monographs Series, 1. http://​eurosla​.org​/monographs​/EM01​/EM01home​.html
(2011a) Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8, 229–249. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2011b) Explanations of associations between L1 and L2 literacy skills. In M.S. Schmid & W. Lowie (Eds.), Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos (pp. 85–111). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.
(2011c) Foreign-language syllabus design and the Common European Framework for Languages in revolutionary times: 1971–2001. In M. Simons & J. Colpaert (Eds.), Peer Perspectives on Systemization. A Book Review of Wilfried Decoo’s Systemization in Foreign Language Teaching (pp. 87–96). Antwerpen: Universiteit Antwerpen.Google Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H.
(2012a) The construct of language proficiency in the study of bilingualism from a cognitive perspective. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 422–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012b) Different speakers but same language acquisition device? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 273–276. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2013) Is the second language acquisition discipline disintegrating? Language Teaching, 46, 511–517. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
. (in press). Implicit and explicit second-language acquisition: The virtues and pitfalls of a two-system view. In P. Rebuschat (Ed.) Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. Amsterdam: John Banjamins.
Hulstijn, J.H., & Andringa, S.
(2014) The effects of age and level of education on the ability of adult native speakers of Dutch to segment speech into words. In J. Caspers, Y. Chen, W. Heeren, J. Pacilly, N. Schiller, & E. van Zanten (Eds.), Above and Beyond the Segments: Experimental Linguistics and Phonetics, 152–164. (pp. 152–164. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H., & Marchena, E.
(1989) Avoidance: Grammatical or semantic causes? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 241–255. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H., Schoonen, R., de Jong, N.H., Steinel, M.P., & Florijn, A.F.
(2012) Linguistic competences of learners of Dutch as a second language at the B1 and B2 levels of speaking proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Language Testing, 29, 202–220. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H., van Beuningen, C., Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N.M., & Schoonen, R.
(2012) Speech processing in native speakers as a function of age and level of education: What do adult native speakers have in common? Unpublished research report. Availabe from: j.h.hulstijn at uva.nl.
Hulstijn, J.H., van Gelderen, A., & Schoonen, R.
(2009) Automatization in second-language acquisition: What does the coefficient of variation tell us? Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 555–582. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hulstijn, J.H., Young, R.F., Ortega, L., Bigelow, M., DeKeyser, R., Ellis, N.C., Lantolf, J.P., Mackey, A., & Talmy, S.
(2014) Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36(3), 361–421. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hunt, K.
(1970)Syntactic maturity in school-children and adults. Monographs of the Society for Research into Child Development, 35, 1–61. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hyltenstam, K., & Abrahamsson, N.
(2003) Maturational constraints in SLA. In C.J. Doughty & M.H. Long (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 539–599). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Hymes, D.
(1972)On communicative competence. In J.B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269–293). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Jensen, A.R.
(1998) The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.Google Scholar
Jeon, E.H., & Yamashita, J.
(2014) L2 reading comprehension and its correlates: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 64, 160–212. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, G.
(2004) Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S.
(1983) Boston Naming Test. Philadelphia PA: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A.
(2001) Pathways to Language: From Fetus to Adolescent. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Kelley, T.L.
(1927) Interpretation of Educational Measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Kerlinger, F.N.
(1979) Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Approach. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
Kim, H., & Na, D.L.
(1999) Normative data on the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21, 127–133. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kline, R.B.
(2005) Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, (2nd ed.). New York, NY : The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Koda, K.
(1996) L2 word recognition research: A critical review. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 450–460. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2005) Insights into Second Language Reading: A Cross-linguistic Approach. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) Development of second language reading skills: Cross-linguistic perspectives. In S.M. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 310–318). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Kormos, J.
(2006) Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Kramsch, C.
(Ed.) (2002) Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives. London, UK: Continuum.Google Scholar
Kramsch, C., & Whiteside, A.
(2008) Language ecology in multilingual settings: Towards a theory of symbolic competence. Applied Linguistics, 29, 645–671. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S.
(1985) The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Kroll, J.F., Bobb, S.C., & Wodniecka, Z.
(2006) Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119–135. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kunnan, A.J.
(1998) An introduction to structural equation modelling for language assessment research. Language Testing, 15, 295–332. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lado, R.
(1961) Language Testing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Lahmann, C.
(2011) Uniform of Not? An Exploratory Study of Native Language Proficiency. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Landauer, T, & Dumais, S.T.
(1997) A solution to Plato’s Problem: The Latent Analysis Theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104, 211–240. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Langacker, R.W.
(2008) Cognitive grammar as a basis for language instruction. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 66–88). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Lantolf, J.P., & Frawley, W.
(1988)Proficiency: Understanding the construct. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10, 181–195. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lantolf, J.P.
(2011) Sociocultural theory: A dialectical approach to L2 research. In S.M. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 57–72). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D.
(2011) A complexity theory approach to second language development/acquisition. In D. Atkinson (Ed.), Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L.
(2008) Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Le Dorze, G., & Bedard, C.
(1998) Effects of age and education on the lexico-semantic content of connected speech in adults. Journal of Communication Disorders, 31, 53–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J.-W., & Schallert, D.L.
(1997) The relative contribution of L2 language proficiency and L1 reading ability to L2 reading performance: A test of the Threshold Hypothesis in an EFL context. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 713–739. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Levelt, W.J.M.
(1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: Bradford & The MIT Press.Google Scholar
(2013) A History of Psycholinguistics: The Pre-Chomskyan Era. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Li, D., Zhang, X, & Wang, G.
(2011) Senior Chinese high school students’ awareness of thematic and taxonomic relations in L1 and L2. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 444–457. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lieven, E.
(2006) Variation in first language acquisition. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (2nd ed.), (Vol. B; pp. 350–354). Amsterdam: Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009) Developing constructions. Cognitive Linguistics, 20, 191–199. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M.
(2008) Children’s first language acquisition from a usage-based perspective. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 168–196). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Little, D.
(2007) The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Perspectives on the making of supranational language education policy. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 645–653. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Long, M.
(2013) Maturational constraints on child and adult SLA. In G. Granena & M. Long (Eds.), Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment (pp. 3–141). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Long, M.H., Gor, K., & Jackson, S.
(2012) Linguistic correlates of second language proficiency: Proof of concept with IRL 2-3 in Russian. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 99–126. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Luoma, S.
2004Assessing Speaking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
MacDonald, M.C., & Christiansen, M.H.
(2002) Reassessing working memory: A comment on Just & Carpenter (1992) and Waters & Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 35–54. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mackenzie, C.
(2000) Adult spoken discourse: The influences of age and education. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35, 269–285. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mackenzie, C., Brady M. , Norrie J. , & Poedjianto, N.
(2007) Picture description in neurologically normal adults: Concepts and topic coherence. Aphasiology, 21, 340–354. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
MacWhinney, B.
(1989) Competition and connectionism. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 422–457). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
(Ed.) (1999) The Emergence of Language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(2008) A unified model. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 341–371). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
(2011) The logic of the Unified Model. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
McNamara, T.
(1996) Measuring Second Language Performance. London, UK: Addison-Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
(2014) 30 Years on – Evolution or revolution? Language Assessment Quarterly, 11, 226–232. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mandler, J.
(2004) The Foundations of Mind: Origins of Conceptual Thought. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Meara, P.M., Olmos, A., & Juan, C.
(2010) Words as species: An alternative approach to estimating productive vocabulary size. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22, 222–236.Google Scholar
Meijer, A., de Groot, H.M., van Boxtel, P.J., van Gerven, W.M., & Jolles, J.
(2008) Are age differences in verbal learning related to interstimulus interval and education? Experimental Aging Research, 34, 323–339. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meisel, J.M.
(2011) First and Second Language Acquisition: Parallels and Differences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Messick, S.
(1989) Validity. In R.L. Linn (Ed.), Educational Measurement (pp. 13–103). Washington, DC: American Council on Education and National Council on Measurement in Education.Google Scholar
Mesthrie, R.
(2001) Concise Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Mesthrie, R., Swann, J., Deumert, A., & Leap, W.L.
(2009) Introducing sociolinguistics (2nd Ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Mills, J.A., & Hemsley, G.D.
(1976) The effect of level of education on judgments of grammatical acceptability. Language and Speech, 19, 324–342.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Milton, J.
(2009) Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Mitchell, M.
(2009) Complexity. A Guided Tour. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Montrul, S.A.
(2008) Incomplete Acquisition in Bilingualism: Re-examining the Age Factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, K., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2011) Linguistic skills of adult native speakers, as a function of age and level of education. Applied Linguistics, 32, 475–494. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Munby, J.
(1978) Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nagy, W.E., & Herman, P.A.
(1987) Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M.G. McKeown & M. Curtis (Eds.), The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Nation, I.S.P.
(1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. New York, NY: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Neils, J., Baris, J., Carter, C., Delláira, A., Nordloh, S., Weiler, E., & Wesiger, B.
(1995) Effects of age, education, and living environment on Boston Naming Test performance. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 1143–1149. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nippold, M.A.
(2006) Language development in school-age children, adolescents, and adults. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Norris, J.M., & Ortega, L.
(2012) Assessing learner knowledge. In S. Gass & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 573–589). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
North, B.
(2007) The CEFR illustrative descriptor scales. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 656–659. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
North, B., & Schneider, G.
(1998) Scaling descriptors for language proficiency scales. Language Testing, 15, 217–262. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
O’Grady, W.
(2005) Syntactic Carpentry: An Emergentist Approach to Syntax. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
(2012) Language acquisition without an acquisition device. Language Teaching, 45, 116–130. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
OECD
(2013) OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Publishing. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oller Jr., J.W.
(1981) Language as intelligence? Language Learning, 31, 465–492. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1983a) Evidence for a general language proficiency factor: An expectancy grammar. In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.), Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 3–10). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
(1983b) A consensus for the eighties? In J.W. Oller Jr. (Ed.), Issues in Language Testing Research (pp. 351–356). Rowley MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Olson, D.R.
(2003) The cognitive consequences of literacy. In T. Nunes & P. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of Children’s Literacy (pp. 539–555). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Olson. D.R.
(1977) From utterace to text: The bias of language in speech and writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257–281. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ortega, L.
(2014) Trying out theories on interlanguage: Description and explanation over 40 years of L2 negation research. In Z. Han & E. Tarone (Eds.). Interlanguage: 40 Years Later (pp. 173–201). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pakulak, E., & Neville, H.J.
(2010) Proficiency differences in syntactic processing of monolingual native speakers indexed by event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2728–2744. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paradis, M.
(2004) A Neurolinguistic Theory of Bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Patricacou, A., Psallida, E., Pring, T., & Dipper, L.
(2007) The Boston Naming Test in Greek: Normative data and the effects of age and education on naming. Aphasiology, 21, 1157–1170. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pavlenko, A., & Blackledge, A.
(2004) New theoretical approaches of the study of negotiation of identity in multilingual contexts. In A. Pavlenko & A. Blackledge (Eds.), Negotiation of Identity in Multilingual Contexts (pp. 1–33). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Pennington, M.C., & So, S.
(1993) Comparing writing processes and product across two languages: A study of 6 Singaporean university student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2, 41–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perfetti, C.A.
(1985) Reading Ability. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
(1999) Comprehending written language: A blueprint for the reader. In C. Brown & P. Hagoort (Eds.), Neurocognition of Language (pp. 167–208). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Perkins, K., Brutten, S.R., & Pohlmann, J.T.
(1989) First and second reading comprehension. RELC Journal, 20, 1–9. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pichette, F., Segalowitz, N., & Connors, K.
(2003) Impact of maintaining L1 reading skills on L2 reading skill development in adults: Evidence from speakers of Serbo-Croatian learning French. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 391–403. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pienemann, M.
(2005) Cross-linguistic Aspects of Processability Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pienemann, M., Keßler, J-U., & Itani-Adams, Y.
(2011) Comparing processability across languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 128–146. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Plomin, R., & Spinath, F.M.
(2004) Intelligence: genetics, genes, and genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 112–129. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Popper, K.R.
(1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
Purpura, J.E.
(1998) Investigating the effects of strategy use and second language test performance with high- and low-ability test takers: A structural equation modelling approach. Language Testing, 15, 333–379.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2008) Assessing communicative language ability: Models and their components. In E. Shohamy & N.H. Hornberger (eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, (2nd ed.), Language Testing and Assessment (Vol. 7; pp. 53–68). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Raoofi, S., Chan, S.-H., Mukundan, J., & Rashid, S.M.
(2014) Metacognition and second-foreign language learning. English Language Teaching, 7, 36–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G.A.
(2000) A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Rebuschat, P., & Williams, J.
(Eds.) (2012) Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Reuland, E.
(2012) How linguistic performance may differ accorss speakers? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 287–292. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Roeper, T.
(2012) Empty myth-making. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2, 293–297. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rost, M.
(2002) Teaching and Researching Listening. Harlow, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
Salthouse, T.A.
(2009) When does age-related cognitive decline begin? Neurobiology of aging, 30, 507–514. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sampson, G.
(2001) Empirical Linguistics. London, UK: Continuum.Google Scholar
Sasaki, M.
(1993) Relationships among second language proficiency, foreign language aptitude, and intelligence: A structural equation modeling approach. Language Learning, 43, 313–344. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sasaki, M., & Hirose, K.
(1996) Explanatory variables for EFL students’ expository writing. Language Learning, 46, 137–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Saville, N., & R. Hawkey
(2010) The English Profile Programme: The first three years. English Profile Journal, 1, 1–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schachter, J.
(1990) Communicative competence revisited. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The Development of Second Language Proficiency (pp. 39–49). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmid, M.S.
(2011) Language Attrition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmid, M.S., & Mehotcheva, T.
(2012) Foreign language attrition. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1, 102–124. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, N.
(2008) Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12, 329–363. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R.M.
(1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing, I: Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schoonen, R.
(2005) Generalizability of writing scores: An application of structural equation modeling. Language Testing, 22, 1–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2011) How language ability is assessed. In E. Hikel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, (Vol. II; pp. 701–716). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Schoonen, R., & De Glopper, K.
(1996) Writing performance and knowledge about writing. In G. Rijlaarsdam, H. v. d. Bergh, & M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research (pp. 87–107). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Schoonen, R., Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B.
(1998) Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language Learning, 48, 71–106. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schoonen, R., Snellings, P., Stevenson, M., & van Gelderen, A.
(2009) Towards a blueprint of the foreign language writer: The linguistic and cognitive demands of foreign language writing. In R.M. Manchón (Ed.), Writing in Foreign Language Contexts. Learning, Teaching, and Research (pp. 77–101). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M.
(2003) First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic fluency, linguistic knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53, 165–202. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Snellings, P., Simis, A., & Stevenson, M.
(2002) Linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and retrieval speed in L1, L2 and EFL writing. A structural equation modeling approach. In S. Ransdell & M.-L. Barbier (Eds.), New Directions for Research in L2 Writing (pp. 101–122). Dordrecht: Kluwer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., Stoel, R., Hulstijn, J. & de Glopper, K.
(2011) Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary-school students. Language Learning, 61, 31–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N.
(2000) Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on Fluency (pp. 200–219). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
(2010) Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Shiotsu, T., & Weir, C.J.
(2007) The relative significance of syntactic knowledge and vocabulary breadth in the prediction of reading comprehension performance. Language Testing, 24, 99–128. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Simos, P., Kasselimis, D., & Mouzaki, A.
(2011) Age, gender, and education effects on vocabulary measures in Greek. Aphasiology, 25, 475–491. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sinclair, J.
(1991) Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
(2004) Trust the Text: Language, Corpus and Discourse. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Skehan, P.
(1989) Individual Differences in Second-language Learning. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Slobin, D.I.
(1997) The origins of grammaticizable notions: Beyond the individual mind. In D.I. Slobin (Ed.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition (Vol. 5; pp. 265–323). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Smith, M.
(1941) Measurement of the size of general English vocabulary through the elementary grades and high school. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 24, 311–345.Google Scholar
Snellings, P., van Gelderen, A. & de Glopper, K.
(2004) The effect of enhanced lexical retrieval on L2 writing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 175–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L.
(2012) Profiles of more and less successful L2 learners: A cluster analysis study. Language and Individual differences, 22, 463–472. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., & Humbach, N.
(2009a) Long-term relationships among early first language skills, second language aptitude, second language affect, and later second language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30, 725–755. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2009b) Long-term crosslinguistic transfer of skills from L1 to L2. Language Learning, 59, 203–243. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R.L., Patton, J., Ganschow, L., Humbach, N., & Javorsky, J.
(2008) Early first-language reading and spelling skills predict later second-language reading and spelling skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 162–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Spearman, C.
(1927) The Abilities of Man. London, UK: McMillan.Google Scholar
Spolsky, S.
(1989) Conditions for Second Language Learning. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stanovich, K.E.
(1991) Word recognition: Changing perspectives. In R. Barr, M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, & P.D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. 2, pp. 418–452). New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L.
(Eds.) (2000) The General Factor of Intelligence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Street, J.A., & Dąbrowska, E.
(2010) More individual differences in language attainment: How much do adult native speakers of English know about passives and quantifiers? Lingua, 120, 2080–2094. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Street, J., & Dąbrowska, E.
(2014) Lexically specific knowledge and individual differences in adult native speakers’ processing of the English passive. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 97–118. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M.
(1993) Second language testing and second language acquisition: Is there a conflict with traditional psychometrics? Language Testing, 10, 193–207. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M., Lapkin, S., & Barik, H.C.
(1976) The cloze test as a measure of second language proficiency among young children. Working Papers in Bilingualism, 11, 32–42.Google Scholar
Taillefer, G.F.
(1996) L2 reading ability: Further insight into the Short-Circuit Hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 461–477. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tallberg, I.M.
(2005) The Boston Naming Test in Swedish: Normative data. Brain and Language, 94, 19–31. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Talmy, L.
(2008) Aspects of attention in language. In P. Robinson & N.C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 27–38). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Thomas, M.
(1994)Assessment of L2 proficiency in second language acquisition research. Language Learning, 44, 307–336. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thorndike, R.L.
(1973–1974) Reading as reasoning. Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 135–147. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1994) g. Intelligence, 19, 145–155. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thurstone, L.L.
(1938) Primary mental abilities. Psychometric Monographs, 1.Google Scholar
Tinbergen, N.
(1963) On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tokowicz, N., Michael, E.B., & Kroll, J.F.
(2004) The roles of study-abroad experience and working-memory capacity in the types of errors made during translation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 255–272. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tomasello, M.
(2008) The Origins of Communication. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Towell, R., & Hawkins, R.
(1994) Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Trapman, M.
. (in preparation, a). Reading comprehension level and development in monolingual and bilingual adolescent low achievers: Roles of linguistic and metacognitive knowledge and fluency.
. (in preparation, b). Components of writing proficiency level and writing development of low-achieving adolescents; the roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge.
Trapman, M., van Gelderen, A., van Steensel, R., van Schooten, E., & Hulstijn, J.
(2014) Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: Differences between monolinguals and bilinguals. Journal of Research in Reading, 37, Special Issue, S3–S21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Treffers-Daller, J.
(2011) Operationalizing and measuring language dominance. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 147–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Trim, J.
(2012) The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and its background: A case study of cultural politics and educational influences. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The Globalisation of Language Education Policy (pp. 14–33). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Trout, J.D.
(1999) Measurement. In W.H. Newton-Smith (Ed.), A companion to the philosophy of science (pp. 265–276). Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Turner, J.
(1998) Assessing speaking. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 192–207. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ullman, M.T.
(2004) Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92, 231–270. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Umbel, V.M., & Oller, D.K.
(1994) Developmental changes in receptive vocabulary in Hispanic bilingual school children. Language Learning, 44, 221–242. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Uzawa, K.
(1996) Second language learners’ processes of L1 writing, L2 writing, and translation from L1 into L2. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 271–294. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Boxtel, S., Bongaerts, T., & Coppen, P.-A.
(2005) Native-like attainment of dummy subjects in Dutch and the role of the L1. IRAL, 43, 355–380. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M.P., van Breukelen, G.J., & Jolles, J.
(2005) Rey’s verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 290–302. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van der Maas, H.L.J., Dolan, C.V., Grasman, R.P.P.P., Wicherts, J.M., Huizinga, H.M., & Raijmakers, M.E.J.
(2006) A dynamic model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychological Review, 113, 842–861. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Ek, J.A.
(1976) The Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning in Schools. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
Van Gelderen, A. & Oostdam, R.J.
(2005) Effects of fluency training on the application of linguistic operations in writing. L1 – Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 5(2), 215–240. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M.
(2004) Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension: A componential analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 19–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Snellings, P., Simis, A. & Stevenson, M.
(2003) Roles of linguistic knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and processing speed in L3, L2 and L1 reading comprehension: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Bilingualism, 7, 7–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Gelderen, A., Schoonen, R., Stoel, R.D., de Glopper, K., & Hulstijn, J.
(2007) Development of adolescent reading comprehension in language 1 and language 2: A longitudinal analysis of constituent components. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 477–491. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Steensel, R., Oostdam, R., van Gelderen, A., & van Schooten, E.
. (under revision). The role of word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge in mono- and bilingual low achieving adolescents’ reading comprehension.
Vandergrift, L.
(2007) Recent developments in second and foreign language listening comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40, 191–210. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
VanPatten, B., & Williams, J.
(2007) Introduction: The nature of theories. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams, Theories in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 1–16). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M.P.J., van Breukelen, G.J.P., & Jolles, J.
(2005) Ray’s verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 290–302. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Verhoeven, L.T.
(1994) Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44, 381–415. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vermeer, A.
(2001) Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217–234. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vollmer, H.J.
(1983) The structure of foreign language competence. In A. Hughes & D. Porter (Eds.), Current Developments in Language Testing (pp. 3–30). London, UK: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Von Studnitz, R.E., & Green, D.W.
(2002a) Interlingual homograph interference in German-English bilinguals: Its modulation and locus of control. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 1–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wardhaugh, R.
(2010) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, (8th ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Weigle, S.C.
(2002) Assessing Writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wells, G.
(1986) Variation in child language. In P. Fletcher & M. Garman (Eds.), Language Acquisition (pp. 109–139). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
White, L.
(2003) Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge, UK: Cambrdige University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Widdowson, H.G.
(1978) Teaching English as Communication. London, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Wray, A.
(2002) Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wright, H.H., & Capilouto, G.J.
(2009) Manipulating task instructions to change narrative discourse performance. Aphasiology, 23, 1295–1308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wright, H.H., Koutsoftas, A.D., Capilouto, G.J., & Fergadiotis, G.
. (in press). Global coherence in younger and older adults: Influence of cognitive processes and discrouse type. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition: A Journal on Normal and Dysfunctional Development. First view online. Crossref
Yamashita, J.
(2002) Mutual compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 language proficiency in L2 reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 81–95. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zechmeister, E.B., D’Anna, C., Hall, J.W., Paus, C.H., & Smith, J. A.
(1993) Metacognitive and other knowledge about the mental lexicon: Do we know how many words we know? Applied Linguistics, 14, 188–206. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zipf, G.K.
(1935) The Psycho-biology of Language: An Introduction to Dynamic Philology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Bell, Philippa, Véronique Fortier & Isabelle Gauvin
2020. Using L1 knowledge about language during L2 error correction: do students make cross-linguistic connections?. Language Awareness 29:2  pp. 95 ff. Crossref logo
Berthele, Raphael & Jan Vanhove
2020. What would disprove interdependence? Lessons learned from a study on biliteracy in Portuguese heritage language speakers in Switzerland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 23:5  pp. 550 ff. Crossref logo
BLAKE, ROBERT
2015. The Messy Task of Evaluating Proficiency in Online Language Courses. The Modern Language Journal 99:2  pp. 408 ff. Crossref logo
Blake, Robert J.
2017.  In The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning,  pp. 107 ff. Crossref logo
Annick De Houwer & Lourdes Ortega
2018.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism, Crossref logo
Deygers, Bart
2019. The CEFR Companion Volume: Between Research-Based Policy and Policy-Based Research. Applied Linguistics Crossref logo
Deygers, Bart, Beate Zeidler, Dina Vilcu & Cecilie Hamnes Carlsen
2018. One Framework to Unite Them All? Use of the CEFR in European University Entrance Policies. Language Assessment Quarterly 15:1  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
Duran-Karaoz, Zeynep & Parvaneh Tavakoli
2020. PREDICTING L2 FLUENCY FROM L1 FLUENCY BEHAVIOR. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 42:4  pp. 671 ff. Crossref logo
Dąbrowska, Ewa
2019. Experience, Aptitude, and Individual Differences in Linguistic Attainment: A Comparison of Native and Nonnative Speakers. Language Learning 69  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
Ellis, Rod, Peter Skehan, Shaofeng Li, Natsuko Shintani & Craig Lambert
2019.  In Task-Based Language Teaching, Crossref logo
Heeren, Jordi, Dirk Speelman & Lieve De Wachter
2020. A practical academic reading and vocabulary screening test as a predictor of achievement in first-year university students: implications for test purpose and use. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2015.  In Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages [Studies in Bilingualism, 48],  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2019. An Individual-Differences Framework for Comparing Nonnative With Native Speakers: Perspectives From BLC Theory. Language Learning 69  pp. 157 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2020. Proximate and ultimate explanations of individual differences in language use and language acquisition. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H. & S.J. Andringa
2014.  In Above and Beyond the Segments,  pp. 152 ff. Crossref logo
Jakobson, Liivi
2018. Teacher written feedback on adult beginners’ writing in a second language. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 169:2  pp. 235 ff. Crossref logo
Koda, Keiko & Sihui Echo Ke
2018.  In The Handbook of Advanced Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition,  pp. 483 ff. Crossref logo
MARSDEN, EMMA, SOPHIE THOMPSON & LUKE PLONSKY
2018. A methodological synthesis of self-paced reading in second language research. Applied Psycholinguistics 39:5  pp. 861 ff. Crossref logo
McManus, Kevin & Yingying Liu
2020. Using elicited imitation to measure global oral proficiency in SLA research: A close replication study. Language Teaching  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Moore, Paul J. & Michael Harrington
2016. Fractionating English language proficiency: policy and practice in Australian higher education. Current Issues in Language Planning 17:3-4  pp. 385 ff. Crossref logo
Morton, Tom
2018. Reconceptualizing and describing teachers’ knowledge of language for content and language integrated learning (CLIL). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 21:3  pp. 275 ff. Crossref logo
Pallotti, Gabriele
2019. Assessing Tasks: The Case of Interactional Difficulty. Applied Linguistics 40:1  pp. 176 ff. Crossref logo
Paquot, Magali
2018. Phraseological Competence: A Missing Component in University Entrance Language Tests? Insights From a Study of EFL Learners’ Use of Statistical Collocations. Language Assessment Quarterly 15:1  pp. 29 ff. Crossref logo
Son, Young-A
2017. Toward Useful Assessment and Evaluation of Heritage Language Learning. Foreign Language Annals 50:2  pp. 367 ff. Crossref logo
Ströbel, Marcus, Elma Kerz & Daniel Wiechmann
2020. The Relationship Between First and Second Language Writing: Investigating the Effects of First Language Complexity on Second Language Complexity in Advanced Stages of Learning. Language Learning 70:3  pp. 732 ff. Crossref logo
Tiselius, Elisabet & Birgitta Englund Dimitrova
2019. Asymmetrical language proficiency in dialogue interpreters. Translation, Cognition & Behavior 2:2  pp. 305 ff. Crossref logo
Torres, Julio
2020. Heritage language learners’ written texts across pair types and interaction mode. Language Teaching Research  pp. 136216882093318 ff. Crossref logo
TORRES, JULIO & BIANCA CUNG
2019. A Comparison of Advanced Heritage Language Learners’ Peer Interaction Across Modes and Pair Types. The Modern Language Journal 103:4  pp. 815 ff. Crossref logo
Trapman, Mirjam, Amos van Gelderen, Erik van Schooten & Jan Hulstijn
2017. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency. Reading & Writing Quarterly 33:3  pp. 239 ff. Crossref logo
Trapman, Mirjam, Amos van Gelderen, Erik van Schooten & Jan Hulstijn
2018. Writing proficiency level and writing development of low-achieving adolescents: the roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency, and metacognitive knowledge. Reading and Writing 31:4  pp. 893 ff. Crossref logo
Wallace, Matthew P.
2020. Individual Differences in Second Language Listening: Examining the Role of Knowledge, Metacognitive Awareness, Memory, and Attention. Language Learning Crossref logo
Wang, Zhan, Peter Skehan & Gaowei Chen
2019. The effects of hybrid online planning and L2 proficiency on video-based speaking task performance. Instructed Second Language Acquisition 3:1  pp. 53 ff. Crossref logo
Xiao, Feng, Naoko Taguchi & Shuai Li
2019. EFFECTS OF PROFICIENCY SUBSKILLS ON PRAGMATIC DEVELOPMENT IN L2 CHINESE STUDY ABROAD. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 41:2  pp. 469 ff. Crossref logo
Zyzik, Eve C. & Ruben A. Sanchez
2019. Beyond accuracy: Heritage speakers’ performance on two kinds of acceptability judgment tasks. Applied Psycholinguistics 40:03  pp. 645 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 25 october 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CFDC – Language acquisition
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014044220 | Marc record