Lexical Input Processing and Vocabulary Learning

| Washington University in St. Louis
ISBN 9789027213280 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
ISBN 9789027213297 | EUR 33.00 | USD 49.95
ISBN 9789027268051 | EUR 95.00/33.00*
| USD 143.00/49.95*
This book focuses on theory, research, and practice related to lexical input processing (lex-IP), an exciting field exploring how learners allocate their limited processing resources when exposed to words and lexical phrases in the input. Unit 1 specifies parameters of lex-IP research among other levels of input processing as well as key components (form, meaning, mapping) and contexts (incidental/intentional) of vocabulary learning. Unit 2 highlights theoretical advances, such as the type of processing – resource allocation (TOPRA) model, consistent with research on tasks (sentence writing, word copying, word retrieval) that learners may perform during vocabulary learning. Unit 3 highlights patterns in partial word form learning and input-based effects, including the value of increased exposure, drawbacks of presenting vocabulary in semantic sets, and advantages of input enhancement, particularly with regard to increasing talker, speaking-style, and speaking-rate variability in spoken input. The book unifies a range of research pertinent to lex-IP, summarizes theoretical and instructional implications, and proposes intriguing new directions for future research.
[Language Learning & Language Teaching, 43]  2015.  xi, 194 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Understanding lex-ip
Chapter 2. Multiple Levels of Input Processing and Language Learning
Chapter 3. Three Key Components of Learning a Word: Form, Meaning, Mapping
Chapter 4. Contexts of Lexical Input Processing: L1/L2 and Incidental/Intentional
Task-based effects
Chapter 5. Specificity in Type of Processing and Learning: The TOPRA Model
Chapter 6. Effects of Tasks Involving Semantic and Structural Elaboration
Chapter 7. Effects of Output with and without Access to Meaning
Chapter 8. Effects of Opportunities for Target Word Retrieval
Input-based effects
Chapter 9. Privileging and Patterns in Partial Word Form Learning
Chapter 10. Effects of Increased and Spaced Exposure
Chapter 11. Effects of Semantic versus Thematic Sets
Chapter 12. Effects of Input Enhancement
Chapter 13. Effects of Acoustically Varied Input
Conclusions and future research
Chapter 14. Summary of Theoretical and Instructional Implications
Chapter 15. Directions for Future Research
Appendix A
Appendix B
Lexical Input Processing and Vocabulary Learning is informative and benefits from a readable style of writing, clear organization and classification of content as a whole and in each chapter, smooth and easy reading, and clear presentation of ideas to the SLA researchers, students, and instructors interested in lex-IP for whom it is intended.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Barclay, Samuel & Norbert Schmitt
2019.  In Second Handbook of English Language Teaching [Springer International Handbooks of Education, ],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Barclay, Samuel & Norbert Schmitt
2019.  In Second Handbook of English Language Teaching [Springer International Handbooks of Education, ],  pp. 799 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank, Tu Cam Thi Dang & Brian Strong
2017. Comparing the effectiveness of phrase-focused exercises: A partial replication of Boers, Demecheleer, Coxhead, and Webb (2014). Language Teaching Research 21:3  pp. 362 ff. Crossref logo
Boers, Frank, Paul Warren, Gina Grimshaw & Anna Siyanova-Chanturia
2017. On the benefits of multimodal annotations for vocabulary uptake from reading. Computer Assisted Language Learning 30:7  pp. 709 ff. Crossref logo
Endley, Martin J.
2018. When Arabic Speakers Read English Words. SSRN Electronic Journal Crossref logo
Jelani, Nurul Aini Mohd & Frank Boers
2018. Examining incidental vocabulary acquisition from captioned video. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 169:1  pp. 169 ff. Crossref logo
Jelani, Nurul Aini Mohd & Frank Boers
2020.  In Approaches to Learning, Testing and Researching L2 Vocabulary [Benjamins Current Topics, 109], Crossref logo
Lindstromberg, Seth & June Eyckmans
2020. The effect of frequency on learners’ ability to recall the forms of deliberately learned L2 multiword expressions. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics 171:1  pp. 2 ff. Crossref logo
Méndez Santos, María del Carmen
2019. Rodrigo, Victoria (2019). La comprensión lectora en la enseñanza del español LE/L2: de la teoría a la práctica. Londres/Nueva York: Routledge.. EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages 6:1  pp. 78 ff. Crossref logo
Nakata, Tatsuya
Ortega, Gerardo
2017. Iconicity and Sign Lexical Acquisition: A Review. Frontiers in Psychology 8 Crossref logo
Reynolds, Barry Lee, Wei-Hua Wu & Ying-Chun Shih
2020. Which Elements Matter? Constructing Word Cards for English Vocabulary Growth. SAGE Open 10:2  pp. 215824402091951 ff. Crossref logo
Snoder, Per & Barry Lee Reynolds
2019. How dictogloss can facilitate collocation learning in ELT. ELT Journal 73:1  pp. 41 ff. Crossref logo
Webb, Stuart & Paul Nation
2018.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Zamuner, Tania S., Stephanie Strahm, Elizabeth Morin-Lessard & Michael P.A. Page
2018. Reverse production effect: children recognize novel words better when they are heard rather than produced. Developmental Science 21:4  pp. e12636 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 02 june 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.



Abbs, B., Gupta, P., & Khetarpal, N.
(2008) Is overt repetition critical to expressive word learning? The role of overt repetition in word learning with and without semantics. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29(4), 627–667. Crossref link
Abercrombie, D.
(1967) Elements of general phonetics. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Ahmed, M.O.
(1989) Vocabulary learning strategies. In P. Meara (Ed.), Beyond words. London: British Association for Applied Linguistics in association with Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
Aitchison, J.
(1994) Words in the mind: An introduction to the mental lexicon, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
Aitchison, J. & Straf, M.
(1982) Lexical storage and retrieval: A developing skill? In A. Cutler (Ed.), Slips of the tongue and language production (pp. 197–241). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Crossref link
Al-Seghayer, K.
(2001) The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning & Technology, 5(1), 202–232.
Amer, A.A.
(1986) Semantic field theory and vocabulary teaching. English Teaching Forum, 24(1), 30–31.
Anderson, J.R.
(2000) Learning and memory: An integrated approach, 2nd edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Assmann, P.F., Nearey, T.M., & Hogan, J.
(1982) Vowel identification: Orthographic, perceptual, and acoustic aspects, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 71, 975–989. Crossref link
Atkinson, R.C., & Raugh, M.R.
(1975) An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 104, 126–133. Crossref link
Azari, F.
(2012) Review of effects of textual glosses on incidental vocabulary learning. International Journal of Innovative Ideas, 12(2), 13–24.
Baese-Berk, M.M., & Samuel, A.G.
. (in press). Listeners beware: Speech production may be bad for learning speech sounds. Journal of Memory and Language.
Bahrick, H.P.
(1979) Maintenance of knowledge: Questions about memory we forgot to ask. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108|(3), 296–308. Crossref link
Bahrick, H.P., Bahrick, L.E., Bahrick, A.S., & Bahrick, P.E.
(1993) Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science, 4, 316–321. Crossref link
Barcroft, J.
(1998a, October) L2 vocabulary learning: Do sentence writing and oral repetition help? Poster presentation at the Second Language Research Forum, Honolulu, Hawai’i.
(1998b, April). The Effects of Three Processing Conditions on L2 Vocabulary Learning. Applied Linguistics Colloquium, Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
(2000a) The effects of sentence writing as semantic elaboration on the allocation of processing resources and second language lexical acquisition. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
(2000b) The nature of partial word form learning. Presentation on November 18, 2000 at Fourth Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, Bloomington, IN.
(2002a) Semantic and structural elaboration in L2 lexical acquisition. Language Learning, 52(2), 323–363. Crossref link
(2002b) Strategies and performance on an immediate lexical learning task. Poster presented at the Second Language Research Forum, Toronto, Canada, October.
(2003a) Distinctiveness and bidirectional effects in input enhancement for vocabulary learning. Applied Language Learning, 13, 133–159.
(2003b) Effects of questions about word meaning during L2 lexical learning. The Modern Language Journal, 87(4), 546–561. Crossref link
(2004a) Effects of sentence writing in L2 lexical acquisition. Second Language Research, 20(4), 303–334. Crossref link
(2004b) Second language vocabulary acquisition: A lexical input processing approach. Foreign Language Annals, 37(2), 200–208. Crossref link
(2004c) Theoretical and methodological issues in research on semantic and structural elaboration in lexical acquisition. In B. VanPatten, J. Williams, S. Rott, & M. Overstreet (Eds.), Form-meaning connections in second language acquisition (pp. 219–234). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(2005) La enseñanza del vocabulario en español como segunda lengua [Vocabulary instruction in Spanish as a second language]. Hispania, 88(3), 568–583. Crossref link
(2006) Can writing a new word detract from learning it? More negative effects of forced output during vocabulary learning. Second Language Research, 22(4), 487–497. Crossref link
(2007a) Effects of opportunities for word retrieval during second language vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 57(1), 35–56. Crossref link
(2007b) Effects of word and fragment writing during L2 vocabulary learning. Foreign Language Annals, 40(4), 713–726. Crossref link
(2008) Second language partial word form learning in the written mode. Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada, 47, 53–72.
(2009) Effects of synonym generation in incidental and intentional vocabulary learning during second language reading. TESOL Quarterly, 43(1), 79–103. Crossref link
(2012) Input-based incremental vocabulary instruction. Arlington, VA: TESOL International.
(2013) Four input retrieval patterns and incidentally oriented vocabulary learning during reading. Presentation on December 20, 2013 at Vocab at Vic Conference at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
. (2015). Can Retrieval Opportunities Increase Vocabulary Learning During Reading? Foreign Language Annals, 48(2), 236–249. Crossref link
Barcroft, J., & Rott, S.
(2010) Partial word form learning in the written mode in L2 German and Spanish. Applied Linguistics, 31(5), 623–650. Crossref link
Barcroft, J., & Sommers, M.S.
(2005) Effects of acoustic variability on second language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(3), 387–414. Crossref link
Barcroft, J., & Sommers. M.
(2014a) A theoretical account of the effects of acoustic variability on word learning and speech processing. In V. Torrens & L. Escobar (Eds.), The processing of lexicon and morphosyntax (pp. 7–24). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Barcroft, J., & Sommers, M.
(2014b) Effects of variability in fundamental frequency on L2 vocabulary learning: A comparison between learners who do and do not speak a tone language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36(3), 423–449. Crossref link
Barcroft, J., Sommers, M., & Sunderman, G.
(2011) Some costs of fooling Mother Nature: A priming study on the keyword method and the quality of developing L2 lexical representation. In P. Trofimovic & K. McDonough (Eds.), Applying priming research to L2 learning and teaching: Insights from psycholinguistics (pp. 49–72). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Basi, R.K., Thomas, M.H., & Wang, A.Y.
(1997) Bilingual generation effect: Variations in participant type and list type. Journal of General Psychology, 124(2), 216–222. Crossref link
Begg, I., & Snider, A.
(1987) The generation effect: Evidence for generalized inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 13, 553–563. Crossref link
Bogaards, P.
(2001) Lexical units and the learning of foreign language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(3), 321–343. Crossref link
Bjork, R.R.
(1975) Retrieval as a memory modifier. In R. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium (pp. 123–144). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bloom, K.C., & Shuell, T.J.
(1981) Effects of massed and distributed practice on the learning and retention of second-language vocabulary. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 245–248. Crossref link
Bradlow, A.R., Pisoni, D.B, Akahane-Yamada, R., & Tohkura, Y.
(1997) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: IV. Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 2299–2310. Crossref link
Brown, R., & McNeill, D.
(1966) The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 325–337. Crossref link
Brown, T., & Perry, F. Jr
(1991) A comparison of three learning strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 655–670. Crossref link
Burfoot, S.
(2010) Effects of synonym generation on incidental and intentionalL2 vocabulary learning during reading: A replication of Barcroft (2009). Academia.edu: http://​www​.academia​.edu​/669738​/The​_Effects​_of​_Synonym​_Generation​_on​_L2​_Vocabulary​_Recall
Cassagne, J.M.
(1995) 101 Spanish idioms. Understanding Spanish language and culture through popular phrases. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books.
Channell, J.
(1988) Psycholinguistic considerations in the study of L2 vocabulary acquisition. In R. Carter & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching (pp. 83–96). London: Longman.
Chen-Chun, C.L.
(2013) Partial word knowledge: Insights from an analysis of word learnability. Poster presentation at the Vocab at Vic Conference in Wellington, New Zealand, December.
Chun, D., & Plass, J.L.
(2011) Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 183–198. Crossref link
Coady, J.
(1997) L2 vocabulary acquisition: A synthesis of research. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 273–290). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Coomber, J.E., Ramstad, D.A., & Sheets, D.R.
(1986) Elaboration in vocabulary learning: A comparison of three rehearsal methods. Research in the Teaching of English, 20, 281–293.
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S.
(1972) Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684. Crossref link
Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E.
(1975) Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory research. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268–294. Crossref link
Crutcher, R.J., & Healy, A.F.
(1989) Cognitive operations and the generation effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition, 15, 669–675. Crossref link
DeKeyser R., Salaberry, R., Robinson, P., & Harrington, M.
(2002) What gets processed in processing instruction? A commentary on Bill VanPatten’s “processing instruction: An update”. Language Learning, 52, 805–823. Crossref link
Dempster, F.N.
(1987) Effects of variable encoding and spaced presentations on vocabulary learning. Journal of Education Psychology, 79, 162–170. Crossref link
Doughty, C., & Williams, J.
(1998) Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197–202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dunbar, S.
(1992) Developing vocabulary by integrating language and context. TESL Canada Journal, 9(2), 73–79. Crossref link
Ebbinghaus, H.
(1885) Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie [Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology] (in German). Trans. Henry A. Ruger & Clara E. Bussenius. Leipzig, Germany: Duncker & Humblot. See also English version online: http://​psychclassics​.yorku​.ca​/Ebbinghaus​/index​.htm
Ellis, N.
(1994) Vocabulary acquisition: The implicit ins and outs of explicit cognitive mediation. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ellis, N., & Beaton, A.
(1993) Factors affecting the learning of foreign language vocabulary: Imagery keyword mediators and phonological short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46A, 533–558. Crossref link
(1995) Psycholinguistic determinants of foreign language vocabulary learning. In B. Harley (Ed.), Lexical issues in language learning (pp. 107–165). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Erten, I.H., & Tekin, M.
(2008) Effects on vocabulary acquisition of presenting new words in semantic sets versus semantically unrelated sets. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 407–422. Crossref link
Eysenck, M.W.
(1979) Depth, elaboration, and distinctiveness. In S. Laird, I. Cermak, & M. Fergus (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 189–215). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J.
(2003) Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369–383. Crossref link
Fitzpatrick, T., Barfield, A.
(Eds.) (2009) Lexical processing in second language learners: Papers and perspectives in honour of Paul Meara. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Folse, K.
(2006) The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 273–293. Crossref link
Folse, K., & Chien, Y.
(2003) Using L2 research on multimedia annotations to evaluate CALL vocabulary materials. Sunshine State TESOL Journal, 2, 25–37.
Gass, S.
(1997) Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(1999) Discussion: Incidental vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 319–333. Crossref link
Gates, A.I.
(1917) Recitation as a factor in memorizing. Archives of Psychology, 6(40).
Gardiner, J.M., Craik, F.I., & Bleasdale, F.A.
(1973) Retrieval difficulty and subsequent recall. Memory & Cognition, 1(3), 213–216. Crossref link
Gardiner, J.M., & Rowley, J.M.
(1984) A generation effect with numbers rather than words. Memory & Cognition, 12, 443–445. Crossref link
Gholami, J., & Khezrlou, S.
(2013/2014) Semantic and thematic list learning of Second language vocabulary. The CATESOL Journal, 25(1), 151–162
Glover, J.A.
(1989) The “testing” phenomenon: Not gone but nearly forgotten. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 392–399. Crossref link
Goudarzi, Z., & Moini, M.R.
(2012) The effect of input enhancement of collocations in reading on collocation learning and retention of EFL learners. International Education Studies, 5(3), 247–258. Crossref link DOI: Crossref link
Greene, R.L.
(1988) Generation effects in frequency judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 298–304. Crossref link
(1989) Spacing effects in memory: Evidence for a two-process account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 15, 371–377. Crossref link
(1992) Human memory. Paradigms and paradoxes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Griffith, D.
(1976) The attentional demands of mnemonic control processes. Memory & Cognition, 4, 103–108. Crossref link
Gupta, P.
(2012) Word learning as the confluence of memory mechanisms: Computational and neural evidence. In M. Faust (Ed.), The handbook of the neuropsychology of language, Volume 1 (pp. 146–163). Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell. Crossref link
Hardison, D.M.
(2003) Acquisition of second-language speech: Effects of visual cues, context, and talker variability. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 495–522. Crossref link
Harrington, M. & Jiang, W.
(2013) Focus on the forms: From recognition practice in Chinese vocabulary learning. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 132–145. Crossref link
Hatch, E., & Brown, C.
(1995) Vocabulary, semantics, and language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haynes, M.
(1998, March). Word form, attention and vocabulary development through reading. Paper presented at the American Association for Applied Linguistics conference. Seattle, WA.
Hintzman, D.L.
(1974) Theoretical implications of the spacing effect. In R.L. Solso (Ed.), Theories in Cognitive Psychology: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 77–99). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hintzman, D.L., & Block, R.A.
(1971) Repetition and memory: Evidence for a multiple-trace hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 297–306. Crossref link
Hippner-Page, T.
(2000), Semantic clustering versus thematic clustering of English vocabulary words for second language instruction: Which method is more effective? http://​files​.eric​.ed​.gov​/fulltext​/ED445550​.pdf (23 October, 2014).
Hirshman, E., & Bjork, R.R.
(1988) The generation effect: Support for a two-factor theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 14, 484–494. Crossref link
Hogan, R.M., & Kintsch, W.
(1971) Different effects of study and test trials on long-term recognition and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 562–567. Crossref link
Hudson, G.
(2000) Essential introductory linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hulstijn, J.H.
(1992) Retention of inferred and given word meanings: Experiments in incidental learning. In P.J.L. Arnaud & H. Béjoint (Eds.), Vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp. 113–125). London: Macmillan. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., Hollander, M., & Greidanus, T.
(1996) Incidental vocabulary learning by advanced foreign language students: The influence of marginal glosses, dictionary use, and recurrence of unknown words. Modern Language Journal, 80, 327–339. Crossref link
Hulstijn, J.H., & Laufer, B.
(2001) Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning, 51, 539–558. Crossref link
Hyde, T.S., & Jenkins, J.J.
(1969) The differential effects of incidental tasks on the organization of recall of a list of highly associated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82, 472–481. Crossref link
Johns, E.E., & Swanson, L.G.
(1988) The generation effect with nonwords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14(1), 180–190. Crossref link
Johnson-Laird, P.N., Gibbs, G., & de Mowbray, J.
(1978) Meaning, amount of processing, and memory for words. Memory and Cognition, 6, 372–375. Crossref link
Johnson, D.D., & Pearson, P.D.
(1978) Teaching reading vocabulary. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
(1984) Teaching reading vocabulary, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Kida, S.
(2010a) The role of processing-resource allocation in incidental L2 vocabulary learning through reading. Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 21, 171–180. http://​ci​.nii​.ac​.jp​/naid​/110008512407
(2010) The role of quality and quantity of vocabulary processing in incidental L2 vocabulary acquisition through reading. Paper presented on March 7, 2010 at the Annual Conference of the American Association of Applied Linguistics in Atlanta, GA.
Kida, S., & Barcroft, J.
(2014) Effects of increased semantic and structural processing on mapping meanings onto homographs in L2. Presentation on August 12, 2014 at International Association of Applied Linguistics World Congress at Brisbane, Australia.
Kim, Y.
(2006) Effects of input elaboration on vocabulary acquisition through reading by Korean learners of English as a foreign language. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 341–373. Crossref link
Kole, J.A.
(2007) The retrieval process in mediated learning: Using priming effects to test the direct access and covert mediation models. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Kondo, H.
(2007) The effects of semantic elaboration on L2 vocabulary learning. Research Journal of Jin-Ai University, 6, 71–78.
Krashen, S.
(1981) Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
(1982) Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York NY: Pergamon.
(1985) The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York NY: Longman.
(1989) We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73, 440–464. Crossref link
(2008) The comprehension hypothesis extended. In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 81–94). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Kroll, J.F., Michael, E., Tokowicz, N., & Dufour, R.
(2002) The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18, 137–171. Crossref link
Kroll, J.F., & Sunderman, G.
(2003) Cognitive proceses in second language learners and bilinguals: The development of lexical and conceptual representations. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 104–129). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Crossref link
Lakoff, G.
(1987) Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. Crossref link
Landauer, T.K., & Bjork, R.A.
(1978) Optimum rehearsal patterns and name learning. In Gruneberg, M.M., Morris, P.E., & Sykes, R.N. (Eds.). Practical aspects of memory (pp. 625–632). London: Academic Press.
Laufer, B.
(1997) The lexical plight in second language reading: Words you don’t know, words you think you know, and words you can’t guess. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 20–34). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J.H.
(2001) Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1–26. Crossref link
Leach, L., & Samuel, A.G.
(2007) Lexical configuration and lexical engagement: When adults learn new words. Cognitive Psychology, 55(4), 306–353. Crossref link
Lee, J., & Van Patten, B.
(2003) Making communicative language happen. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Lively, S.E., Logan, J.S., & Pisoni, D.B.
(1993) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: II. The role of phonetic environment and talker variability in learning new perceptual categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94, 1242–1255. Crossref link
Lively, S.E., Pisoni, D.B., Yamada, R.A., & Tohkura, et al.
(1994) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: III. Long-term retention of new phonetic categories. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2076–2087. Crossref link
Liu, N., & Nation, I.S.P.
(1985) Factors affecting guessing in context. RELC Journal, 16, 33–42. Crossref link
Logan, J.S., Lively, S.E., & Pisoni, D.B.
(1991) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: A first report. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89, 874–886. Crossref link
Marton, W.
(1977) Foreign vocabulary learning as problem number one of foreign language teaching at the advanced level. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 2, 33–47.
Mastin, L.
(2010) Declarative (Explicit) & Procedural (Implicit) Memory. Online: http://​www​.human​-memory​.net​/types​_declarative​.html
McCarthy, M.
(1990) Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McDaniel, M.A.
(1984) The role of elaborative and schema processing in story memory. Memory and Cognition, 12, 46–51. Crossref link
McDaniel, M.A., Waddill, P.J., & Einstein, G.O.
(1988) A contextual account of the generation effect: A three-factor theory. Journal of Memory & Language, 27, 521–536. Crossref link
McElroy, L.A., & Slamecka, N.J.
(1982) Memorial consequences of generating nonwords: Implications for semantic-memory interpretations of the generation effect. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 249–259. Crossref link
McNamara, D.S., & Healy, A.F.
(1995a) A procedural explanation of the generation effect: The use of an operand retrieval strategy for multiplication and addition problems. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 652–679. Crossref link
(1995b) A generation advantage for multiplication skill training and nonword vocabulary acquisition. In A.F. Healy & L.E. Bourne, Jr. (Eds.), Learning and memory of knowledge and skills: Durability and specificity (pp. 132–169). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Crossref link
Melka, F.
(1997) Receptive vs. productive aspects of vocabulary. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and pedagogy (pp. 84–102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Meyer, A., & Bock, K.
(1992) The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? Memory & Cognition, 20(6), 715–726. Crossref link
Machalias, R.
(1991) Semantic networks in vocabulary teaching and their application in the foreign language classroom. Journal of the Australian Modern Language Teachers’ Association, 26(3), 19–24.
Michnick Golinkoff, R., & Hirsh-Pasek, K.
(2000) Word learning: Icon, index, or symbol? In R. Michnick Golinkoff, K. Hirsh-Pasek, L. Bloom, L.B. Smith, A.L. Woodward, N. Akhtar, M. Tomasello, & G. Hollich, Becoming a word learner: A debate on lexical acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Miozzo, M., Costa, A., Hernandez, M., & Rapp, B.
(2010), Lexical processing in the bilingual brain: Evidence from grammatical/morphological deficits. Aphasiology, 24(2), 262–287. Crossref link
Morris, C.D., Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J.
(1977) Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 519–533. Crossref link
Mullennix, J.W., Pisoni, D.B., & Martin, C.S.
(1989) Some effects of talker variability on spoken word recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 85, 365–378. Crossref link
Nagy, W.
(1997) On the role of context in first- and second-language vocabulary learning. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and pedagogy (pp. 64–83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nagy, W., Anderson, R., & Herman, P.
(1987) Learning words from context during normal reading. American Research Journal, 24, 237–270.
Nagy, W., Herman, P., & Anderson, R.
(1985) Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233–253. Crossref link
Nairne, J.S., & Widner, R.L. Jr
(1988) Familiarity and lexicality as determinants of the generation effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition, 14, 694–699. Crossref link
Nation, I.S.P.
(2001) Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Nation, I.S.P., & Waring
(1997) Vocabulary size, text coverage and word lists. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition and pedagogy (pp. 238–254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Neumann, O.
(1996) Theories of attention. In O. Neumann, & A.F. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of perception and action (pp. 389 – 446). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
O’Neill, W., Roy, L., & Tremblay, R.
(1993) A translation-based generation effect in bilingual recall and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 21(4), 488–495. Crossref link
Paribakht, T.S., & Wesche, M.
(1997) Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 174–200). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(1999) Reading and “incidental” L2 vocabulary acquisition: An introspective study of lexical inferencing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 195–24. Crossref link
Payne, D.G., Neely, J.H., & Burns, D.J.
(1986) The generation effect: Further tests of the lexical activation hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 14, 246–252. Crossref link
Peters, A.M.
(1985) Language segmentation: Operating principles for the perception and analysis of language. In D.I. Slobin, The cross-linguistic study of language acquisition, Vol. 2: Theoretical issues (pp. 1029–1067). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Poeppel, D., & Embick, D.
(2005) Defining the relation between linguistics and neuroscience. In Cultler, A. (Ed.). Twenty-first century psychologinguistics: Four cornerstones (pp. 103–120). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Potter, M., So, K., Von Eckardt, B., & Feldman, L.
(1984) Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and proficient bilinguals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 23–38. Crossref link
Prince, P.
(1996) Second language vocabulary learning: The role of context versus translations as a function of proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 478–493. Crossref link
Pulido, D.
(2003) Modeling of the role of second language proficiency and topic familiarity in L2 incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Language Learning, 53, 233–284. Crossref link
Robinson, P.
(2008) Attention and Memory during SLA. In C.J. Doughty, & M.H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Roediger, R.
(2009) The critical role of retrieval in enhancing long-term memory: From the laboratory to the classroom. Keynote Address on November 19, 2009 at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston, MA. http://​www​.psychonomic​.org​/meetingvids​.html
Roediger, H.L., & Guynn, M.J.
(1996) Retrieval processes. In E.L. Bjork & R.A. Bjork (Eds.), Memory (pp. 197–236). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Crossref link
Rott, S.
(1999) The effect of exposure frequency on intermediate language learners’ incidental vocabulary acquisition and retention through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 589–619. Crossref link
(2007) The effect of frequency of input-enhancements on word learning and text comprehension. Language Learning, 57(2), 165–19. Crossref link
Rott, S., Williams, J., & Cameron, R.
(2002) The effect of multiple-choice L1 glosses and input-output cycles on lexical acquisition and retention. Language Teaching Research, 6(3), 183–222. Crossref link
Royer, J.M.
(1973) Memory effects for test-like events during acquisition of foreign language vocabulary. Psychological Reports, 32, 195–198. Crossref link
Ryalls, B.O., & Pisoni, D.B.
(1997) The effect of talker variability on word recognition in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 441–452. Crossref link
Sagarra, N., & Alba, M.
(2006) The key is in the keyword: L2 vocabulary learning methods with beginning learners of Spanish. Modern Language Journal, 90, 228–243. Crossref link
San Mateo Valdehíta, A.
(2013) El efecto de tres actividades centradas en las formas [Focus on forms, fonfs]: La selección de definiciones, la selección de ejemplos y la escritura de oraciones, en el aprendizaje de vocabulario de segundas lenguas. Revista Electrónica de Lingüística Aplicada, 12, 17–36.
Schulman, A.I.
(1971) Recognition memory for targets from a scanned word list. British Journal of Psychology, 62, 335–346. Crossref link
Schmidt, S.R.
(1985) Encoding and retrieval processes in the memory for conceptually distinctive events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 11, 565–578. Crossref link
(1990) A test of resource-allocation explanations of the generation effect. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28, 2, 93–96. Crossref link
Schmidt, S.R., & Cherry, K.
(1989) The negative generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Memory & Cognition, 17, 359–369. Crossref link
Schmitt, N.
(1997) Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and pedagogy (pp. 199–227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Seal, B.D.
(1991) Vocabulary learning and teaching. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 296–311). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Seibert, L.
(1927) An experiment in learning French vocabulary. The Journal of Educational Psychology. 18, 5, 294–309. Crossref link
Siegel, M., & Misselt, A.
(1984) Adaptive feedback and review paradigm for computer-based drills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 310–317. Crossref link
Slamecka, N.J., & Fevreiski, J.
(1983) The generation effect when generation fails. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 153–163. Crossref link
Slamecka, N.J., & Graf, P.
(1978) The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4(6), 592–604.
Slamecka, N.J., & Katsaiti, L.T.
(1987) The generation as an artifact of selective displaced rehearsal. Journal of Memory & Language, 26, 589–607. Crossref link
Smith, R.W., & Healy, A.F.
(1998) The time-course of the generation effect. Memory & Cognition, 26(1), 135–142. Crossref link
Sommers, M.S., & Barcroft, J.
(2006) Stimulus variability and the phonetic relevance hypothesis: Effects of variability in speaking style, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate on spoken word identification. Journal of the American Acoustical Society 119(4), 2406–2416. Crossref link
Sommers, M., & Barcroft, J.
(2007) An integrated account of the effects of acoustic variability in L1 and L2: Evidence from amplitude, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate variability. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(2), 231–249. Crossref link
(2011) Indexical information. Encoding difficulty, and second language vocabulary learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32(2), 417–434. Crossref link
(2013) Effects of referent token variability on L2 vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 63(2), 186–210.Crossref link
Sommers, M.S., Barcroft, J., & Mulqueeny, K.
(2008) Further studies of acoustic variability and vocabulary. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, November. Crossref link
Sommers, M.S., Nygaard, L.C., & Pisoni, D.B.
(1994) Stimulus variability and spoken word recognition. I. Effects of variability in speaking rate and overall amplitude. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 1314–1324. Crossref link
Stahl, S., & Fairbanks, M.
(1986) The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56, 72–110. Crossref link
Stevenson, R.J.
(1981) Depth of comprehension, effective elaboration, and memory for sentences. Memory & Cognition, 9, 169–176. Crossref link
Tagashira, K., Kida, S., & Hoshino, Y.
(2010) Hot or gelid? The influence of L1 translation familiarity on the interference effects in foreign language vocabulary learning. System, 38(3), 412–421. Crossref link
Thomas, M., & Dieter
JN (1987) The positive effects of writing practice on integration of foreign words in memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 249–253. Crossref link
Thompson, C.P., & Barnett, C.
(1981) Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 18(5), 241–243. Crossref link
Tinkham, T.
(1993) The effect of semantic clustering on the learning of second language vocabulary. System, 21(3), 371–380. Crossref link
(1997) The effects of semantic and thematic clustering on the learning of second language vocabulary learning. Second Language Research, 13(2), 138–163. Crossref link
Tresselt, M.E., & Mayzner, M.S.
(1960) A study of incidental learning. Journal of Psychology, 50, 339–347. Crossref link
Tulving, E.
(1967) The effects of presentation and recall in free recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 175–184. Crossref link
van Hell, J.G., & Mahn, A.C.
(1997) Keyword mnemonics versus rote rehearsal: Learning concrete and abstract foreign words by experienced and inexperienced learners. Language Learning, 47, 3, 507–546. Crossref link
Ullman, M.T.
(2001) A neurocognitive perspective on language: The declarative/procedural model. Nature Review Neuroscience, 2, 717–726. Crossref link
(2004) Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92, 231–270. Crossref link
(2005) A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: The declarative/procedural model. In C. Sanz (ed), Mind in context in adult second language acquisition: Methods, theory, and practice (pp. 141–178). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
VanPatten, B.
(1996) Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
(2003) From input to output: A teacher’s guide to second language acquisition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Wajnryb, R.
(1987) Vocabulary – consolidation through clusters. English Teachers Journal, 35, 67–70.
Wang, A. & Thomas, M.
(1995) The effect of imagery-based mnemonics on the long-term retention of Chinese characters. In B. Harley (Ed.), Lexical issues in language learning (pp. 167–183). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Waring, Robert
(1997)  The negative effects of learning words in semantic sets: A replication . System, 25(2), 261–274. Crossref link
Webb, S., & Boers, F.
(2013) Do textual enhancement techniques increase incidental learning of collocation? Presentation on December 19, 2013 at Vocab at Vic Conference at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
Wesche, M., & Paribakht, T.S.
(1999) Introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 175–180. Crossref link
West, M.
(1988) Catenizing. ELT Journal, 6, 147–151.
Wheeler, M.A., & Roediger, H.L.
(1992) Disparate effects of repeated testing: Reconciling Ballard’s (1913) and Bartlett’s (1932) results. Psychological Science, 3, 240–245. Crossref link
Wickens, C.D.
(1984) Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman & D. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of Attention (pp. 63–102). New York NY: Academic Press.
(1989) Attention and skilled performance. In D. Holding (Ed.), Human Skills (pp. 71–105). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Wong. W.
(2005) Input enhancement: From theory and research to the classroom. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Wong, W. & Barcroft, J.
(2012) Repetez s’il vous plait, or not?: Choral repetition and L2 vocabulary learning. Presentation at on July 12, 2012 at 11th International Conference of the Association for Language Awareness at Concordia University, Montreal.
Wong, W., & Pyun, D.O.
(2012) The effects of sentence writing on L2 French and Korean lexical acquisition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 68, 164–189. Crossref link
BIC Subject: CJA – Language teaching theory & methods
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2015025310