Bilingual students’ attitudes toward the Tibetan language
A structural analysis
This study investigates bilingual students’ attitudes toward the Tibetan language, examining the structural models of the attitudes of Tibetan students and the differences in attitudes between living communities and as moderated by learning years (comparing Tibet-based and Han-based communities). The participants were 1,118 Tibetan students in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China. The results indicated the following: (i) the data supported the three components of attitude (Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral) in terms of bilingual students’ perception of the Tibetan language; (ii) the five lower-level domains of the attitudes toward the Tibetan language can be grouped into two categories – Cognitive (self-concept of the Tibetan language and social status) and Affective (friendliness, helpfulness, and identification) – and there is a causal relationship between them; and (iii) there are significant differences in attitudes toward the Tibetan language dependent on living community and learning year. Practical suggestions for educators in schools for bilingual students learning the Tibetan language are discussed.
Keywords: bilingual Tibetan students, structural model, language attitudes, community differences, learning years
- 2.Literature review
- 2.1Structure of attitudes toward Tibetan language
- 2.2Intergroup contact, community differences, and Tibetan students’ attitudes toward their mother tongue
- 2.3Learning year and its effect on students’ attitudes toward the Tibetan language
- 3.Research method
- 3.2Data collection
- 3.3Data analysis
- 4.1Structural models for students’ attitudes toward Tibetan language
- 4.2Differences between communities in students’ attitudes toward the Tibetan language
- 5.1Structure of attitudes toward the Tibetan language
- 5.2Community differences influencing Tibetan language attitudes
- 5.3Chinese-Tibetan students’ attitudes toward the Tibetan language
Published online: 12 July 2021
Bagozzi, R. P. & Burnkrant, R. E.
Brubaker, B. L.
Buenafuente, J. U.
Cairancuo, Z., & Dou, X.
(2014) “cáng zú xué shēng cáng hàn shuāng yǔ xué xí tài dù yán jiū ——yǐ qīng hǎi cáng zú zhōng xiǎo xué shēng wéi lì” [Tibetan students’ attitude toward Tibetan and Chinese bilingual learning taking Tibetan primary and secondary students in Qinghai as an example]. “zhōng guó mín zú jiāo yù” [National Education of China], 27(10), 28–33. http://www.cqvip.com/QK/81031X /201410/662705176.html
Cooper, R. L., & Fishman, J. A.
Ferguson, C. A.
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I.
Gan, Y. T., Sude, Xie J. J., Cheng, L., Tan, Y. R., & Zhang, F.
Golan-Cook, P. & Olshtain, E.
Habók, A. & Magyar, A.
Jabbari, M. J. & Golkar, N.
Kind, P. M., Jones, K. & Barmby, P.
Khatib, M. & Rezaei, S.
Ladegaard, H. J.
Lapresta, C., Huguet, A., & Fernández-Costales, A.
(2007) A discussion on Tibetan language subconscious emotion – – an analysis of attitudes toward Tibetan and Chinese language in Lhasa. Journal of Tibet University, 20(4), 87–91. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-XZDX200704015.htm
(2007) Attitudes towards Chinese and Tibetan languages including the role of subconscious emotion. China Tibet: English version, 7 (2), 57–62. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-ZTAY200702007.htm
(2007a) A discussion on Tibetan language subconscious emotion – an analysis of attitudes toward Tibetan and Chinese language in Lhasa. Journal of Tibet University, 20(4), 87–91. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-XZDX200704015.htm
(2007b) Attitudes towards Chinese and Tibetan languages including the role of subconscious emotion. China Tibet: English version, 7 (2), 57–62. http://en.cnki.com.cn /Article_en/CJFDTotal-ZTAY200702007.htm
Lohr, J. M. & Staats, A. W.
Ma, F. & Renzeng
(2015) Associations between language learners’ spiritual intelligence, foreign language attitude and achievement motivation: A structural equation approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 4(1), 38–54. https://isejournal.org/index.php/jise/article/view/Lang
McLaughlin-Volpe, T., Aron, A., Wright, S. C., & Reis, H. T.
Milroy, J. & Milroy, L.
Nguyen, T. T. T. & Hamid, M. O.
Oroujlou, N. & Vahedi, M.
Postiglione, G. & Jiao, B.
Postiglione, G., Jiao, B., & Gyatso, S.
Rezaei, S., Latifi, A., & Nematzadeh, A.
Roche, G. & Suzuki, H.
Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., & Sebastian, R. J.
Sargent, T., Kong, P., & Zhang, Y.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Cummins, J.
Swift, J. S., Jonathan, A., & Smith, W.
Tang, C., Zhong, L., & Cheng, S.
Tannenbaum, M. & Cohen, H.
Tódor, E. & Dégi, Z.
Tunik, T., Sude & Yuan, M.
(2016).“hā sà kè zú zhōng xiǎo xué shēng shuāng yǔ tài dù ,shuāng yǔ néng lì yǐ jí shuāng yǔ shǐ yòng qíng kuàng de diào chá yán jiū” [Research on bilingual attitude, bilingual ability and bilingual use of Kazak primary and secondary students] . “dāng dài jiāo yù yǔ wén huà” [Contemporary Education and Culture],8(3): 88-95..
(1997) An Investigation on the bilingual Tibetans’ attitude toward their native language and Chinese. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 12(03), 294–300. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XLXB703.009.htm
Wang, H., Chao, X., & Sun, S. N.
Wright, S. C. & Bougie, E.
Wright, S. C. & Taylor, D. M.
Yao, C. & Zuckermann, G.
Yuan, Y., Xia, N., Xia, B., et al.
(2018) “yún nán dí qìng cáng qū sān yǔ jiāo yù yǔ yán tài dù shí zhèng yán jiū yǔ qǐ shì”[An empirical study on language attitude of trilingual education in Diqing Tibetan area of Yunnan Province] . “wài guó yǔ wén lùn cóng dì” [Symposium on foreign languages],81.http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-WGYL201808001027.htm
Zhang, J. & Pérez-Milans, M.
Zhang, L. B. & Tsung, L. T. H.