Language policies in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i
This paper develops Tove Skutnabb-Kangas’ concept of linguicism by distinguishing an effectuative stage and a reproductive stage of linguistic inequality. The effectuative stage is described by inference and compared with Robert Phillipson’s theory of linguistic imperialism, and it is suggested that both frameworks are still missing empirical validation for the claim that language inequality may create other forms of inequality, and that such validation should come from historical data. To demonstrate this, language policies in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i during the 19th century are examined, with emphasis on the interpretation of bilingual statutory law, along with a number of judicial rulings. These are then related to changes in the economic sphere and the interaction is demonstrated in the curtailing of customary land use rights. The new concept of non-discriminatory linguicism is introduced to describe the presence of linguicist ideologies without concomitant discriminatory practices as a key feature of the effectuative stage of linguicism, and a new definition of linguicism is proposed.