Absolute chronology of early sound changes reflected in Pre-Old English runic inscriptions
This article presents an absolute chronology of the early major sound changes reflected in the Pre-Old English (Pre-OE) runic inscriptions. These inscriptions were written in the Pre-fuþorc, which was still close to the Common Germanic fuþark (= Older fuþark) of 24 characters but was extended and modified during the Pre-OE period (ca. AD 425–610/650). The Caistor-by-Norwich Brooch (ca. AD 610–650) marks the beginning of Old English (OE) because the new and modified runes – ᚩ o , ᚪ a, ᛟ œ, ᚨ æ – with their new phonemic sound-values appear together for the first time. All the relevant sound-changes were completed by then. The Pre-OE and also the Pre-Old Frisian (Pre-OFris.) data reveal four phases of development. In my proposed chronology phases one and four are straightforward, while phases two and three are more complex, with two scenarios being possible.
Published online: 12 April 2019
[ p. 75 ]
Düwel, K. & W.-D. Tempel
Nicolay, J. A.[ p. 76 ]
Nielsen, H. F.
Page, R. I.
Forthcoming. Runes across the North Sea from the Migration Period and beyond: an annotated edition of the Old Frisian runic corpus. LMU Munich. (Doctoral dissertation)
http://www.runesdb.de (accessed: 28 July 2018).
Vennemann, Th[ p. 77 ]
Forthcoming. The runic inscription skanomodu: Frisian or Anglo-Frisian? In G. Waxenberger, K. Kazzazi & J. Hines eds. Old English runes: Interdisciplinary perspectives on approaches and methodologies
2013 The reflection of Pre-Old English sound changes in Pre-Old English runic inscriptions. Including a list of all the OE runic inscriptions. In H. Sauer & G. Waxenberger (eds.), Recording English, researching English, transforming English, ICEHL Munich 2008, Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 41, 17–64. Frankfurt a. Main: Lang.
Forthcoming. A phonology of Old English runic inscriptions with a concise edition and analysis of the graphemes, Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Berlin: De Gruyter.