Old Northumbrian Verbal Morphosyntax and the (Northern) Subject Rule

| Leiden University
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027240712 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027269911 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
 
This volume provides both a quantitative statistical and qualitative analysis of Late Northumbrian verbal morphosyntax as recorded in the Old English interlinear gloss to the Lindisfarne Gospels. It focuses in particular on the attestation of the subject type and adjacency constraints that characterise the so-called Northern Subject Rule concord system. The study presents new evidence which challenges the traditional Early Middle English dating attributed to the emergence of subject-type concord in the North of England and demonstrates that the syntactic configuration of the Northern Subject Rule was already a feature of Old English. By setting the Northumbrian developments within a broad framework of diachronic and diatopic variation, in which manifestations of subject-type concord are explored in a wide range of varieties of English, the author argues that a concord system based on subject type rather than person/number features is in fact a far less local and more universal tendency in English than previously believed.
[NOWELE Supplement Series, 25]  2014.  xvii, 286 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
xi
List of figures
xiii
List of tables
xv–xvi
Abbreviations
xvii
1. Introduction
1–5
2. Old Northumbrian
7–34
3. A Diachronic overview of the (Northern) Subject Rule
35–86
4. A variationist study of -s/-ð present-tense markings in late Old Northumbrian
87–157
5. Reduced verbal morphology in late Old Northumbrian
159–194
6. Explaining subject and adjacency effects
195–214
7. Conclusions
215–218
References
219–234
Appendices
235–281
Index
283–286
“[A]n important contribution to the study of the Northern Subject Rule. It is methodologically exceptionally rigorous, lavish in its presentation of the data and careful and fair in its summaries of past scholarship. By demonstrating the operation of a Subject Rule in the Lindisfarne Gloss, it opens the way to considering whether such a rule was characteristic of Old Northumbrian more broadly, and what the preceptual saliency of this feature was in the late Old English and early Middle English period.”
“Marcelle Cole’s monograph is predominantly a linguistic study of verb endings and syntax in the Lindisfarne Gospels. Of interest to literature scholars, however, is the way Cole brings her analysis to bear on the question of the authorship of the gospel glosses.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

No author info given
2015. PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. English Language and Linguistics 19:3  pp. 559 ff. Crossref logo
Cole, Marcelle
2018. A native origin for Present-Day English they, their, them . Diachronica 35:2  pp. 165 ff. Crossref logo
Fernández Cuesta, Julia & Christopher Langmuir
2019. Verbal morphology in the Old English gloss to the Durham Collectar. NOWELE. North-Western European Language Evolution 72:2  pp. 134 ff. Crossref logo
Laker, Stephen
2017. Early Changes of Dental Fricatives: English and Frisian Compared. Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 77:1-2  pp. 243 ff. Crossref logo
Rodríguez Ledesma, Mª Nieves
2017. The Northern Subject Rule in the Breadalbane Collection. English Studies 98:8  pp. 802 ff. Crossref logo
Rupp, Laura & David Britain
2019.  In Linguistic Perspectives on a Variable English Morpheme,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Rupp, Laura & David Britain
2019.  In Linguistic Perspectives on a Variable English Morpheme,  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Rupp, Laura & David Britain
2019.  In Linguistic Perspectives on a Variable English Morpheme,  pp. 165 ff. Crossref logo
van Gelderen, Elly
2019. Reflexive pronouns in the Lindisfarne glosses. NOWELE. North-Western European Language Evolution 72:2  pp. 220 ff. Crossref logo
van Gelderen, Elly
2019. The Northumbrian Old English glosses. NOWELE. North-Western European Language Evolution 72:2  pp. 119 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 24 november 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

References

References

Adger, D. & J. Smith
2005Variation and the Minimalist Program. In K. Corrigan & L. Cornips (eds.), Syntax and Variation: Reconciling the Biological and Social , 149–178. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Anderwald, L.
2001 Was/Were-Variation in Non-Standard British English Today. English World-Wide 22.1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Backhouse, J.
1981 The Lindisfarne Gospels . Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Bailey, G. & G. Ross
1988The Shape of the Superstrate: Morphosyntactic Features of Ship English. English World-Wide 9.193–212. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, G., N. Maynor & P. Cukor-Avila
1989Variation in Subject-Verb Concord in Early Modern English. Language Variation and Change 1.285–300. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, R.N. & R. Cramps
1988Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Volume II. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ball, C.
1991Inconsistencies in the Main Runic Inscriptions of the Ruthwell Cross. In A. Bammesberger (ed.), Old English Runes and their Continental Background , 107–123. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.Google Scholar
Bazell, C.E.
1955Second for Third Singular in Old Norse. Litera 2.27–31.Google Scholar
Beal, J. & K. Corrigan
2000Comparing the Present with the Past to Predict the Future for Tyneside English. Newcastle and Durham Working Papers in Linguistics 6.13–30.Google Scholar
Benskin, M.
2011Present Indicative Plural Concord in Brittonic and Early English. Transactions of the Philological Society 109.158–185. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Benveniste, E.
1966 Problèmes de Linguistique Génèrale . Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
1968Mutations of Linguistic Categories. In W.P. Lehmann & Y. Malkiel (eds.), Directions for Historical Linguistics , 85–94. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Bergen, L. van
2003Pronouns and Word Order in Old English with Particular Reference to the Indefinite Pronoun “Man”, Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
2008Negative Contraction and Old English Dialects: Evidence from Glosses and Prose. Part I. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 109.275–312.Google Scholar
Berndt, R.
1956 Form und Funktion des Verbums im nördlichen Spätaltenglischen: eine Untersuchung der grammatischen Formen und ihrer syntakischen Beziehungsbedeutungen in der groen sprechlichen Umbruchsperiode . Halle: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
1989 A History of the English Language . 3rd ed. Leipzig: VebVerlag Engyklopädie.Google Scholar
Blakeley, L.
1949/50The Lindisfarne s/ð problem. Studia Neophilologica 22.15–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Boling, B.D.
2003Appendix 1. Text and Language. In K.A. Millar, A. Schrier, B.D. Boling & D.N. Doyle (eds.), Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan. Letters and Memoirs From Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675–1815 , 649–656. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Börjars, K. & C. Chapman
1998Agreement and Pro-Drop in some Dialects of English. Linguistics 36.71–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bouterwek, K.W.
(ed) 1857Die vier Evangelien in alt-northumbrischer Sprache. Gütersloh.Google Scholar
Boyd, W.J.P.
1975Aldred’s Marginalia. Explanatory Comments in the Lindisfarne Gospels. Exeter: University of Exeter.Google Scholar
Bremmer, R.H.
2009 An Introduction to Old Frisian . Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Britain, D.
2002Diffusion, Levelling, Simplification and Reallocation in Past Tense BE in the English Fens. Journal of Sociolinguistics 6.16–43. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Britain, D. & L. Rupp
2005Subject-Verb Agreement in English Dialects: The East Anglian Subject Rule. Conference paper, 3rd International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE), Amsterdam, 24 June 2005.Google Scholar
Brown, M.P.
2003The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe. London: The British Library.Google Scholar
Brunner, A.
1947/48A Note on the Distribution of the Variant Forms of the Lindisfarne Gospels. English and Germanic Studies 1.32–52.Google Scholar
Brunner, K.
1948Abriß der Mittelenglischen Grammatik. 2nd edn. Halle: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
1965Altenglische Grammatik (nach der angelsächsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers neubearbeitet). 3rd edn. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
1970An Outline of Middle English Grammar. Trans. Grahame Johnston. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Buchstaller, I., K. Corrigan, A. Holmberg, P. Honeybone & W. Maguire
2013Investigating Convergence in Morpho-syntactic and Phonological Variability: A Case Study in 2 Localities. English Language and Linguistics 17.85–128. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bybee, J.
2000The Phonology of the Lexicon: Evidence from Lexical diffusion. In S. Kemmer & M. Barlow (eds.), Usage-Based Models of Language , 65–86. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
2002Word Frequency and Context of Use in the Lexical Diffusion of Phonetically Conditioned Sound Change. Language Variation and Change 14.261–290. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007 Frequency of Use and the Organisation of Language . Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, A.
1959 Old English Grammar . Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Carey, K.
1995Subjectification and the Development of the English Perfect. In D. Stein & S. Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and Subjectivisation , 83–102. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cedergren, H.J. & D. Sankoff
1974Variable Rules: Performance as a Statistical Reflection of Competence. Language 50.333–355. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chadwick, D.E.
1934An Index Verborum to the Lindisfarne Gospels. Leeds: M.A. dissertation, University of Leeds.Google Scholar
Chambers, J.K.
1995 Sociolinguistic Theory . Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2004Dynamic Typology and Vernacular Universals. In B. Kortmann (ed.), Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective , 127–146. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Chapman, C.
1998A Subject-Verb Agreement Hierarchy: Evidence from Analogical Change in Modern English Dialects. In R. Hogg, J. Smith & L. van Bergen (eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Historical Linguistics , 35–44. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Chen, M. & W.S.-Y. Wang
1975Sound Change: Actuation and Implementation. Language 51.255–281. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cheshire, J., V. Edwards & P. Whittle
1993Non-Standard English and Dialect Levelling. In J. Milroy & L. Milroy (eds.), Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles , 53–96. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Christian, D., W. Wolfram & N. Dube
1988Variation and Change in Geographically Isolated Communities: Appalachian English and Ozark English. Publication of the American Dialect Society 74. Tusca Loosa: Universty of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Clark, L.
2012Dialect Data, Lexical Frequency and the Usage-Based Approach. In G. de Vogelear & G. Seiler (eds.), The Dialect Laboratory: Dialects as a Testing Ground for Theories of Language Change , Studies in Language Companion Series 128, 53–72. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, L. & G. Trousdale
2009The Role of Frequency in Phonological Change: Evidence from TH-fronting in East-Central Scotland. English Language and Linguistics 13.33–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, S.
2004Verbal-s Reconsidered: The Subject Type Constraint as a Diagnostic of Historical Transatlantic Relationship. In C. Kay et al.. (eds.), New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics: Selected Papers from ICEHL 12 , Glasgow , 21–26 August 2002. Volume I: Syntax and Morphology, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 252, 1–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
1997English Verbal-s Revisited: The Evidence from Newfoundland. American Speech 72.227–259. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cole, M.
2008What is the Northern Subject Rule? The Resilience of a Medieval Constraint in Tyneside English. Journal of the Spanish Society for Medieval Language and Literature (SELIM) 15.91–114.Google Scholar
2012The Old English Origins of the Northern Subject Rule: Evidence from the Lindisfarne Gloss to the Gospels of John and Mark. In M. Stenroos, M. Mäkinen & I. Særheim (eds.), Language Contact and Development around the North Sea , Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 321, 141–168. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
ForthcomingIdentifying the Author(s) of the Lindisfarne Gloss: Linguistic Variation as a Diagnostic for Determining Authorship. In J. Fernández-Cuesta & S.M. Pons-Sanz (eds.). Forthcoming.Google Scholar
Collingwood, W.G.
1911A Rune-Inscribed Anglian Cross-Shaft at Urswick Church. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaelogical Society XI, new series: 462–468.Google Scholar
Combrink, J.
1978Afrikaans: its Origin and Development. In L.W. Lanham & K. P. Prinsloo (eds.), Language and Communication Studies in South Africa , 69–95. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cook, A.S.
1894A Glossary of the Old Northumbrian Gospels. Halle.Google Scholar
Corrigan, K.P., J.C. Beal & H.L. Moisl
2001–2005The Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (NECTE) (http://​www​.ncl​.ac​.uk​/necte/). Newcastle University.Google Scholar
Crozier, A.
1984The Scotch-Irish Influence on American English. American Speech 59.310–331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cukor-Avila, P.
1997Change and Stability in the Use of Verbal-s over Time in AAVE. In E.W. Schneider (ed.), Englishes Around the World. Volume I: General Studies, British Isles, North America , 295–306. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
DOEC: Antonette diPaolo Healey et al.
. Dictionary of Old English Web Corpus 2007 Toronto: University of Toronto. http://​www​.doe​.utoronto​.ca​/pages​/pub​/web​-coprus​.htmlGoogle Scholar
Dutton Kellum, M.
1906The Language of the North Gloss to the Gospel of St. Luke. New York: H. Holtan.Google Scholar
Eisikovits, E.
1991Variation in Subject-Verb Agreement in Inner Sydney English. In J. Cheshire (ed.), English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives , 235–255. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ekwall, E.
1963Some Cases of Scandinavian Sound Substitution. In O. Arngart (ed.), Selected Papers , 88–91. Lundi: C.W.K: Gleerup.Google Scholar
Elliott, C.O. & A.S.C. Ross
1972Aldrediana XXIV: The Linguistic Peculiarities of the Gloss to St. John’s Gospel. English Philological Studies 13.49–72.Google Scholar
Erker, D. & G. Guy
2012The Role of Lexical Frequency in Syntactic Variability: Variable Subject Personal Pronoun Expression in Spanish. Language 88.526–557. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Evans, D.S.
1971Concord in Middle Welsh. Studia Celtica 6.42–56.Google Scholar
Feagin, C.
1979Variation and Change in Alabama English: Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Ferguson, C.A.
1995Variation and Drift: Loss of Agreement in Germanic. In G.R. Guy, C. Feagin, D. Schiffrin & J. Baugh (eds.), Towards a Social Science of Languages. Volume I: Variation and Changes in Language and Society , Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 127, 173–198. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Fernández-Cuesta, J.
2011The Northern Subject Rule in First-Person Singular Contexts in Early Modern English. Folia Linguistica Historica 32.89–114.Google Scholar
. In press. The Voice of the Dead: Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation in Early Modern English Wills and Testaments. Journal of English Linguistics.
. Forthcoming. Stripping the Gloss: Revisiting the Manuscript of the Lindisfarne Gospels. In J. Fernández-Cuesta & S.M. Pons-Sanz (eds.). Forthcoming.
Fernández-Cuesta, J. & S.M. Pons-Sanz
(eds.). Forthcoming. The Old English Glosses to the Lindisfarne Gospels: Language, Author and Context. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Fernández-Cuesta, J. & M.N. Rodríguez-Ledesma
2004Northern Features in Fifteenth and Sixteenth-Century Legal Documents from Yorkshire. In M. Dossena & R. Lass (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology , 287–308. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
2007From Old Northumbrian to Northern Middle English: Bridging the Divide. In G. Mazzon (ed.), Studies in Middle English Forms and Meanings , Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 19, 117–133. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
File-Muriel, R. & E. Brown
2010The Gradient Nature of s-Lenition in Caleño Spanish. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 16.46–55.Google Scholar
Filppula, M.
1999The Grammar of Irish English. Language in Hibernian Style. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Filppula, M., J. Klemola & H. Paulasto
(eds) 2008English and Celtic in Contact, Routledge Studies in Germanic Linguistics 13. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Forsström, G.
1948The Verb to bein Middle English: A Survey of the Forms. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup.Google Scholar
FRED: Kortmann, B.. et al.
2000–2005 Freiburg English Dialect Project and Corpus . Freiburg: University of Freiburg.Google Scholar
Füchsel, H.
1901Die Sprache der Northumbrischen Interlinearversion zum Iohannes Evangelium. Anglia NF 12.1–99. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
García-Bermejo Giner, M.F. & M. Montgomery
1997British Regional English in the 19th century. The Evidence from Emigrant Letters. In A.R. Thomas (ed.), Issues and Methods in Dialectology , 167–183. Bangor: Department of Linguistics, University of Wales, Bangor.Google Scholar
(eds) 2003The Knaresborough Workhouse Daybook: Language and Life in 18th Century North Yorkshire. Quacks Books and the Yorkshire Dialect Society.Google Scholar
Givón, T.
1976Topic, Pronoun and Grammatical Agreement. In C.N. Li (ed.), Subject and Topic , 149–188. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Godfrey, E. & S. Tagliamonte
1999Another Piece for the Verbal-s Story: Evidence from Devon in Southwest England. Language Variation and Change 11.87–121. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goeman, A.C.M.
1983Aspecten van de Vervoeging van her Presens. In J. Stroop (ed.), Nederlands Dialectonderzoek. Artikelen uit de periode 1927–1982, 185–210. Amsterdam: Huis aan de Drie Grachten.Google Scholar
Gries, S.
2005Syntactic Priming: A Corpus-Based Approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 34.365–399. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gries, S. & M. Hilpert
2010Modeling Diachronic Change in the Third Person Singular: A Multifactorial, Verb and Author Specific Explanatory Approach. English Language and Linguistics 14.293–320. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Guy, G.R.
1980Variation in the Group and the Individual: The Case of Final Stop Deletion. In W. Labov (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space , 1–36. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
1988Advanced Varbrul Analysis. In K. Ferrara et al.. (eds.), Linguistic Change and Contact , 124–136. Austin, TX: Department of Linguistics, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
1991Explanation in Variable Phonology: An Exponential Model of Morphological Constraints. Language Variation and Change 3.1–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010Goldvarb, Still the Gold Standard.Paper presented at the New Ways of Analysing Variation Conference (NWAV 39), San Antonio, Texas, November 2010.
Haas, N. de
2008The Origins of the Northern Subject Rule. In M. Dossena, R. Dury & M. Gotti (eds.), English Historical Linguistics 2006. Volume III: Geo-Historical Variation in English , 111–130. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011 Morphosyntactic Variation in Northern English: The Northern Subject Rule, its Origins and Early History . Utrecht: LOT.Google Scholar
Haas, N. de & A. van Kemenade
2009Dialect Syntax and the Rise of the Northern Subject Rule. Manuscript, Radboud University Nijmegen. Version dated 4 August, 2009.
Haeberli, E.
2000Adjuncts and the Syntax of Subjects in Old and Middle English. In S. Pintzuk, G. Tsoulas & A. Warner (eds.), Diachronic Syntax: Models and Mechanisms , 109–131. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hamp, E.P.
1975/76Miscellania Celtica I, II, III, IV. Studia Celtica10/11.54–73.Google Scholar
Harris, J.
1993The Grammar of Irish English. In J. Milroy & L. Milroy (eds.), Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles , 139–186. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Haugen, E.
1976The Scandinavian Languages. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
1981Language Fragmentation in Scandinavia: Revolt of the Minorities. In E. Haugen (ed.), Minority Languages Today , 100–119. Edinburgh: University Press.Google Scholar
1982 Scandinavian Language Structures: A Comparative Historical Survey . Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
Hay, J. & D. Schreier
2004Reversing the Trajectory of Language Change: Subject-Verb Agreement with ‘be’ in New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 16.209–235. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Henry, A.
1995 Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect variation and Parameter Setting . Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hodges, R.
1643Special Help to Orthography. C.C.F. Ann Arbor (ed.), 1932 (facs., limited edn).Google Scholar
Hoek, M. van der
2010Palatalization In West Germanic. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
Hoekstra, J.
2001Zu einem Problem der Frisistik: der Übergang der Präs. Plur.- Endung -ath zu -a. In R. Peters, H.P. Pütz & U. Weber (eds.), Vulpis Adolatio. Festschrift für Hubertus Menke zum 60. Geburtstag , 341–361. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Hogg, R.
1992A Grammar of Old English. Volume I: Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
2004The Spread of Negative Contraction in Early English. In A. Curzan & K. Emmons (eds.), Studies in the History of the English Language. Volume II: Unfolding Conversations , Topics in English Linguistics 45, 459–482. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Hogg, R. & R.D. Fulk
2011A Grammar of Old English. Volume II: Morphology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Holmqvist, E.
1922 On the History of the English Present Inflexion, Particularly -ð and -s . Heidelberg: Carl Winter.Google Scholar
Hooper, J. Bybee
1976Word Frequency in Lexical Diffusion and the Source of Morphophonological Change. In W. Christie (ed.), Current Progress in Historical Linguistics , 96–105. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
Horn, W.
1921Sprachkörper und Sprachfunktion. Berlin: Mayer & Müller.Google Scholar
1923Sprachkörper und Sprachfunktion, 2nd edn, Leipzig: Mayer & Müller.Google Scholar
Hudson, R. & J. Holmes
1995Children’s Use of Spoken Standard English. London: School Curriculum and Assessment Authority.Google Scholar
Ihalainen, O.
1994The Dialects of England since 1776. In R. Burchfield (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume V: English in Britain and Overseas: Origin and Development , 197–270. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Isaac, G.
2003Diagnosing the Symptoms of Contact: Some Celtic-English Case Histories. In H. Tristam (ed.), The Celtic Englishes III , 46–64. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Verlag.Google Scholar
Jackson, K.H.
1953 Language and History in Early Britain . Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Jespersen, O.
[1909] 1949 A Modern English Grammar. Part VI: Morphology . Heidelberg: Carl Winter.Google Scholar
Jiriczek, O.
1925/26Der Lautwert der Rune R zur Wikingerzeit. Engliche Studien 60.217–237.Google Scholar
Jolly, K.
ForthcomingThe Process of Glossing and Glossing as Process: Scholarship and Education in Durham A.iv.19. In J. Fernández-Cuesta & S.M. Pons-Sanz (eds.). Forthcoming.
Johnson, D.E.
2009aGetting off the GoldVarb Standard: Introducing Rbrul for Mixed-Effects Variable Rule Analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass 3.359–383. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jones, C.
1988Grammatical Gender in English: 950 to 1250. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Kallen, J.
1991Intra-Language Transfer and Plural Subject Concord in Irish and Appalachian English. Teanga 11.20–34.Google Scholar
Keefer, S.L.
2007Use of Manuscript Space for Design, Text and Image in Liturgical Books Owned by the Community of St Cuthbert. In S. Larratt Keefer & R.H. Bremmer Jr. (eds.), Signs on the Edge: Space, Text and Margin in Medieval Manuscripts, 85–109. Mediaevalia Groningana New Series. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
Keller, W.
1925Skandinavischer Einfluss in der englischen flexion. In W. Keller (ed.), Probleme der englischen Sprache und Kultur: Festschrift Johannes Hoops , 80–87. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Keller, R.E.
1961German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, with Selected Texts. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Kemenade, A. van
1987 Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English . Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
2009Discourse Relations and Word Order Change. In R. Hinterhölzl & S. Petrova (eds.), Information Structure and Language Change , 91–120. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kemenade, A. van & B. Los
2006Discourse Adverbs and Clausal Syntax in Old and Middle English. In A. van Kemenade & B. Los (eds.), The Handbook of the History of English , 224–248. London: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kemenade, A. van, T. Milicev & H. Baayen
2008The Balance between Discourse and Syntax in Old and Middle English. In M. Dossena, R. Dury & M. Gotti (eds.), English Historical Linguistics 2006. Volume I: Syntax and Morphology , 3–22. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kemmer, S. & M. Barlow
2000A Usage-Based Conception of Language. In S. Kemmer & M. Barlow (eds.), Usage-Based Models of Language , vii–xxviii. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
Kemmer, S. & M. Israel
1994Variation and the Usage-Based Model. In K. Beals (ed.), Papers from the 30th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society , 165–179. Chicago: Chicago Linguistics Society.Google Scholar
Kendrick, T.D.. et al.
(eds) 1960Evangeliorum Quattuor Codex Lindisfarnensis Musei Britannici Codex Cottonianus Nero D. IV. Laussane: Urs Graf.Google Scholar
Ker, N.R.
1943Aldred the Scribe. In Essays and Studies xxviii, 7–12; reptd In A.G. Watson (ed.), N.R. Ker, Books, Collectors and Librarians , 459–470. Studies in the Medieval Heritage . London and Ronceverte.Google Scholar
1957Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon. Oxford.Google Scholar
King, A.
1997The Inflectional Morphology of Older Scots. In C. Jones (ed.), The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language , 156–181. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
King, G.
1993 Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar . London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Klemola, J.
2000The Origins of the Northern Subject Rule: A Case of Early Contact? In H. Tristam (ed.), The Celtic Englishes II , 329–346. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.Google Scholar
Kotake, T.
2008aDifferences in Element Order between Lindisfarne and Rushworth Two. In M. Amano et al.. (eds.). Historical Englishes in Varieties of Texts and Contexts: The Global COE Programme, International Conference 2007 , Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 22, 63–77. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
2008bNotes on the Relationship between Lindisfarne and Rushworth Two: A Lexical Analysis of andswarian and andwyrdan . The Round Table (Keio University) 22.31–44.Google Scholar
2012Lindisfarne and Rushworth One Reconsidered. Notes and Queries 59.14–19. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kotake, T, T.
. Forthcoming. Did Owun Really Copy from the Lindisfarne Gospels? Reconsideration of his Source Manuscript(s). In J. Fernández-Cuesta & S.M. Pons-Sanz (eds.). Forthcoming.
Krishnamurti, B.
1998Regularity of Sound Change through Lexical Diffusion: A Study of s > h > Ø in Gondi dialects. Language Variation and Change 10.193–220. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kroch, A.
1989Reflexes of Grammar in Patterns of Change. Language Variation and Change 1.99–244. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kroch, A., A. Taylor & D. Ringe
2000The Middle English Verb-Second Constraint: A Case Study in Language Contact and Language Change. In S. Herring, P. van Reenen & L. Schoesle (eds.), Textual Parameters in Older Languages , 353–391. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kytö, M.
1993Third Person Present Singular Verb Inflection in Early English and American English. Language Variation and Change 5.113–139. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W.
1972 Sociolinguistic Patterns . Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
1994Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume I: Internal Factors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
1998Coexistent Systems in African-American Vernacular English. In S. Mufweneet et al.. (eds.), African American English: Structure, History and Use, 110–153. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
[1966] 2006a The Social Stratification of English in New York City , 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2006bA Sociolinguistic Perspective on Sociophonetic Research. Journal of Phonetics 34.500–515. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, W., P. Cohen, C. Robins & J. Lewis
1968A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City, Co-operative Research Report 3288, Volume I. Philadelphia: U.S. Regional Survey.Google Scholar
LAEME: Laing, M. & R. Lass
2007A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150–1325. [http://​www​.lel​.ed​.ac​.uk​/ihd​/laeme1​/laeme1​.html]. Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Laker, S.
2010British Celtic Influence on English Phonology. PhD dissertation, University of Leiden.Google Scholar
LALME: McIntosh, A., M. Samuels, M. Benskin, with M. Laing & K. Williamson.
(eds) 1986A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. Volume I. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.Google Scholar
Langacker, R.W.
1988A Usage-Based Model. In B. Rudzka-Ostyn (ed.), Topics in Cognitive Linguistics , Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 50, 127–161. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
LAOS: Williamson, K.
2008A Linguistic Atlas of Older Scots, Phase 1: 1380–1500 [http://​www​.lel​.ed​.ac​.uk​/ihd​/laos1​/laos1​.html]. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Larsson, K.
1988Den plurala verbböjninge i äldre svenska. Institutionen för Nordiska SprÅk vid Uppsala Universitet.Google Scholar
2005The Development of Swedish from the Mid-16th Century to 1800. In O. Bandle (ed.), The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume II, 1270–1281. New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Lass, R.
1992Phonology and Morphology. In N. F. Blake (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume II: 1066–1476 , 23–155. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1997 Historical Linguistics and Language Change . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1999Phonology and Morphology. In R. Lass (ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume III: 1476–1776 , 56–186. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
2004Ut custodiant litteras: Editions, Corpora and Witnesshood. In M. Dossena & R. Lass (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology , 21–48. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Lass, R. & J. Anderson
1975 Old English Phonology . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lea, E.M.
1894The Language of the Northumbrian Gloss to the Gospel of St Mark. Anglia NF 16.62–206.Google Scholar
Levin, S.
1958Negative Contraction: An Old and Middle English Dialect Criterion. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 57.492–501.Google Scholar
Lewis, H. & H. Pedersen
1961A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
Lindelöf, U.
1890Die Sprache des Rituals von Durham. Ein Beitrag zur altenglischen Grammatik. Helsingfors: J.C. Frenckell & Son.Google Scholar
(ed) 1927Rituale Ecclesiae Dunelmensis. The Durham Collectar. A New and Revised Edition of the Latin Text with the Interlinear Anglo-Saxon Version, Surtees Society 140, Durham: Andrews ⁄ Quaritch.Google Scholar
Luick, K.
1922Review of Wilhelm Horn’s Sprachkörper und Sprachfunktion . Englischen Studien 56.185–203.Google Scholar
1935Zur Palatalisierung. Anglia LIX. 277–284.Google Scholar
1964 [1914–1921] Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache . Stuttgart: Tauchnits.Google Scholar
Lutz, A.
1992Lexical and Morphological Consequences of Phonotactic Change in the History of English. In M. Rissanen et al.. (eds.), History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics , 156–166. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Macafee, C.
1980Characteristics of Non-Standard English in Scotland. Manuscript.
Mallinson, C. & W. Wolfram
2002Dialect Accommodation in a Bi-Ethnic Mountain Enclave Community: More Evidence on the Development of African American English. Language in Society 31.743–775. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Maunde Thompson, E. & G. Warner
1881–1884 Catalogue of Ancient Manuscripts in the British Museum . Volume II. London: British Museum.Google Scholar
McCafferty, K.
2003The Northern Subject Rule in Ulster: How Scots, How English? Language Variation and Change 15.105–139.Google Scholar
2004‘[T]hunder storms is verry dangese in this countrey they come in less than a minnits notice…’: The Northern Subject Rule in Southern Irish English. English World-Wide 25.51–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McIntosh, A.
1989Present-Indicative Plural Forms in the Later Middle English of the North Midlands. In A. McIntosh & M. Laing (eds.), Middle English Dialectology: Essays on Some Principles and Problems , 116–122. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.Google Scholar
McWhorter, J.
2007 Language Interrupted . Oxford University Press CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meurman-Solin, A.
1993Variation and Change in Early Scottish Prose. Studies Based on the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.Google Scholar
Millar, R.M.
2000System Collapse System Rebirth. The Demonstrative Pronouns of English 900–1350 and the Birth of the Definite Article. Berne.Google Scholar
Miller, G.
2013 External Influences on English: From its Beginnings to the Renaissance . Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Minkova, D.
2003 Alliteration and Sound Change in Early English . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, B.
1985 Old English Syntax . Oxford: Clarendon. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montgomery, M.
1989Exploring the Roots of Appalachian English. English World-Wide 10.227–278. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1994The Evolution of Verb Concord in Scots. In A. Fenton & D. McDonald (eds.), Studies in Scots and Gaelic: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Languages of Scotland , 81–95. Edinburgh: Canongate.Google Scholar
1997aA Tale of two Georges. The Language of Irish Indian Traders in Colonial North America. In J. Kallen (ed.), Focus on Ireland (Varieties of English around the World G21 ), 227–254. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
1997bMaking Transatlantic Connections between Varieties of English: The Case of Plural Verbal -s . Journal of English Linguistics 25.122–141. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montgomery, M., J. Fuller & S. DeMarse
1993‘The Black Men has wives and sweet hearts (and third person plural-s) jest like the white men’: Evidence for Verbal-s from the Written Documents on 19th Century African American speech. Language Variation and Change 5.335–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montgomery, M. & J. Fuller
1996What was Verbal-s in 19th Century African American English? In E. W. Schneider (ed.), Focus on the USA , 211–230. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Montgomery, M. & P. Robinson
1996Ulster English as Janus. Language contact across the North Atlantic and across the Irish Sea. In P. Sture Ureland & I. Clarkson (eds.), Language Contact across the North Atlantic , 411–426. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.Google Scholar
Morrell, M.C.
1965 A Manual of Old English Biblical Materials . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
Morse-Gagné, E.
2003 Viking Pronouns in England: Charting the Course of THEY, THEIR, and THEM . PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Mossé, F.
1952A Handbook of Middle English. Translated by James Walker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
Murray, J.A.H.
1873 The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland . London: Philological Society.Google Scholar
Mustanoja, T.F.
1960 A Middle English Syntax . Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.Google Scholar
Nees, L.
2003Reading Aldred’s Colophon for the Lindisfarne Gospels . Speculum 78.333–377. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Neu, H.
1980Ranking of Constraints on /t, d/ Deletion in American English: A Statistical Analysis. In W. Labov (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space , 37–54. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
Nevalainen, T. & H. Raumolin-Brunberg
1996The Corpus of Early English Correspondence. In T. Nevalainen & H. Raumolin-Brunberg (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language History: Studies Based on the Corpus of Early English Correspondence , 39–54. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA: Rodopi.Google Scholar
2000aThe Changing Role of London on the Linguistic Map of Tudor and Stuart England. In D. Kastovsky & A. Mettinger (eds.), The History of English in a Social Context , 279–337. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2000bThe Third-Person Singular -(E)S and -(E)TH Revisited: The Morphophonemic Hypothesis. In C. Dalton-Puffer & N. Ritt (eds.), Words, Structure, Meaning, Function , 235–248. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2003 Historical Linguistics: Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England . London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Newton, F.L. et al.
2012Domiciling the Evangelists in Anglo-Saxon England: A Fresh Reading of Aldred’s Colophon in the Lindisfarne Gospels. Anglo-Saxon England 41.101–144. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
NITCS: Kirk, J.M.
1991Northern Ireland Transcribed Corpus of Speech. Revised version. Colchester: Economic and Social Research Council Data Archive, University of Essex.Google Scholar
Norde, M.
1997Middle Low German-Middle Scandinavian Language Contact and Morphological Simplification. Multilingua 16.389–409.Google Scholar
Noreen, A.
1923 Altislandische und altnordische Grammatik . Halle: Max Niemeyer.Google Scholar
Ogura, M.
1987 Historical English Phonology: A Lexical Perspective . Tokyo: Kenkyusha.Google Scholar
Ogura, M. & W.S.-Y. Wang
1996Snowball Effect in Lexical Diffusion: The Development of -s in the Third Person Singular Present Indicative in English. In D. Britton (ed.), English Historical Linguistics 1994 . Papers from the 8th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics , 119–141. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oliveira, M. de
1991The Neogrammarian Controversy Revisited. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 89.93–105. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Page, Raymond
2006 An Introduction to English Runes . Woodbridge: Boydell Press.Google Scholar
Pak, T.Y.
1973Position and Affrication in Northumbrian Old English. Neophilologus 57.74–82. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
PCEEC: Nevalainen, T.. et al.
2006 Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence . Helsinki: University of Helsinki and York: University of York.Google Scholar
Peé, W.
1936Dialectgeographie der Nederlandsche diminutiva. Tongeren: G. Michiels-Broeders.Google Scholar
Peitsara, K.
2002Verbal-s in Devonshire: The Helsinki Dialect Corpus Evidence. In H. Raumolin-Brunberg, M. Nevala & M. Rissanen (eds.), Variation Past and Present. VARIENG Studies on English for Terttu Nevalainen , Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 61, 211–230. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.Google Scholar
Percy, C.
1991Variation Between -(e)th and -(e)s Spellings of the Third Person Singular Present Indicative: Captain James Cook’s Endeavour Journal, 1768–1771. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 92.351–358.Google Scholar
Phillips, B.S.
1984Word Frequency and the Actuation of Sound Change. Language 60.320–342. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2006 Word Frequency and Lexical Diffusion . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pickering, M.J. & H.P. Branigan
1998The Representation of Verbs: Evidence from Syntactic Priming in Language Production. Journal of Memory and Language 39.633–651. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pierrehumbert, J.
2001Exemplar Dynamics: Word Frequency, Lenition, and Contrast. In J. Bybee & P.J. Hopper (eds.), Frequency Effects and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure , 137–157. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002Word-Specific Phonetics. Laboratory Phonology VII, 101–139. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Pietsch, L.
2003Subject-Verb Agreement in Northern Varieties of English. PhD dissertation, University of Freiburg.Google Scholar
2005‘Some do and some doesn’t’: Verbal Concord Variation in the North of the British Isles. In B. Kortmann et al.. (eds.), A Comparative Grammar of British English Dialects. Agreement, Gender, Relative Clauses , 125–209. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pintzuk, S.
1991 Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Word Order . PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Pons-Sanz, S.M.
2000Analysis of the Scandinavian Loanwords to the Aldredian Glosses to the Lindisfarne Gospels. Studies in English Language and Linguistics. Monographs 9, University of Valencia.Google Scholar
2004A Sociolinguistic Approach to the Norse-Derived Words in the Glosses to the Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels. In C. Kay et al.. (eds.), New Perspectives on English Historical Linguistics: Selected Papers from ICEHL 12 , Glasgow, 21–26 August 2002. Volume II: Lexis and Transmission, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 252, 177–192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Poplack, S.
1980The Notion of the Plural in Puerto Rican Spanish: Competing Constraints on (s) Deletion. In W. Labov (ed.), Locating Language in Time and Space , 55–67. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
(ed) 1999 The English History of African American English . Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Poplack, S. & S. Tagliamonte
1989There’s no Tense like the Present: Verbal-s Inflection in Early Black English. Language Variation and Change 1.47–84. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1991African American English in the Diaspora: The Case of Old-Line Nova Scotians. Language Variation and Change 3.301–339. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2001 African American English in the Diaspora . Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Pulsiano, P.
. (ed) 2001 Old English Glossed Psalters . Toronto: University of Toronto.Google Scholar
Quirk, R. & S. Greenbaum
1973 A University Grammar of English . London: Longman.Google Scholar
R Development Core Team
2008R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. www​.R​-project​.orgGoogle Scholar
Ringe, D.
1995Nominative-Accusative Syncretism and Syntactic Case. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 2.45–81.Google Scholar
2006 From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. A Linguistic History of English . Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ringe, D. & J.F. Eska
2013 Historical Linguistics: Towards a Twenty-First Century Reintegration . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ringgaard, K.
1986Flektionssystemets forenkling og middelnedertysk [The Simplification of the Inflectional System and Middle Low German]. Arkiv för norddisk filologi 101.171–183.Google Scholar
Rissanen, M.. et al.
1991Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. Department of English, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
Roberts, P.A.
1976Hypercorrection as Systematic Variation. Paper presented at the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, August 1976, Guyana.
Rodríguez-Ledesma, M.N.
1994Anglificación y Estandarización Lingüística en The Complaynt of Scotland. PhD dissertation, University of Seville.Google Scholar
2013The Northern Subject Rule in First Person Singular Contexts in Fourteenth-Fifteenth-Century Scots. Folia Linguistica Historica 34.149–172. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rohdenburg, G.
2003Cognitive Complexity and Horror Aequi as Factors Determining the Use of Interrogative Clause Linkers in English. In G. Rohdenburg and B. Mondorf (eds.), Determinants of Grammatical Variation in English , 205–249. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ross, A.S.C.
1933Modern Language Notes xlviii, 519–521.Google Scholar
1934The Origins of the s-endings of the Present-Indicative in English. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 33.68–73.Google Scholar
1936Sex and Gender in the Lindisfarne Gospels. Journal of English and Germanic Philology 35.321–330.Google Scholar
1937Studies in the Accidence of the Lindisfarne Gospels, Leeds School of English Language Texts and Monographs 2, Kendal.Google Scholar
1960Standard Paradigms. In Kendrick et al.. (eds.), Evangelium Quattor Codex Lindisfarniensis Musei Britannia Codex Cottonianus Nero D. IV , Volume II, Book II, Part II, 37–42. Lausanna: Urs Graf.Google Scholar
1963 Review of Form und Funktion des Verbums im nördlichen Spätaltenglischen. Halle: Niemeyer. Berndt, Rolf 1956 English Philological Studies. Volume VIII, 45–47. University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
1979Lindisfarne and Rushworth One. Notes and Queries 224.194–198.Google Scholar
Ross, A.S.C., E.G. Stanley & T.J. Brown
1960Some Observations on the Gloss and the Glossator. In Kendrick et al.. (eds.), Evangelium Quattor Codex Lindisfarniensis Musei Britannia Codex Cottonianus Nero D. IV , Volume II, Book II, Part I, 5–33. Lausanna: Urs Graf.Google Scholar
Rupp, L.
2006The Scope of the Northern Subject Rule. In M. Vliegen (ed.), Variation in Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition: Proceedings of the 39th Linguistics Colloquium , 295–304. Oxford: Lang.Google Scholar
Samuels, M.
1985The Great Scandinavian Belt. In R. Eaton (ed.), Papers from the 4th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics , Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 41, 269–281. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Sankoff, D. & W. Labov
1979On the Uses of Variable Rules. Language in Society 8.189–222. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sankoff, D., S. Tagliamonte & E. Smith
Santa Ana, O.
1992Chicano English Evidence for the Exponential Hypothesis: A Variable Rule Pervades Lexical Phonology. Language Variation and Change 4.275–288. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schendl, H.
1996The Third Plural Present Indicative in Early Modern English: Variation and Linguistic Contact. In D. Britton (ed.), English Historical Linguistics 1994 . Papers from the 8th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics , 143–160. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2000The Third Person Present Plural in Shakespeare’s First Folio: A Case of Interaction of Morphology and Syntax. In C. Dalton-Puffer & N. Ritt (eds.), Words: Structure, Meaning, Function: A Festschrift for Dieter Kastovsky . (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 130), 263–276. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Scheungraber, C.
2014The Northumbrian Old English 3rd sg. pres. ending in -s: a Contact Phenomenon? Paper presented at FGLS/SGL Meeting, Cambridge, UK, 9–11 January 2014.Google Scholar
Schilling-Estes, N. & W. Wolfram
1994Convergent Explanation and Alternative Regularization: were/weren’t Leveling in a Vernacular English Variety. Language Variation and Change 6.273–302. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, E.W.
1983The Origin of the Verbal-s in Black English. American Speech 58.99–113. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1995Verbal-s Inflection in ‘early’ American Black English. In J. Fisiak (ed.), Linguistic Change Under Contact Conditions , 315–326. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Schneider, E.W. & M. Montgomery
2001On the Trail of Early Nonstandard Grammar: An Electronic Corpus of Southern U.S. Antebellum Overseers’ Letters. American Speech 76.388–410. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schreier, D.
2002Past be in Tristan de Cunha: The Rise and Fall of Categoricality in Language Change. American Speech 77.70–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009How Diagnostic are English Vernaculars? In M. Filppula, J. Klemola & H. Paulasto (eds.), Vernacular Universal and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond , 57–79. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
Schrijver, P.
2006What Britons Spoke about 400 AD. In N.J. Higham (ed.), Britons in Anglo-Saxon England, 165–171. Woodbridge: Boydell.Google Scholar
2009Celtic Influence on Old English: Phonological and Phonetic Evidence. In J. Klemola & M. Filppula (eds.), English Language and Linguistics 13.193–211.Google Scholar
SCONE: Fernández-Cuesta et al.
2008Seville Corpus of Northern English (http://​ingles3​.us​.es/). University of Seville.Google Scholar
SED: Orton, H., M. Barry, E. Dieth, W. Halliday, P. Tilling & M. Wakelin
(eds) 1962–1971Survey of English Dialects. Leeds: Arnold.Google Scholar
Shorrocks, G.
1999 A Grammar of the Dialect of the Bolton Area. Frankfurt am Main. Lang.Google Scholar
Siegel, J.
1997Mixing, Leveling, and Pidgin/Creole Development. In A.K. Spears & D. Winford (eds.), The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creole Languages: Including Selected Papers from the Meeting of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics , 111–149. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sisam, C. & K. Sisam
(eds) 1959The Salisbury Psalter, Early English Text Society 242. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Skeat, W.W.
(ed) 1871–1887 The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian, and Old Mercian Versions . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Skjekkeland, M.
1997Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag I jamf skriftmåla, Høskoleforlaget: Academic Norwegian Press.Google Scholar
Smith, J. & S. Tagliamonte
1998‘We were all thegither ... I think we was all thegither’: was Regularization in Buckie English. World Englishes 17.105–126. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Smith J., M. Durham & L. Fortune
2007‘Mam, my trousers is fa’in doon!’: Community, Caregiver, and Child in the Acquisition of Variation in a Scottish Dialect. Language Variation and Change 19.63–99. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stein, D.
1986Old English Northumbrian Verb Inflection Revisited. In D. Kastovsky & A. Szwedek (eds.), Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Volume I: Linguistic Theory and Historical Linguistics , 637–650. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
1987At the Crossroads of Philology, Linguistics and Semiotics: Notes on the Replacement of th by s in the Third Person Singular in English. English Studies 68.406–443. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, J. & G. Waring
(eds) 1854–1865The Lindisfarne and Rushworth Gospels. Durham: Publications of the Surtees Society.Google Scholar
Suárez-Gómez, C.
2009On the Syntactic Differences between OE Dialects: Evidence from the Gospels . English Language and Linguistics 13.57–75. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sweet, H.
. (ed. and trans.)1871King Alfred’s West-Saxon Version of Gregory’s Pastoral Care. London: Trübner & Co.Google Scholar
1888 History of English Sounds from the Earliest Period: With Full Word Lists . Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
1953Sweet’s Anglo-Saxon Primer, 9th ed., rev. Norman Davis. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Szmrecsanyi, B.
2006 Morphosyntactic Persistence in Spoken English: A Corpus Study at the Intersection of Variationist Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, and Discourse Analysis . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tagliamonte, S.
1998Was/were Variation Across the Generations: View from the City of York. Language Variation and Change 10.153–191. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2009 There was universals; then there werent: A Comparative Sociolinguistic Perspective on Default Singulars. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola & H. Paulasto (eds.), Vernacular Universal and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond , 103–129. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
Tagliamonte, S. & J. Smith
2000Old Was, New Ecology: Viewing English through the Sociolinguistic Filter. In S. Poplack (ed.), The English History of African American English , 141–71. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Thomason, S.
2009Why Universal versus Contact-Induced Change? In M. Filppula, J. Klemola & H. Paulasto (eds.), Vernacular Universal and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond , 349–362. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
Thomason, S. & T. Kaufman
1988 Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics . Berkeley & London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Tottie, G.
1991Lexical Diffusion in Syntactic Change: Frequency as a Determinant of Linguistic Conservatism in the Development of Negation in English. In D. Kastovsky (ed.), Historical English Syntax , 439–467. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Townend, M.
2002 Language and History in Viking Age England: Linguistic Relations between Speakers of Old Norse and Old English . Turnhout: Brepols.Google Scholar
Trudgill, P.
1974 The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1986 Dialects in Contact . Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
1998The Chaos before the Order: New Zealand English and the Second Stage of New-Dialect Formation. In E. Hakon Jahr (ed.), Language Change: Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics , 1–11. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
2008English Dialect ‘Default Singulars’ Was versus Were, Verner’s Law, and Germanic dialects. Journal of English Linguistics 36.341–353. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010 Investigations in Sociolinguistics: Stories of Colonisation and Contact . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2011 Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity . Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Vennemann, T.
2001Atlantis Semitica: Structural Contact Features in Celtic and English. In L.J. Brinton (ed.), Historical Linguistics 1999 , 351–369. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vincent, N.B.
1982The Development of the Auxiliaries habere and essere in Romance. In N.B. Vincent & M. Harris (eds.), Studies in the Romance Verb , 71–96. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
Visser, F.
1970An Historical Syntax of the English Language. Volume I. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
Walkden, G.
2013Null subjects in Old English. Language Variation and Change 25.155–178. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
. Forthcoming. Null Subjects in the Lindisfarne Gospels as Evidence for Syntactic Variation in Old English. In J. Fernández-Cuesta & S.M. Pons-Sanz (eds.). Forthcoming.
Wang, W.S.-Y.
1969Competing Changes as a Cause of Residue. Language 45.9–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, W.S.-Y. & C.-C. Cheng
1977Implementation of Phonological Change: The Shaungfeng Chinese Case. In W. Wang (ed.), The Lexicon in Phonological Change , 86–100. The Hague: Mouton. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wells, J.C.
1996The Accents of English. Volumes I–III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
White, D.L.
2002Explaining the Innovations of Middle English: What, Where, and Why? In M. Filppula et al.. (eds.), The Celtic Roots of English , 153–174. Joensuu: Joensuu University Press.Google Scholar
2003Brittonic Influence in the Reductions of Middle English Nominal Morphology. In H.L.C. Tristram (ed.), The Celtic Englishes II , 29–45. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
Williamson, J. & F. Hardman
1997To Purify the Dialect of the Tribe: Children’s Use of Non-­Standard Dialect Grammar in Writing. Educational Studies 23.157–168. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, W.
1969A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
1974The Relationship of Southern White Speech to Vernacular Black English. Language 50.498–527. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, W. & D. Christian
1976Appalachian Speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Wolfram, W., E. Thomas & E. Green
2000The Regional Context of Earlier African-American Speech: Evidence for Reconstructing the Development of AAVE. Language in Society 29.315–355. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, W. & N. Schilling-Estes
1996Dialect Change and Maintenance in a Post-Insular Island Community. In E.W. Schneider (ed.), Focus on the USA , 103–148. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wolfram, W. & E. Thomas
2002 The Development of African American English . Malden: Basil Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wright, J.
1892A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill in the West Riding of Yorkshire. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.Google Scholar
1905 The English Dialect Grammar . Oxford: Henry Frowde.Google Scholar
Wright, L.
2001Third Person Singular Present-Tense -s, -th, and zero, 1575–1648. American Speech 76.236–258. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002Third Person Plural Tense Markers in London Prisoners’ Depositions 1662–1623. American Speech 77.242–263. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Young, R. & R. Bayley
1996Second Language Acquisition and Linguistic Variation. The University of Texas at San Antonio / Michigan State University.Google Scholar
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF/2AB – Linguistics/English
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014011871 | Marc record