Informal Fallacies

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ISBN 9789027250056 (Eur) | EUR 115.00
ISBN 9781556190100 (USA) | USD 173.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027278906 | EUR 115.00 | USD 173.00
 
The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as “good,” “not-so-good,” “open to criticism,” “fallacious,” and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the problems of how to criticize an argument, and when a criticism is reasonably justified.
[Pragmatics & Beyond Companion Series, 4]  1987.  x, 338 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: A New Model of Argument
1
1. Introduction to the Fallacies
3
2. Some More Fallacies
9
3. Fallacies Combined in Realistic Dialogues
11
4. What is an Argument?
16
5. Criticism as Challenge and Response
22
6. Basic Categories of Argument Study
26
Notes: Chapter 1
31
Chapter 2: Hot Rhetoric and Argument
33
1. Appeals to Popular Sentiment
33
2. Appeals to Force
39
3. Appeals to Pity
42
4. Overly Personal Argumentation
45
5. The Rhetorical Debate
48
6. Case Study: Parliamentary Debate
51
7. Conclusion
60
Notes: Chapter 2
61
Chapter 3: The Logic of Propositions
63
1. Deductive Validity
63
2. Formal Logic
65
3. Classical Propositional Calculus
68
4. Applying Deductive Logic to Arguments
73
5. Invalidity and Fallaciousness
77
6. Relevance and Validity
79
7. Subject-Matter Relatedness
82
8. Relatedness Logic
84
9. Semantics and Pragmatics
88
10. What is a Fallacy?
93
Notes: Chapter 3
96
Chapter 4: Logical Dialogue-Games
97
1. Different Approaches to Formal Dialogues
98
2. The Ad Ignorantiam Fallacy
105
3. Fallacies of Question-Asking
108
4. The Fallacy of Many Questions
110
5. Demanding Direct Answers to Questions
113
6. Misconception of Refutation
115
7. Case Studies of Political Debates
118
8. A Game with Dark-Side Commitments
125
Notes: Chapter 4
130
Chapter 5: Enthymemes
133
1. The Tradition of Enthymemes
133
2. The Objectives of Dialogue
136
3. Veiled Commitment-Sets
142
4. Strategy and Plausibility
145
5. The Problem Resolved
146
6. Order of the Premisses
150
7. Multiple Premisses in Complex Arguments
154
Notes: Chapter 5
156
Chapter 6: Longer Sequences of Argumentation
157
1. Sequences of Argumentation
158
2. Graphs of Arguments
160
3. Case Study: Argument on Sex Education
162
4. Case Study: Circular Argumentation
167
5. Plausibility Conditions on Arguments
170
6. The Missing Links
176
7. Conclusions on Circular Arguments
180
Notes: Chapter 6
183
Chapter 7: Fallacious Arguments From Authority
185
1. How Appeals to Authority Can Go Wrong
185
2. Plausible Argument
188
3. Where Experts Disagree
190
4. Expertise and Legal Dialogue
192
5. Dialogue and Expertise
194
6. Conclusions
199
Notes: Chapter 7
201
Chapter 8: Various Fallacies
203
1. Inductive Fallacies
203
2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments
205
3. Post Hoc Arguments
206
4. Slippery Slope
209
5. Equivocation
212
6. Amphiboly
213
7. Composition and Division
214
Chapter 9: Arguments Against the Person
217
1. Poisoning the Well
217
2. The Sportsman's Rejoinder
222
3. Evaluating Ad Hominem Disputations
227
4. Four Types of Circumstantial Ad Hominem
230
5. Rhetorical Context of Ad Hominem Attacks
233
6. Positional Defensibility
236
7. Conclusion
238
Notes: Chapter 9
240
Chapter 10: Equivocation
241
1. What is Equivocation?
242
2. Vagueness and Criticisms of Equivocality
245
3. The Problem of Subtle Equivocations
249
4. Deep Deception and Equivocal Dialogue
254
5. Many-Valued Logic for Equivocators
259
6. Priests's System LP
261
7. Applying LP to the Fallacy of Equivocation
266
8. R-Mingle as a Logic for Equivocators
273
9. RM and Equivocation
276
10. Conclusions
283
Notes: Chapter 10
287
Chapter 11: Informal Logic as a Discipline
289
1. The Role of Formal Logic
291
2. Dialectic as a Theory of Argument
294
3. Function of Why-Questions
297
4. Subject-Specific Nature of Arguments
302
5. Case Studies on Circular Reasoning
305
6. Conversational Pragmatics
314
7. Pedagogical Directions for Informal Logic
320
Notes: Chapter 11
322
Bibliography
323
Index
331
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Subjects

Philosophy

Philosophy
BIC Subject: HP – Philosophy
BISAC Subject: PHI000000 – PHILOSOPHY / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  86027055