Chapter published in:The Construction of Discourse as Verbal Interaction
Edited by María de los Ángeles Gómez González and J. Lachlan Mackenzie
[Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 296] 2018
► pp. 109–144
“God that came out quick didn’t it eh”
Variable and invariable tag questions in spoken British English
This study compares and contrasts British English variable tag questions, i.e. those containing a grammatically dependent question tag (e.g. isn’t it?), with invariable ones, i.e. those containing lexical tag questions (e.g. right?). Results are reported for five research questions concerning the (i) formal and (ii) functional characteristics of variable and invariable tag questions, as well as the factors motivating the choice of one type over the other, namely (iii) gender, (iv) age and (v) genre. Based on a sample of 858 tag questions, my findings suggest that British English shows a consistently higher preference for variable tag questions (717 vs. 141 tokens). Further differences and parallelisms are revealed for formal, functional, sociolinguistic and distributional conditions, raising new implications for further inquiry.
Keywords: tag questions, variable and invariable question tags
Published online: 20 September 2018
2011b Tag Questions in Fiction Dialogues. Ph.D. Dissertation at the University of Gothenburg. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg Press.
Barron, Anne, Irina Pandarova, and Karoline Muderack
Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, and Geoffrey Leech
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, and Edward Finegan
Calnan, Alison, and Marilyn Davidson
Cameron, Deborah, Fiona McAlinden, and Kathy O’Leary
Carter, Ronald, and Michael McCarthy
Cheng, Winnie, and Martin Warren
Cortés, Luis, and María Matilde Camacho
Dehé, Nicole, and Bettina Braun
Dubois, Betty Lou, and Isabel Crouch
Eckert, Penelope, and Sally McConnell-Ginet
Ford, Cecilia E., Barbara A. Fox, and Sandra A. Thompson
Ginzburg, Jonathan, and Ivan Sag
Gómez González, María de los Ángeles
Harris, Patricia H.
Hoffmann, Sebastian, Anne-Katrin Blass, and Joybrato Mukherjee
Huddleston, Rodney, and Geoffrey K. Pullum
Kimps, Ditte, and Kristin Davidse
Kimps, Ditte, Kristin Davidse, and Bert Cornillie
König, Ekkehard, and Volker Gast
Labov, William, and David Fanshel
Lapadat, Judy, and Maureen Seesahai
McCawley, James D.
McMillan, Julie, Kay Cliftin, Diane McGrath, and Wanda Gale
Moore, Emma, and Robert Podesva
Nelson, Gerald, Sean Wallis, and Bas Aarts
O’Barr, William M., and Bowman K. Atkins
Pons Bordería, Salvador
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik
Rodríguez Muñoz, Francisco J.
2009 “A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Functions and Sociolinguistic Distribution of English and German Tag Questions and Discourse Markers in Academic Speech.” In Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Academic Discourse, ed. by Eija Suomela-Salmi, and Fred Dervin, 61–80. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie, and Karin Aijmer
Stenström, Anna-Brita, Gisle Andersen, and Ingrid Hasund
Torgersen, Eivind, Costas Gabrielatos, Sebastian Hoffmann, and Sue Fox
Tottie, Gunnel, and Sebastian Hoffmann
Cited by 4 other publications
Clausen, Yulia & Tatjana Scheffler
Gómez González, María de los Ángeles & Nicole Dehé
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 16 july 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.