Chapter in:Pragmatic Markers and Peripheries
Edited by Daniël Van Olmen and Jolanta Šinkūnienė
[Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 325] 2021
► pp. 78–109
Presentation followed by negotiation
Final pragmatic particle sequencing in Ainu
This study explores the sequential pattern of sentence- or utterance-final pragmatic particles in Ainu, an indigenous language of Japan, and demonstrates that the particle sequences largely exhibit an ordering summarized as presentation followed by negotiation: a particle concerning the “presentation” of a speech act is followed by another particle representing the “negotiation” with the addressee for a speech act. These “presenting” and “negotiating” functions are further analyzed with respect to the speech event conception that underlies those functions.
Keywords: final particle, pragmatic particle, order, attitude, stance