References
Bamford, K. W., & Mizokawa, D. T.
(1991) Additive-bilingual (immersion) education: Cognitive and language development. Language Learning, 411, 413–429. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, J. B.
(1962) The prediction of success in intensive foreign language training. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Training research and education (pp. 87–136). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
(1965) The contributions of psychological theory and educational research to the teaching of foreign languages. The Modern Language Journal, 49(5), 273–281.Google Scholar
Carroll, J.
(1973) Implications of aptitude test research and psycholinguistic theory for foreign language teaching. International Journal of Psycholinguistics 21, 5–14.Google Scholar
(1979) Psychometric approaches to the study of language abilities. In C. J. Fillmore, D. Kempler, & W. -S. Y. Wang (Eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior (pp. 13–32). New York, NY: Academic Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1981) Twenty-five years of research in foreign language aptitude. In K. C. Diller (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 83–118). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
(1991) Cognitive abilities in foreign language aptitude: Then and now. In T. Parry & C. Stansfield (Eds.), Language aptitude reconsidered (pp. 11–29). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Carroll, J., & Sapon, S.
(1959) Modern language aptitude test. New York, NY: The Psychology Corporation.Google Scholar
(1967) Modern language aptitude test – Elementary. New York, NY: The Psychology Corporation.Google Scholar
Collentine, J., & Freed, B.
(Eds.) (2004) Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition. Special Issue of Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 261, 153–356.Google Scholar
Cooper, T. C.
(1987) Foreign language study and SAT-verbal scores. Modern Language Journal, 71(4): 381–387 CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center
(2013) Defense language proficiency test 5 system: Familiarization guide for multiple-choice format. Retrieved from http://​www​.dliflc​.edu​/archive​/documents/.
DeKeyser, R.
(2000) The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 221, 499–533. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dörnyei, Z.
(2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P.
(2003) Individual differences in second language learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 589–630). Oxford: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Doughty, C. J., Campbell, S. G., Bunting, M. F., Bowles, A., & Haarmann, H.
(2007) The development of the High-Level Language Aptitude Battery. Technical Report: Center for Advanced Study of Language, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
Educational Testing Service
(2013) Test fairness and validity. Retrieved from http://​www​.ets​.org​/gre​/institutions​/about​/fairness/
Freed, B., Segalowitz, N., & Dewey, D.
(2004) Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 261, 275–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Humes-Bartlo, M.
(1989) Variation in children’s ability to learn second languages. In K. Hyltenstam, & L. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan (pp. 41–54). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Interagency Language Roundtable
(1985) Interagency language roundtable skill level descriptions. Retrieved from http://​www​.govtilr​.org/.
Keesling, J. W.
(1997) Language skill change project, relook: Final report (DLIFLC Technical Report No. 97–03). Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center.Google Scholar
Lett, J. A., & O’Mara, F. E.
(1990) Predictors of success in an intensive foreign language learning context: Correlates of language learning at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. In T. Parry & C. Stansfield (Eds.), Language aptitude reconsidered (pp. 222–260). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Li, S.
(2016) The construct validity of language aptitude. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 381, 801–842. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Linck, J., Highes, M., Campbell, S., Silbert, N., Tare, M., Jackson, S., Smith, B., Wall, D., Meyers, J., Bunting, M., & Doughty, C.
(2012) Hi-LAB identifies successful high-proficiency language learners: results of the group discrimination study. Technical Report: Center for Advanced Study of Language, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
Linck, J., Hughes, M., Campbell, S., Silbert, N., Tare, M., Jackson, S., Smith, B., Bunting, M., & Doughty, C.
(2013) Hi-LAB: A new measure of aptitude for high-level language proficiency. Language Learning, 63(3), 530–566. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lohman, D. F.
(2004) Aptitude for College. In R. Zwick (Ed.), Rethinking the SAT: The future of standardized testing in university admissions. New York, NY: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, D.
(1998) Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In A. Healy & L. Bourne (Eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 339–364). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
O’Brien, I., Segalowitz, N., Freed, B., & Collentine, J.
(2007) Phonological memory predicts second language oral fluency gains in adults. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29(4), 557–581.Google Scholar
O’Mara, F. E., Lett, J. A., & Alexander, E. E.
(1994) Language skill change project: Description and methods. (LSCP RI). Monterey, CA: Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center.Google Scholar
Petersen, C., & Al-Haik, A.
(1976) The development of the Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 36(2), 369–380.Google Scholar
Pimsleur, P.
(1996) Testing foreign language learning. In Valdman, A. (Ed.), Trends in language teaching (pp. 175–214). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
(1968) Language aptitude testing. In Davies, A. (Ed.), Language aptitude symposium: A linguistic approach (pp. 98–106). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Robinson, P.
(2013) Aptitude in second language acquisition. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 1–5). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Sawyer, M., & Ranta, L.
(2001) Aptitude, individual differences and instructional design. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 219–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schneiderman, E. I., & Desmarais, C.
(1988) The talented language learner: Some preliminary findings. Second Language Research 4(2), 91–109. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schoonen, R., Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B.
(1998) Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension. An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language Learning, 48(1), 71–106. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Segalowitz, N., & Freed, B.
(2004) Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition: learning Spanish in at home and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 261, 173–199. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Silva, J. M., & White, L. A.
(1993) Relation of cognitive aptitudes to success in foreign language training. Military Psychology, 51, 79–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P.
(1986) Cluster analysis and the identification of learner types. In V. Cook (Ed.), Experimental approaches to second language acquisition (pp. 81–94). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
(1991) Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 131, 275–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R., & Ganschow, L.
(1991) Foreign language learning difficulties: Affective or native language aptitude differences? Modern Language Journal, 751, 3–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1993) Searching for the cognitive locus of foreign language learning difficulties: Linking native and foreign language learning. Modern Language Journal, 771, 289–302. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(1995) A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. Modern Language Journal 791, 235–244. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, R., Artzer, M., Ganschow, L., Sibenhar, D., Plageman, M., & Patton, J.
(1998) Differences in native-language skills, foreign-language aptitude, and foreign language grades among high-, average-, and low-proficiency foreign language learners: Two studies. Language Testing, 15(2), 181–216.Google Scholar
Surface, E. A., Dierdorff, E. C., & Donnelly, J.
(2004) Modeling second language proficiency change for US special operations personnel. Paper presented at the 19th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.
VanPatten, B.
(1996) Input processing and grammar instruction in second language acquisition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
Vatz, K., Tare, M., Jackson, S. R., & Doughty, C. J.
(2013) Aptitude-treatment interaction studies in second language acquisition: Findings and methodology. In G. Granena, & M. H. Long (Eds.), Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment (pp. 274–29). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walter, C.
(2000) The involvement of working memory in reading in a foreign language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar