New Englishes and learner varieties of English are both reported to overuse the progressive. Furthermore, previous research suggests that speakers of English as a Second Language (ESL) and learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) use the progressive construction differently, at times, from the way it is used by native speakers. Previous research, for the most part, has looked at New Englishes and Learner English separately. This study combines the data on the use of the progressive in academic writing by ESL and EFL speakers. As research on the progressive in varieties such as British and New Zealand English has shown, there are also differences in the ongoing spread of the progressive in English as a native language (ENL), so it is not enough to compare ESL and EFL varieties with just one ENL variety. This paper therefore brings together evidence from corpora of inner, outer and expanding-circle varieties of English to test the hypothesis of ‘overuse’ and ‘deviation’ in ESL and EFL use of the progressive. The results show that we might have to reconsider some of the models of World English that suggest neat divides between ENL, ESL and EFL usage.
2021. The Use of the Progressive in Light of the AH in Monolingual EFL-Instructed Spanish Learners at University Level: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus-Based SLA Study. Círculo de Lingüística Aplicada a la Comunicación 87 ► pp. 53 ff.
2014. The progressive aspect in the Netherlands and the ESL/EFL continuum. World Englishes 33:2 ► pp. 173 ff.
2014. Subject Realization in Japanese Conversation by Native and Non-native Speakers: Exemplifying a New Paradigm for Learner Corpus Research. In Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2014 [Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, 2], ► pp. 35 ff.
Gries, Stefan Th. & Sandra C. Deshors
2015. EFL and/vs. ESL?. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 1:1 ► pp. 130 ff.
2019. Corpus-Based Approaches to World Englishes. In The Cambridge Handbook of World Englishes, ► pp. 506 ff.
Hundt, Marianne, Paula Rautionaho & Carolin Strobl
2020. Progressive or simple? A corpus-based study of aspect in World Englishes. Corpora 15:1 ► pp. 77 ff.
KRUGER, HAIDEE & BERTUS VAN ROOY
2017. Editorial practice and the progressive in Black South African English. World Englishes 36:1 ► pp. 20 ff.
2012. Bad influence? – an investigation into the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers on children's second language English acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 33:2 ► pp. 133 ff.
2017. The progressive form in learner Englishes: Examining variation across corpora. World Englishes 36:4 ► pp. 760 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 8 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
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