Declarative and Procedural Determinants of Second Languages

| McGill University & Cognitive Neuroscience Center, UQÀM
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027241764 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
PaperbackAvailable
ISBN 9789027241771 | EUR 36.00 | USD 54.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027290403 | EUR 105.00/36.00*
| USD 158.00/54.00*
 
This volume is the outcome of the author’s observations and puzzlement over seventeen years of teaching English and French as second languages, followed by 30 years of research into the neurolinguistic aspects of bilingualism. It examines, within the framework of a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism (Paradis, 2004), the crucial and pervasive contributions made by declarative and procedural memory to the appropriation, representation and processing of a second language. This requires careful consideration of a number of concepts associated with issues pertaining to second language research: consciousness, interface, modularity, automaticity, proficiency, accuracy, fluency, intake, ultimate attainment, switching, implicit linguistic competence and explicit metalinguistic knowledge. It is informed by data from a variety of domains, including language pathology, neuroimaging, and, from each side of the fence, practical classroom experience. This book introduces four further proposals within the framework of a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism: (1) There are two sets of cerebral representations, those that are capable of reaching consciousness and those that are not; implicit grammar is inherently not capable of reaching consciousness. (2) The increased activation observed in neuroimaging studies during the use of a second language is not devoted to the processing of implicit linguistic competence. (3) Intake is doubly implicit. (4) Given the premise that metalinguistic knowledge cannot be converted into implicit competence, there can be no possible interface between the two.
[Studies in Bilingualism, 40]  2009.  xii, 219 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
ix–xii
Chapter 1. Key concepts, framework, and clarifications
1–35
Chapter 2. Consciousness in L2 appropriation
37–60
Chapter 3. The disintegration of the implicit/explicit interface debate (or interface newspeak?)
61–107
Chapter 4. Ultimate attainment in L2 proficiency
109–136
Chapter 5. Pervasive relevance of the distinction between implicit competence and explicit knowledge
137–186
Summary of key proposals
187–190
References
191–215
Subject index
217–219
“This volume provides a thorough and comprehensive review of issues regarding the distinction between declarative and procedural aspects of processing in the L2. It includes a strong emphasis on the neurocognitive underpinnings of this distinction. Paradis discusses the differences between L1 and L2 in terms of the involvement of implicit versus explicit knowledge, and he makes important claims about the inability of studies that use single-word stimuli to reveal much about processing in implicit knowledge systems. Paradis defends the no-interface view of the relationship between explicit and implicit knowledge (i.e., that explicit or metalinguistic knowledge cannot be converted into forms of implicit knowledge), and this has implications for an understanding of fluency development.”
“At a moment when issues of bilingualism assume greater importance in the United States and as neurocognitive techniques rapidly gain terrain in SLA research, an extension of Paradis’s (2004) neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism could hardly be more timely. This volume stands out for its clarity, accessibility, and thought-provoking style. [...] this volume will interest psycholinguists, neurolinguists, and SLA researchers. Readers already familiar with Paradis’s (2004 ) work can benefit from the model additions, updated information on diverse topics, new data that claim to bolster central tenets of the theory, and plenty of room for rebuttal. Those less familiar with Paradis’s research and the explicit-implicit distinction and interface debate can read the preface (a synopsis of the 2004 book) and the appendix that summarizes key proposals (giving an overview of the constructs created after 2004) before delving into the individual chapters.”
“This excellent, lucid and scholarly work is a treatise on the conceptual basis of our understanding of second language appropriation and use, and the neural systems that subserve it. It is an important extension of MP’s seminal work on neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism (Paradis, 2004). [...] a rigorous exercise in clearing muddled thinking and in exploring the behavioural and neural bases of second language performance. [...] The core thesis is applied to different issues in the different chapters and this means that the chapters can be read somewhat independently. In consequence, readers with different interests can grasp the thesis and its implications for their area of interest efficiently. I think they will find themselves enticed to read further and enjoy, as I did, a book that provides a wide-ranging exploration of a common theme. The thesis that MP eloquently develops [...] is open to explicit test.”
“[...] As one works through the treatise, it is clear that despite targeting an expert readership, the book does not completely exclude educated lay readers, much to its credit. This is achieved through the rigorous systematicity with which the arguments of the book are presented [...] What particularly strikes me is how the author elucidates some of his points in a way that is wholly comprehensible and intuitive. [...] One cannot but be awed by the extent of knowledge the author has on the subject being dealt with, as evident in his exhaustive and critical commentary on the relevant literature. The comprehensiveness of this work makes it a must-read for students and scholars who are interested in bilingualism in general and second language acquisition in particular.”
“One cannot but be awed by the extent of knowledge the author has on the subject being dealt with, as evident in his exhaustive and critical commentary on the relevant literature. The comprehensiveness of this work makes it a must-read for students and scholars who are interested in bilingualism in general and second language acquisition in particular.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

No author info given
2009. INDEX OF BOOKS RECEIVED 2009. Journal of Child Language 36:5  pp. 1173 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2009. Publications Received. Language Teaching 42:4  pp. 548 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2012. The neuroscience of translation. Target 24:1  pp. 83 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2013. Towards a new linguistic-cognitive orientation in translation studies. Target 25:1  pp. 46 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2015.  In Interaction and Second Language Development [Language Learning & Language Teaching, 44], Crossref logo
No author info given
2015. Psycholinguistic explorations of lexical translation equivalents: Thirty years of research and their implications for cognitive translatology. Translation Spaces 4:1  pp. 9 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2016.  In Conference Interpreting – A Complete Course [Benjamins Translation Library, 120], Crossref logo
No author info given
2016.  In Conference Interpreting – A Trainer’s Guide [Benjamins Translation Library, 121], Crossref logo
No author info given
2016. A Transdisciplinary Framework for SLA in a Multilingual World. The Modern Language Journal 100:S1  pp. 19 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2018. REFERENCES. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 83:1  pp. 91 ff. Crossref logo
No author info given
2019.  In The Neurocognition of Translation and Interpreting [Benjamins Translation Library, 147], Crossref logo
Abrahamsson, Niclas
2012. AGE OF ONSET AND NATIVELIKE L2 ULTIMATE ATTAINMENT OF MORPHOSYNTACTIC AND PHONETIC INTUITION. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34:2  pp. 187 ff. Crossref logo
Abutalebi, Jubin & Meiyun Chang-Smith
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Aktan-Erciyes, Aslı & Ayhan Aksu-Koç
2016.  In The Acquisition of Turkish in Childhood [Trends in Language Acquisition Research, 20],  pp. 389 ff. Crossref logo
Alptekin, Cem
2011. Beyond ENL norms in ELF use. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 34:2  pp. 148 ff. Crossref logo
BABCOCK, LAURA, JOHN C. STOWE, CHRISTOPHER J. MALOOF, CLAUDIA BROVETTO & MICHAEL T. ULLMAN
2012. The storage and composition of inflected forms in adult-learned second language: A study of the influence of length of residence, age of arrival, sex, and other factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15:4  pp. 820 ff. Crossref logo
Bardel, Camilla
2015.  In Transfer Effects in Multilingual Language Development [Hamburg Studies on Linguistic Diversity, 4],  pp. 111 ff. Crossref logo
Bartning, Inge, Fanny Forsberg Lundell & Victorine Hancock
2012. ON THE ROLE OF LINGUISTIC CONTEXTUAL FACTORS FOR MORPHOSYNTACTIC STABILIZATION IN HIGH-LEVEL L2 FRENCH. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34:2  pp. 243 ff. Crossref logo
Bialystok, Ellen, Fergus I.M. Craik, David W. Green & Tamar H. Gollan
2009. Bilingual Minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 10:3  pp. 89 ff. Crossref logo
Bolgün, M. Ali & Tatiana McCaw
2019. Toward a neuroscience-informed evaluation of language technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning 32:3  pp. 294 ff. Crossref logo
Bowden, Harriet Wood, Matthew P. Gelfand, Cristina Sanz & Michael T. Ullman
2010. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage Versus Composition. Language Learning 60:1  pp. 44 ff. Crossref logo
Buchweitz, Augusto & Chantel Prat
2013. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex. Physics of Life Reviews 10:4  pp. 428 ff. Crossref logo
Bylund, Emanuel, Kenneth Hyltenstam & Niclas Abrahamsson
2020. Age of acquisition – not bilingualism – is the primary determinant of less than nativelike L2 ultimate attainment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Calvo, Noelia, Sofía Abrevaya, Macarena Martínez Cuitiño, Brenda Steeb, Dolores Zamora, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez & Adolfo M. García
2019. Rethinking the Neural Basis of Prosody and Non-literal Language: Spared Pragmatics and Cognitive Compensation in a Bilingual With Extensive Right-Hemisphere Damage. Frontiers in Psychology 10 Crossref logo
Calvo, Noelia, Adolfo M. García, Laura Manoiloff & Agustín Ibáñez
2016. Bilingualism and Cognitive Reserve: A Critical Overview and a Plea for Methodological Innovations. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 7 Crossref logo
Calvo, Noelia, Agustín Ibáñez, Edinson Muñoz & Adolfo M. García
2018. A core avenue for transcultural research on dementia: on the cross-linguistic generalization of language-related effects in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 33:6  pp. 814 ff. Crossref logo
Cargnelutti, Elisa, Barbara Tomasino & Franco Fabbro
2019.  In The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Multilingualism,  pp. 531 ff. Crossref logo
Cargnelutti, Elisa, Barbara Tomasino & Franco Fabbro
2019. Language Brain Representation in Bilinguals With Different Age of Appropriation and Proficiency of the Second Language: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13 Crossref logo
Chachu, Sewoenam, C. Granget, M.-A. Dat, D. Guedat-Bittighoffer & C. Cuet
2017. The intermediary role of reformulation in learning French as a foreign language: The case of students at the University of Ghana.. SHS Web of Conferences 38  pp. 00007 ff. Crossref logo
Chen, Jianlin
2018. How do L3 words find conceptual parasitic hosts in typologically distant L1 or L2? Evidence from a cross-linguistic priming effect. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Chłopek, Zofia
2018.  In Current Research in Bilingualism and Bilingual Education [Multilingual Education, 26],  pp. 23 ff. Crossref logo
COUGHLIN, CAITLIN E. & ANNIE TREMBLAY
2013. Proficiency and working memory based explanations for nonnative speakers’ sensitivity to agreement in sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics 34:3  pp. 615 ff. Crossref logo
COUGHLIN, CAITLIN E. & ANNIE TREMBLAY
2015. Morphological decomposition in native and non-native French speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18:3  pp. 524 ff. Crossref logo
Dahm, Rebecca
2014. Les approches plurielles : vecteurs du développement de la compétence métalinguistique des collégiens. Recherche et pratiques pédagogiques en langues de spécialité - Cahiers de l APLIUT :Vol. XXXIII N° 2  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
de Bot, Kees
2019.  In The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Multilingualism,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Annick De Houwer & Lourdes Ortega
2018.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism, Crossref logo
DeKeyser, Robert
2012. Interactions Between Individual Differences, Treatments, and Structures in SLA. Language Learning 62  pp. 189 ff. Crossref logo
Dekeyser, Robert & Raquel Criado
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
DeKeyser, Robert M.
2012. Individual differences in native language attainment and their implications for research on second language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 2:3  pp. 260 ff. Crossref logo
DeKeyser, Robert M.
2013. Age Effects in Second Language Learning: Stepping Stones Toward Better Understanding. Language Learning 63  pp. 52 ff. Crossref logo
Dronjic, Vedran
2011. Mandarin Chinese compounds, their representation, and processing in the visual modality. Writing Systems Research 3:1  pp. 5 ff. Crossref logo
Dąbrowska, Ewa
2012. Explaining individual differences in linguistic proficiency. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 2:3  pp. 324 ff. Crossref logo
ECKE, PETER
2015. Parasitic vocabulary acquisition, cross-linguistic influence, and lexical retrieval in multilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18:2  pp. 145 ff. Crossref logo
ERÇETİN, GÜLCAN & CEM ALPTEKİN
2013. The explicit/implicit knowledge distinction and working memory: Implications for second-language reading comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics 34:4  pp. 727 ff. Crossref logo
Fabbro, Anastasia, Cristiano Crescentini, Eric Pascoli, Simona Screm, Damiano Cantone & Franco Fabbro
2020. Differences in personality traits in children and adult bilinguals: A pilot study in a bilingual Friulian–Italian context. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 23:3  pp. 631 ff. Crossref logo
Falk, Ylva
2017.  In L3 Syntactic Transfer [Bilingual Processing and Acquisition, 5],  pp. 127 ff. Crossref logo
FALK, YLVA, CHRISTINA LINDQVIST & CAMILLA BARDEL
2015. The role of L1 explicit metalinguistic knowledge in L3 oral production at the initial state. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18:2  pp. 227 ff. Crossref logo
Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy & Kara Morgan-Short
2018. The interplay of individual differences and context of learning in behavioral and neurocognitive second language development. Second Language Research 34:1  pp. 67 ff. Crossref logo
Felker, Emily, Annie Tremblay & Peter Golato
2015. Traitement de l’accord dans la parole continue chez les apprenants anglophones tardifs du français. Arborescences :5  pp. 28 ff. Crossref logo
Fitzgerald, Jill, A. Jackson Stenner, Eleanor E. Sanford-Moore, Heather Koons, Kimberly Bowen & Kee Hyung Kim
2015. The Relationship of Korean Students’ Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study. Reading Psychology 36:2  pp. 173 ff. Crossref logo
FOOTE, REBECCA
2011. Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English–Spanish bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics 32:1  pp. 187 ff. Crossref logo
Gahrouei, Vahid Mahmoudi
2013. Effect of Explicit Instruction on Comprehension of English Present Perfect by Persian EFL Learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 70  pp. 1472 ff. Crossref logo
García, Adolfo M.
2014. Neurocognitive determinants of performance variability among world-language users. Journal of World Languages 1:1  pp. 60 ff. Crossref logo
García, Adolfo M.
2014. The interpreter advantage hypothesis: Preliminary data patterns and empirically motivated questions. Translation and Interpreting Studies 9:2  pp. 219 ff. Crossref logo
García, Adolfo M.
2015. Translating with an Injured Brain: Neurolinguistic Aspects of Translation as Revealed by Bilinguals with Cerebral Lesions. Meta 60:1  pp. 112 ff. Crossref logo
García, Adolfo M., Ezequiel Mikulan & Agustín Ibáñez
2016.  In Reembedding Translation Process Research [Benjamins Translation Library, 128],  pp. 21 ff. Crossref logo
GARCÍA MAYO, MARÍA DEL PILAR & JORGE GONZÁLEZ ALONSO
2015. L3 acquisition: A focus on cognitive approaches. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18:2  pp. 127 ff. Crossref logo
Germain, Claude, Minyi Liang & Inès Ricordel
2015. Évaluation de l'approche neurolinguistique (ANL) auprès d'apprenants chinois de français en première et en deuxième année d'université. Recherches en didactique des langues et des cultures 12:1 Crossref logo
Godfroid, Aline
2016. THE EFFECTS OF IMPLICIT INSTRUCTION ON IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 38:2  pp. 177 ff. Crossref logo
Goral, Mira
2019.  In The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Multilingualism,  pp. 592 ff. Crossref logo
Granena, Gisela
2013. Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood. Language Learning 63:4  pp. 665 ff. Crossref logo
Granena, Gisela
2014. Language Aptitude and Long-term Achievement in Early Childhood L2 Learners. Applied Linguistics 35:4  pp. 483 ff. Crossref logo
Granena, Gisela
2019.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning,  pp. 390 ff. Crossref logo
Gisela Granena, Long, Michael H. & Yucel Yilmaz
2016. Major Research Issues in SLA. Brill Research Perspectives in Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition 1:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Granget, Cyrille, Marie-Ange Dat, Delphine Guedat-Bittighoffer, Christine Cuet, C. Granget, M.-A. Dat, D. Guedat-Bittighoffer & C. Cuet
2017. Connaissances et Usages en L2 : nouvelles perspectives. SHS Web of Conferences 38  pp. 00001 ff. Crossref logo
Graus, Johan & Peter-Arno Coppen
2016. Student teacher beliefs on grammar instruction. Language Teaching Research 20:5  pp. 571 ff. Crossref logo
Green, David W
2017. Trajectories to third-language proficiency. International Journal of Bilingualism 21:6  pp. 718 ff. Crossref logo
Green, David W.
2017.  In L3 Syntactic Transfer [Bilingual Processing and Acquisition, 5],  pp. 13 ff. Crossref logo
Green, David W., Louise Ruffle, Alice Grogan, Nilufa Ali, Sue Ramsden, Tom Schofield, Alex P. Leff, Jenny Crinion & Cathy J. Price
2011. Parallel recovery in a trilingual speaker: the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a diagnostic complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 25:6-7  pp. 499 ff. Crossref logo
GREY, SARAH, CRISTINA SANZ, KARA MORGAN-SHORT & MICHAEL T. ULLMAN
2018. Bilingual and monolingual adults learning an additional language: ERPs reveal differences in syntactic processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21:5  pp. 970 ff. Crossref logo
Gullberg, Marianne, Leah Roberts, Christine Dimroth, Kim Veroude & Peter Indefrey
2010. Adult Language Learning After Minimal Exposure to an Unknown Natural Language. Language Learning 60  pp. 5 ff. Crossref logo
Gómez-Ruiz, Isabel & Ángel Aguilar-Alonso
2011. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to distinguish between healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 25:6-7  pp. 444 ff. Crossref logo
Hammarberg, Björn
2018.  In Foreign Language Education in Multilingual Classrooms [Hamburg Studies on Linguistic Diversity, 7],  pp. 127 ff. Crossref logo
Han, ZhaoHong & Rosette Finneran
2014. Re-engaging the interface debate: strong, weak, none, or all?. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 24:3  pp. 370 ff. Crossref logo
Harrington, Michael
2018.  In Lexical Facility,  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
He, Yuanjian
2019.  In Researching Cognitive Processes of Translation [New Frontiers in Translation Studies, ],  pp. 15 ff. Crossref logo
Heidari, Kamal
2019. Willingness to Communicate: A Predictor of Pushing Vocabulary Knowledge from Receptive to Productive. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 48:4  pp. 903 ff. Crossref logo
Hejazi, Zahra, Jungna Kim, Teresa Signorelli Pisano, Yasmine Ouchikh, Aviva Lerman & Loraine K. Obler
2019.  In The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Multilingualism,  pp. 408 ff. Crossref logo
Hellman, Andrea B.
2018.  In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
House, Juliane
2012. (Im)politeness in cross-cultural encounters. Language and Intercultural Communication 12:4  pp. 284 ff. Crossref logo
House, Juliane
2015.  In Interdisciplinarity in Translation and Interpreting Process Research [Benjamins Current Topics, 72],  pp. 49 ff. Crossref logo
House, Juliane
2019.  In Researching Cognitive Processes of Translation [New Frontiers in Translation Studies, ],  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
Hulstijn, Jan H.
2015.  In Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages [Studies in Bilingualism, 48],  pp. 25 ff. Crossref logo
Hyltenstam, Kenneth
2012.  In The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Crossref logo
Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Niclas Abrahamsson
2012. INTRODUCTION. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34:2  pp. 177 ff. Crossref logo
Hämäläinen, Sini, Niko Mäkelä, Viljami Sairanen, Minna Lehtonen, Teija Kujala & Alina Leminen
2018. TMS uncovers details about sub-regional language-specific processing networks in early bilinguals. NeuroImage 171  pp. 209 ff. Crossref logo
Ibrahim, Raphiq, Asaid Khateb & Haitham Taha
2013. How Does Type of Orthography Affect Reading in Arabic and Hebrew as First and Second Languages?. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics 03:01  pp. 40 ff. Crossref logo
Jaensch, Carol
2013. Third language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 3:1  pp. 73 ff. Crossref logo
Leivada, Evelina, Maria Kambanaros, Loukia Taxitari & Kleanthes K. Grohmann
2017. (Meta)linguistic abilities of bilectal educators: the case of Cyprus. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
LICHTMAN, KAREN
2016. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?. Journal of Child Language 43:3  pp. 707 ff. Crossref logo
LIM, HYOJUNG & ALINE GODFROID
2015. Automatization in second language sentence processing: A partial, conceptual replication of Hulstijn, Van Gelderen, and Schoonen's 2009 study. Applied Psycholinguistics 36:5  pp. 1247 ff. Crossref logo
Lin, Peixuan & Chaoqun Xie
2020. Translation Quality Assessment: Past and Present. Australian Journal of Linguistics 40:1  pp. 130 ff. Crossref logo
Lindqvist, Christina & Ylva Falk
2014. When Germans begin to learn Swedish: Which is the transfer source for function words, content words and syntax?. EUROSLA Yearbook 14  pp. 225 ff. Crossref logo
Lloyd-Smith, Anika, Marieke Einfeldt & Tanja Kupisch
2020. Italian-German bilinguals: The effects of heritage language use on accent in early-acquired languages. International Journal of Bilingualism 24:2  pp. 289 ff. Crossref logo
Lloyd-Smith, Anika, Henrik Gyllstad & Tanja Kupisch
2017. Transfer into L3 English. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 7:2  pp. 131 ff. Crossref logo
Long, Michael H.
2016. Stefano Rastelli: Discontinuity in Second Language Acquisition. The Switch between Statistical and Grammatical Learning.. Applied Linguistics 37:4  pp. 590 ff. Crossref logo
Ma, Dongmei, Xiaoru Yu & Haomin Zhang
2017. Word-Level and Sentence-Level Automaticity in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners: A Comparative Study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 46:6  pp. 1471 ff. Crossref logo
MCMANUS, KEVIN & EMMA MARSDEN
2019. Signatures of automaticity during practice: Explicit instruction about L1 processing routines can improve L2 grammatical processing. Applied Psycholinguistics 40:1  pp. 205 ff. Crossref logo
Michońska-Stadnik, Anna
2013.  In Investigations in Teaching and Learning Languages [Second Language Learning and Teaching, ],  pp. 97 ff. Crossref logo
MONNER, DEREK, KAREN VATZ, GIOVANNA MORINI, SO-ONE HWANG & ROBERT DeKEYSER
2013. A neural network model of the effects of entrenchment and memory development on grammatical gender learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16:2  pp. 246 ff. Crossref logo
Montrul, Silvina
2010. Current Issues in Heritage Language Acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 30  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
Montrul, Silvina
2011. MORPHOLOGICAL ERRORS IN SPANISH SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND HERITAGE SPEAKERS. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 33:2  pp. 163 ff. Crossref logo
Montrul, Silvina & Rebecca Foote
2014. Age of acquisition interactions in bilingual lexical access: A study of the weaker language of L2 learners and heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism 18:3  pp. 274 ff. Crossref logo
Morgan-Short, Kara, ZhiZhou Deng, Katherine A. Brill-Schuetz, Mandy Faretta-Stutenberg, Patrick C. M. Wong & Francis C. K. Wong
2015. A VIEW OF THE NEURAL REPRESENTATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE SYNTAX THROUGH ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE LEARNING UNDER IMPLICIT CONTEXTS OF EXPOSURE. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 37:2  pp. 383 ff. Crossref logo
MORGAN-SHORT, KARA, MANDY FARETTA-STUTENBERG, KATHERINE A. BRILL-SCHUETZ, HELEN CARPENTER & PATRICK C. M. WONG
2014. Declarative and procedural memory as individual differences in second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 17:1  pp. 56 ff. Crossref logo
Muñoz, Carmen
2019.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning,  pp. 430 ff. Crossref logo
Muñoz, Edinson, Noelia Calvo & Adolfo M. García
2019. Grounding translation and interpreting in the brain: what has been, can be, and must be done. Perspectives 27:4  pp. 483 ff. Crossref logo
Netten, Joan & Claude Germain
2012. A new paradigm for the learning of a second or foreign language: the neurolinguistic approach. Neuroeducation 1:1  pp. 85 ff. Crossref logo
Nikolov, Marianne
2016.  In Assessing Young Learners of English: Global and Local Perspectives [Educational Linguistics, 25],  pp. 65 ff. Crossref logo
Nikolov, Marianne & Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović
2019.  In Second Handbook of English Language Teaching [Springer International Handbooks of Education, ],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Nikolov, Marianne & Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović
2019.  In Second Handbook of English Language Teaching [Springer International Handbooks of Education, ],  pp. 577 ff. Crossref logo
Onishi, Hiromi
2016. The effects of L2 experience on L3 perception. International Journal of Multilingualism 13:4  pp. 459 ff. Crossref logo
Orcasitas-Vicandi, María
2019. Lexical crosslinguistic influence in Basque-Spanish bilinguals’ English (L3) writing. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
PARADIS, MICHEL
2013. Late-L2 increased reliance on L1 neurocognitive substrates: A comment on Babcock, Stowe, Maloof, Brovetto & Ullman (2012). Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16:3  pp. 704 ff. Crossref logo
Park, Mihi & Rebecca L. Starr
2016. The role of formal L2 learning experience in L3 acquisition among early bilinguals. International Journal of Multilingualism 13:3  pp. 274 ff. Crossref logo
Pawlak, Miroslaw & Adriana Biedroń
2019. Verbal working memory as a predictor of explicit and implicit knowledge of English passive voice. Journal of Second Language Studies 2:2  pp. 258 ff. Crossref logo
Pawlak, Mirosław
2019.  In Contacts and Contrasts in Educational Contexts and Translation [Second Language Learning and Teaching, ],  pp. 45 ff. Crossref logo
POLINSKY, MARIA
2015. When L1 becomes an L3: Do heritage speakers make better L3 learners?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18:2  pp. 163 ff. Crossref logo
Puig-Mayenco, Eloi, Jorge González Alonso & Jason Rothman
2020. A systematic review of transfer studies in third language acquisition. Second Language Research 36:1  pp. 31 ff. Crossref logo
Rafiee Fazel, Amirabbas, Mehdi Latifi & M. Raouf Moini
2018. Motivation Among Pre-intermediate Iranian Language Learners: From Explicit Knowledge Toward Implicit Syntactic Development. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 47:4  pp. 931 ff. Crossref logo
Rastelli, Stefano
2018. Neurolinguistics and second language teaching: A view from the crossroads. Second Language Research 34:1  pp. 103 ff. Crossref logo
Rastelli, Stefano
2019. The discontinuity model: Statistical and grammatical learning in adult second-language acquisition. Language Acquisition 26:4  pp. 387 ff. Crossref logo
Rastelli, Stefano & Arianna Zuanazzi
2015.  In Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2013 [Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory, 8],  pp. 67 ff. Crossref logo
Rastovic, Anastasija, Maud Pélissier & Emmanuel Ferragne
2019. The perception of swear words by French learners of English: an experiment involving electrodermal activity. Anglophonia :27 Crossref logo
Rogers, John
2017. The Spacing Effect and its Relevance to Second Language Acquisition. Applied Linguistics  pp. amw052 ff. Crossref logo
Rost, Michael
2014. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening. International Journal of Listening 28:3  pp. 131 ff. Crossref logo
Rothman, Jason, José Alemán Bañón & Jorge González Alonso
2015. Neurolinguistic measures of typological effects in multilingual transfer: introducing an ERP methodology. Frontiers in Psychology 6 Crossref logo
Rothman, Jason, Fatih Bayram, Ian Cunnings & Jorge González Alonso
2019.  In The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning,  pp. 13 ff. Crossref logo
Rothman, Jason, Jorge González Alonso & Eloi Puig-Mayenco
2019.  In Third Language Acquisition and Linguistic Transfer, Crossref logo
Sagarra, Nuria & Julia Herschensohn
2013. Processing of gender and number agreement in late Spanish bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism 17:5  pp. 607 ff. Crossref logo
Saidi, Ladan Ghazi, Tanya Dash & Ana Inès Ansaldo
2017.  In Bilingualism [Bilingual Processing and Acquisition, 6],  pp. 73 ff. Crossref logo
Saito, Kazuya
2015. THE ROLE OF AGE OF ACQUISITION IN LATE SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PROFICIENCY ATTAINMENT. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 37:4  pp. 713 ff. Crossref logo
SAITO, KAZUYA & FRANÇOIS-XAVIER BRAJOT
2013. Scrutinizing the role of length of residence and age of acquisition in the interlanguage pronunciation development of English /ɹ/ by late Japanese bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 16:4  pp. 847 ff. Crossref logo
Saito, Kazuya & Luke Plonsky
2019. Effects of Second Language Pronunciation Teaching Revisited: A Proposed Measurement Framework and Meta‐Analysis. Language Learning 69:3  pp. 652 ff. Crossref logo
Salaberry, M. Rafael
2017.  In Tense-Aspect-Modality in a Second Language [Studies in Bilingualism, 50],  pp. 53 ff. Crossref logo
Salaberry, M. Rafael
2018.  In The Handbook of Advanced Proficiency in Second Language Acquisition,  pp. 361 ff. Crossref logo
Salaberry, M. Rafael
2018.  In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching,  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Salaberry, M. Rafael & Custodio Martins
2014.  In Portuguese-Spanish Interfaces [Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 1],  pp. 335 ff. Crossref logo
Samar, Reza Ghafar & Mohsen Akbari
2012. A language teacher in the haze of bilingual aphasia: A Kurdish-Persian case. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32  pp. 252 ff. Crossref logo
Sato, Masatoshi & Susan Ballinger
2012. Raising language awareness in peer interaction: a cross-context, cross-methodology examination. Language Awareness 21:1-2  pp. 157 ff. Crossref logo
Sato, Masatoshi & Susan Ballinger
2016.  In Peer Interaction and Second Language Learning [Language Learning & Language Teaching, 45],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Sato, Masatoshi & Roy Lyster
2012. PEER INTERACTION AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK FOR ACCURACY AND FLUENCY DEVELOPMENT. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 34:4  pp. 591 ff. Crossref logo
Scheffler, Paweł
2011. Grammar and meaning in early adult foreign language instruction. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 21:2  pp. 183 ff. Crossref logo
Scheffler, Paweł
2011. Rule difficulty: teachers’ intuitions and learners’ performance. Language Awareness 20:3  pp. 221 ff. Crossref logo
Schepens, Job J., Frans van der Slik & Roeland van Hout
2016. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch. Language Learning 66:1  pp. 224 ff. Crossref logo
Schmid, Monika S.
2013. First language attrition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 4:2  pp. 117 ff. Crossref logo
Schmid, Monika S.
2016.  In Designing Research on Bilingual Development [SpringerBriefs in Linguistics, ],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Serrano, Raquel
2011. The Time Factor in EFL Classroom Practice. Language Learning 61:1  pp. 117 ff. Crossref logo
Service, Elisabet, Hely Yli-Kaitala, Sini Maury & Jeong-Young Kim
2014. Adults’ and 8-Year-Olds’ Learning in a Foreign Word Repetition Task: Similar and Different. Language Learning 64:2  pp. 215 ff. Crossref logo
Shaw, Philip
2011. Conditions for success in lingua franca interaction. ASp :60  pp. 65 ff. Crossref logo
Shtyrov, Yury, Alexander Kirsanov & Olga Shcherbakova
2019. Explicitly Slow, Implicitly Fast, or the Other Way Around? Brain Mechanisms for Word Acquisition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13 Crossref logo
Simard, Daphnée, Marie Labelle & Annie Bergeron
2017. Measuring Metasyntactic Abilities: On a Classification of Metasyntactic Tasks. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 46:2  pp. 433 ff. Crossref logo
Sowa, John F.
2011.  In Conceptual Structures for Discovering Knowledge [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6828],  pp. 35 ff. Crossref logo
Spada, Nina, Julie Li-Ju Shiu & Yasuyo Tomita
2015. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons With Other Validation Studies. Language Learning 65:3  pp. 723 ff. Crossref logo
Stilwell, Becca L., Rebecca M. Dow, Carolien Lamers & Robert T. Woods
2016. Language changes in bilingual individuals with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 51:2  pp. 113 ff. Crossref logo
SUZUKI, YUICHI
2017. Validity of new measures of implicit knowledge: Distinguishing implicit knowledge from automatized explicit knowledge. Applied Psycholinguistics 38:5  pp. 1229 ff. Crossref logo
Suzuki, Yuichi
2018. THE ROLE OF PROCEDURAL LEARNING ABILITY IN AUTOMATIZATION OF L2 MORPHOLOGY UNDER DIFFERENT LEARNING SCHEDULES. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 40:4  pp. 923 ff. Crossref logo
Suzuki, Yuichi & Robert DeKeyser
2015. Comparing Elicited Imitation and Word Monitoring as Measures of Implicit Knowledge. Language Learning 65:4  pp. 860 ff. Crossref logo
Suzuki, Yuichi & Robert DeKeyser
2017. The Interface of Explicit and Implicit Knowledge in a Second Language: Insights From Individual Differences in Cognitive Aptitudes. Language Learning 67:4  pp. 747 ff. Crossref logo
Tavakol, Mahboobeh & Aliakbar Jabbari
2014. Cross-linguistic influence in third Language (L3) and fourth Language (L4) acquisition of the syntactic licensing of subject pronouns and object verb property: A case study. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 3:7 Crossref logo
Tavakoli, Parvaneh & Takumi Uchihara
2019. To What Extent Are Multiword Sequences Associated With Oral Fluency?. Language Learning Crossref logo
Toth, Paul D. & Kristin J. Davin
2016. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy. The Modern Language Journal 100:S1  pp. 148 ff. Crossref logo
TOTH, PAUL D. & PEDRO GUIJARRO-FUENTES
2013. The impact of instruction on second-language implicit knowledge: Evidence against encapsulation. Applied Psycholinguistics 34:6  pp. 1163 ff. Crossref logo
Toth, Paul D., Kara Moranski, Ashley Shaffer & Raquel Mattson-Prieto
2020.  In Languaging in Language Learning and Teaching [Language Learning & Language Teaching, 55], Crossref logo
Toth, Paul D., Elvis Wagner & Kara Moranski
2013. ‘Co-constructing’ Explicit L2 Knowledge with High School Spanish Learners through Guided Induction. Applied Linguistics 34:3  pp. 279 ff. Crossref logo
Trofimovich, Pavel, Sara Kennedy & Jennifer Ann Foote
2015.  In The Handbook of English Pronunciation,  pp. 353 ff. Crossref logo
Uematsu, Shigeo
2015.  In Long-term effects of Learning English,  pp. 11 ff. Crossref logo
Vafaee, Payman, Yuichi Suzuki & Ilina Kachisnke
2017. VALIDATING GRAMMATICALITY JUDGMENT TESTS. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 39:1  pp. 59 ff. Crossref logo
van Compernolle, Rémi A.
2018.  In Speaking in a Second Language [AILA Applied Linguistics Series, 17],  pp. 27 ff. Crossref logo
van Compernolle, Rémi A. & Haomin (Stanley) Zhang
2014. Dynamic assessment of elicited imitation: A case analysis of an advanced L2 English speaker. Language Testing 31:4  pp. 395 ff. Crossref logo
Vanbuel, Marieke, Anneleen Boderé, Karen Torfs & Koen Jaspaert
2018. Vocabulary acquisition in Moroccan- and Turkish-heritage children: A comparative study. International Journal of Bilingualism 22:1  pp. 38 ff. Crossref logo
Vanbuel, Marieke, Anneleen Boderé, Karen Torfs & Koen Jaspaert
2018. WITHDRAWN: Vocabulary acquisition in Moroccan- and Turkish-heritage children: A comparative study. International Journal of Bilingualism 22:1  pp. 3 ff. Crossref logo
Walenta, Magdalena
2016.  In Classroom-Oriented Research [Second Language Learning and Teaching, ],  pp. 243 ff. Crossref logo
Westergaard, Marit
2019. Microvariation in multilingual situations: The importance of property-by-property acquisition. Second Language Research  pp. 026765831988411 ff. Crossref logo
Westergaard, Marit, Natalia Mitrofanova, Roksolana Mykhaylyk & Yulia Rodina
2017. Crosslinguistic influence in the acquisition of a third language: The Linguistic Proximity Model. International Journal of Bilingualism 21:6  pp. 666 ff. Crossref logo
Whyatt, Bogusława
2017.  In Non-professional Interpreting and Translation [Benjamins Translation Library, 129],  pp. 45 ff. Crossref logo
Whyatt, Bogusława
2019. In search of directionality effectsin the translation processand in the end product. Translation, Cognition & Behavior 2:1  pp. 79 ff. Crossref logo
Wray, Alison
2012. What Do We (Think We) Know About Formulaic Language? An Evaluation of the Current State of Play. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 32  pp. 231 ff. Crossref logo
Yager, Lisa, Nora Hellmold, Hyoun-A Joo, Michael T. Putnam, Eleonora Rossi, Catherine Stafford & Joseph Salmons
2015. New Structural Patterns in Moribund Grammar: Case Marking in Heritage German. Frontiers in Psychology 6 Crossref logo
Yuan, Boping & Lulu Zhang
2019. An incremental model of second language speech production mechanisms: Developmental evidence from object ellipsis in second language Chinese speech production. International Journal of Bilingualism  pp. 136700691988666 ff. Crossref logo
Zhang, Xian & James P. Lantolf
2015. Natural or Artificial: Is the Route of L2 Development Teachable?. Language Learning 65:1  pp. 152 ff. Crossref logo
Çeçen, Sevdeğer & Gülcan Erçetin
2016.  In Cognitive Individual Differences in Second Language Processing and Acquisition [Bilingual Processing and Acquisition, 3],  pp. 223 ff. Crossref logo
Ünlü, Aslı
2015. How Alert should I be to Learn a Language? The Noticing Hypothesis and its Implications for Language Teaching. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199  pp. 261 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 01 may 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CFDM – Bilingualism & multilingualism
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2008046405