This investigation extends the research on the use of Spanish copulas ser and estar in Venezuela to all [copula + adjective] contexts (see De Jonge 1993; Malaver 2000 for work on expressions of age). Findings reveal that resultant state, adjective class, predicate type, experience with the referent, susceptibility to change, socioeconomic level, age and frame of reference are included in the statistical model as strong predictors of estar. The analysis of the social factors shows that copula choice in Venezuelan Spanish does not show the typical S-curve pattern to strongly support an analysis of change in progress. The history of copula choice in the language suggests a development with long periods of stability and the strong conditioning of linguistic factors. Copula choice in Venezuelan Spanish shows signs that it is slowly advancing and that younger and older speakers are at different stages in this grammatical change.
Adamou, Evangelia, Stefano De Pascale, Yekaterina García-Márkina & Cristian Padure
2019. Do bilinguals generalizeestarmore than monolinguals and what is the role of conceptual transfer?. International Journal of Bilingualism 23:6 ► pp. 1549 ff.
2013. Replicability of (Socio)Linguistics studies. Journal of Research Design and Statistics in Linguistics and Communication Science 1:1
Carter, Phillip M. & Tonya E. Wolford
2018. Grammatical change in borderlands Spanish: A variationist analysis of copula variation and progressive expansion in a South Texas bilingual enclave community
. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 11:1 ► pp. 1 ff.
Fafulas, Stephen, Manuel Díaz-Campos & Michael Gradoville
2022. CLASSROOM LEARNERS’ ACQUISITION OF THE SPANISH COPULA WITH ADJECTIVES. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 44:1 ► pp. 228 ff.
2021. Copula Choice is Associated with Discourse Integration Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 14:2 ► pp. 433 ff.
2022. When estar is not there: A cross-linguistic analysis of individual/stage-level copular sentences in Romance. Open Linguistics 8:1 ► pp. 108 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
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