Language, Action and Context

The early history of pragmatics in Europe and America 1780–1930

| University of Nottingham
| University of Nottingham
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027245670 (Eur) | EUR 140.00
ISBN 9781556196164 (USA) | USD 210.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027298829 | EUR 140.00 | USD 210.00
 
The roots of pragmatics reach back to Antiquity, especially to rhetoric as one of the three liberal arts. However, until the end of the 18th century proto-pragmatic insights tended to be consigned to the pragmatic, that is rhetoric, wastepaper basket and thus excluded from serious philosophical consideration.
It can be said that pragmatics was conceived between 1780 and 1830 in Britain, but also in Germany and in France in post-Lockian and post-Kantian philosophies of language. These early ‘conceptions’ of pragmatics are described in the first part of the book.
The second part of the book looks at pragmatic insights made between 1830 and 1880, when they were once more relegated to the philosophical and linguistic underground. The main stage was then occupied by a fact-hunting historical comparative linguistics on the one hand and a newly spiritualised philosophy on the other.
In the last part the period between 1880 and 1930 is presented, when pragmatic insights flourished and were sought after systematically. This was due in part to a new upsurge in empiricism, positivism and later behaviourism in philosophy, linguistics and psychology. Between 1780 and 1930 philosophers, psychologists, sociologists and linguists came to see that language could only be studied in the context of dialogue, in the context of human life and finally as being a kind of human action itself.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
xiii
0 Introduction
1
0.1 Is there a history of pragmatics?
1
0.2 Why should there be a history of pragmatics?
2
0.3 What is pragmatics?
3
0.4 How do we trace the history of pragmatic ideas?
6
0.5 The scope and limits of this book
8
0.6 Sources for pragmatic insights in the 19th and 20th century
9
0.7 Survey of the history of pragmatics
12
1 Prologue to protopragmatics: Locke's semiotic philosophy
14
1.1 Introduction
15
1.2 Locke's philosophy of the semiotic act
17
1.3 Locke's influence in Europe and America
20
1.4 An afterword on Kant, Locke and metaphor
23
2 Protopragmatics in Germany: pragmatics as part of a Romantic philosophy of language
25
2.1 Introduction
25
2.2 Kant: language and reason
27
2.3 Post-Kantian philosophies of language and communication
32
3 Protopragmatics in France: pragmatics as part of an ‘ideological’ theory of language and thought
61
3.1 Introduction
61
3.2 The roots: The general grammar of Port-Royal
63
3.3 Du Marsais: language and discourse
67
3.4 The debate about word order
71
3.5 From acts of thought to acts of language
76
3.6 Conclusion
83
4 A period of transition in the development of French pragmatics
85
4.1 Maine de Biran: language, the will and the self
85
4.2 Eclectic spiritualism
86
4.3 Garnier: speech acts and understanding
87
4.4 Weil: word order in speech and language
90
5 Protopragmatics in England: pragmatics as part of a common-sense theory of the mind
94
5.1 The roots
95
5.2 Reid: speech acts as social acts
103
6 A period of transition in the development of English pragmatics
112
6.1 Stewart: language, system and use
112
6.2 Smart: a contextualist theory of language
114
7 Pragmatism and behaviourism in America
118
7.1 Introduction
118
7.2 Pragmatism: use and truth
120
7.3 Peirce's semiotics
125
7.4 Mead: mind, self and the social act
130
7.5 Morris: behaviourist pragmatics
134
7.6 De Laguna: pragmatic behaviourism
139
7.7 Pragmatism and pragmatics
143
7.8 Whitney: the pragmatic evolution of language
146
7.9 Conclusion
149
8 A Period of transition: realist and idealist approaches to language use
150
8.1 The roots: Kant's pragmatic anthropology
150
8.2 Herbart: A practical approach to language and communication
151
8.3 Madvig: a realistic theory of language, its use and origin
155
8.4 Steinthal: an idealist theory of language, its use and origin
160
8.5 Lazarus: a theory of meaning and understanding
165
8.6 After Steinthal and Lazarus: Preview
168
8.7 Gerber: thought acts, speech acts and context
169
8.8 Paul: thought, sense and sentences
171
9 Pragmatics avant la lettre in Germany: language as an instrument to influence others
177
9.1 Wegener: a pioneer in pragmatic theory
177
9.2 After Wegener: the sentence and its communicative functions
183
9.3 A new psychology: Brentano's act psychology
187
9.4 Ries: the grammarians’ revenge – form vs. function
199
9.5 A new philosophy: Husserl's phenomenology and the signifying act
202
9.6 Koschmieder: a case of ‘coincidence’
220
9.7 Bühler: an integrated theory of language as system and language in use
224
10 Pragmatics avant la lettre in France (and beyond): a theory of the speaking subject
240
10.1 A new psychology: Taine's naturalism and positivism
240
10.2 Bréal: language and the speaking subject
243
10.3 The individual and social psychology of speech and language
248
10.5 A sociology of ritual acts
263
10.6 Language and speech, functions and contexts
270
10.7 Functional linguistics and a theory of enunciation
278
11 Pragmatics avant la lettre in England: a theory of signs and contexts
294
11.1 The birth of pragmatics in England under the name of ‘significs’
295
11.2 British Contextualism
316
11.3 Austin: problems with statements
366
12 Conclusion
374
Appendix
377
Notes
404
References
Primary sources
433
Secondary sources
467
Index
489
“[...] a unique panaroma which, [...], is more complete than any of its precursors, and which demonstrates clearly how the different strands of thought are intertwinned.”
“[...] it will likely achieve an identity as the place to go confirm the details.”
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Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  96013678