Early Years in Machine Translation

Memoirs and biographies of pioneers

ISBN 9789027245861 (Eur) | EUR 130.00
ISBN 9781588110138 (USA) | USD 195.00
ISBN 9789027283719 | EUR 130.00 | USD 195.00
Machine translation (MT) was one of the first non-numerical applications of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s. With limited equipment and programming tools, researchers from a wide range of disciplines (electronics, linguistics, mathematics, engineering, etc.) tackled the unknown problems of language analysis and processing, investigated original and innovative methods and techniques, and laid the foundations not just of current MT systems and computerized tools for translators but also of natural language processing in general. This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional background, the successes and disappointments, and above all the challenges and excitement of a new field with great practical importance. Each article includes a personal bibliography, and the editor provides an overview, chronology and list of sources for the period.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Common abbreviations
Acknowledgements. Cyrillic transliteration
The first decades of machine translation: overview, chronology, sources
John W. Hutchins
Warren Weaver and the launching of MT: brief biographical note
John W. Hutchins
Erwin Reifler and machine translation at the University of Washington
Lew. R. Micklesen
Early research at M.I.T. in search of adequate theory
Victor H. Yngve
Machine translation at Harvard
Anthony G. Oettinger
The Georgetown project and Leon Dostert: recollections of a young assistant
Muriel Vasconcellos
Is FAHQ(M)T possible? Memories of Paul L. garvin and other MT colleagues
Christine A. Montgomery
The early days of GAT-SLC
Michael Zarechnak
Machine translation: just a question of finding the right programming language?
Antony F.R. Brown
From Serna to Systran
Peter Toma
My early years in machine translation
Winfred P. Lehmann
David G. Hays
Martin Kay
Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator
John W. Hutchins
Translation and the structure of language
Sydney M. Lamb
Pioneering MT in the Soviet Union
Olga S. Kulagina
Machine translation and formal linguistics in the USSR
Igor Mel’čuk
My memoirs of MT in the Soviet Union
Tat'jana N. Molosnaja
MT in the former USSR and in the Newly Independent States (NIS): pre-history, Romantic era, prosaic time
Raimund G. Piotrovskij
Machine translation: early years in the USSR
Jurij N. Marcuk
The beginnings of MT
Andrew D. Booth and Kathleen H.V. Booth
R.H. Richens: translation in the NUDe
Karen Sparck Jones
Margaret Masterman
Yorick Wilks
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: a philosopher’s contribution to machine translation
John W. Hutchins
Silvio Ceccato and the correlational grammar
Ernst von Glasersfeld
Early MT in France
Maurice Gross
Bernard Vauquois’ contribution to the theory and practice of building MT systems: a historical perspective
Christian Boitet
Pioneer work in machine translation in Czechoslovakia
Zdeněk Kirschner
Alexander Ljudskanov
Elena Paskaleva
Memoirs of a survivor
Hiroshi Wada
Index of names
Index of subjects
Locations of photographs
Participants at US conferences
Weaver, Reifler, Yngve, Oettinger
Dostert, Garvin, Zarechnak, Toma
Brown, Lehmann, Lamb
Participants at USSR conference; Mel’č uk, Mološnaja, Reformatskij
Marčuk, Piotrowski, Booth
Richens, Masterman, Ceccato
Sgall, Wada, Vauquois
“It follows the growth of an intellectual community with international scope from the beginning, even in the cold war era. It is the very best source for finding out what really went on in the early years of this field that is rapidly growing in importance with the growth of the internet.”
“It is the very best source for finding out what really went on in the early years of this field that is rapidly growing in importance. [...] It holds several important lessons and deserves close study by people involved in public policy as it impacts and is impacted by science and technology.”
“It holds several important lessons and deserves close study by people involved in public policy as it impacts and is impacted by science and technology.”
“Although the book is a compilation of articles from the original MT pioneers, [...] that cover the time span from the early 50s, until the mid 70s, this is not a limit because most of today's commercially available MT systems are based on the linguistic techniques and technologies that were designed and implemented during that period.”
“Those of us who have endured conference presentations in which eager authors present long-discarded Machine Translation (MT) theories as the latest and greatest ideas should welcome a book which puts previous research in perspective.”
“In capturing and preserving this impressively wide-ranging collection of reminiscences, John Hutchins has made a huge and enormously valuable contribution to our understanding of the ideas, personalities, and external forces that shaped the early development of machine translation and computational linguistics and that set in motion many of the activities in those areas that are still ongoing today. I heartily recommend this book not only for readers engaged in those or related fields, but also for anyone with an interest in the history of science.”
Cited by

Cited by 14 other publications

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Agirre, Eneko
2020. Cross-Lingual Word Embeddings. ByAnders Søgaard, Ivan Vulić, Sebastian Ruder, Manaal Faruqui (University of Copenhagen, University of Cambridge, DeepMind, Google Assistant). Morgan & Claypool (Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies, edited by Graeme Hirst, volume 37), 2019, 132 pp; paperback, ISBN 9781681735725; ebook, ISBN 9781681730646; doi:10.2200/S00920ED2V01Y201904HLT042. Computational Linguistics 46:1  pp. 245 ff. Crossref logo
Delisle, Jean
2003. L’Histoire de la Traduction. FORUM. Revue internationale d’interprétation et de traduction / International Journal of Interpretation and Translation 1:2  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Folaron, Debbie
2019. Digital World Communication аnd Translation. Slovo.ru: Baltic accent 10:3  pp. 9 ff. Crossref logo
Green, Spence, Jeffrey Heer & Christopher D. Manning
2015. Natural Language Translation at the Intersection of AI and HCI. Queue 13:6  pp. 30 ff. Crossref logo
Green, Spence, Jeffrey Heer & Christopher D. Manning
2015. Natural language translation at the intersection of AI and HCI. Communications of the ACM 58:9  pp. 46 ff. Crossref logo
Johnson, Roger G.
2010.  In History of Computing. Learning from the Past [IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 325],  pp. 26 ff. Crossref logo
Kalantzis, Mary & Bill Cope
2020.  In Adding Sense, Crossref logo
Lennon, Brian
2014.  In A Companion to Translation Studies,  pp. 133 ff. Crossref logo
Martin-Nielsen, Janet
2010. ‘This war for men’s minds’: the birth of a human science in Cold War America. History of the Human Sciences 23:5  pp. 131 ff. Crossref logo
Rajarshi SinhaRoy
2021. A Study on the journey of Natural Language Processing models: from Symbolic Natural Language Processing to Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers. International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology  pp. 331 ff. Crossref logo
Vidhu Bhala, R. V. & S. Abirami
2014. Trends in word sense disambiguation. Artificial Intelligence Review 42:2  pp. 159 ff. Crossref logo
Wang, Hongfei
2014.  In 2014 5th International Conference on Digital Home,  pp. 226 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 january 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects & Metadata

Translation & Interpreting Studies

Translation Studies
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
ONIX Metadata
ONIX 2.1
ONIX 3.0
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  00062138 | Marc record