Early Years in Machine Translation

Memoirs and biographies of pioneers

HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027245861 (Eur) | EUR 130.00
ISBN 9781588110138 (USA) | USD 195.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027283719 | EUR 130.00 | USD 195.00
 
Machine translation (MT) was one of the first non-numerical applications of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s. With limited equipment and programming tools, researchers from a wide range of disciplines (electronics, linguistics, mathematics, engineering, etc.) tackled the unknown problems of language analysis and processing, investigated original and innovative methods and techniques, and laid the foundations not just of current MT systems and computerized tools for translators but also of natural language processing in general. This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional background, the successes and disappointments, and above all the challenges and excitement of a new field with great practical importance. Each article includes a personal bibliography, and the editor provides an overview, chronology and list of sources for the period.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
vii
Common abbreviations
x
Acknowledgements. Cyrillic transliteration
xi
The first decades of machine translation: overview, chronology, sources
W. John Hutchins
1
Warren Weaver and the launching of MT: brief biographical note
W. John Hutchins
17
Erwin Reifler and machine translation at the University of Washington
Lew. R. Micklesen
17
Early research at M.I.T.: in search of adequate theory
Victor H. Yngve
39
Machine translation at Harvard
Anthony G. Oettinger
73
The Georgetown project and Leon Dostert: recollections of a young assistant
Muriel Vasconcellos
87
Is FAHQ(M)T possible? Memories of Paul L. garvin and other MT colleagues
Christine A. Montgomery
97
The early days of GAT-SLC
Michael Zarechnak
111
Machine translation: just a question of finding the right programming language?
Antony F.R. Brown
129
From Serna to Systran
Peter Toma
135
My early years in machine translation
Winfred P. Lehmann
147
David G. Hays
Martin Kay
165
Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator
W. John Hutchins
171
Translation and the structure of language
Sydney M. Lamb
177
Pioneering MT in the Soviet Union
Olga S. Kulagina
197
Machine translation and formal linguistics in the USSR
Igor Mel’čuk
205
My memoirs of MT in the Soviet Union
Tat'jana N. Molosnaja
227
MT in the former USSR and in the Newly Independent States (NIS): pre-history, Romantic era, prosaic time
Raimund G. Piotrovskij
233
Machine translation: early years in the USSR
Jurij N. Marcuk
243
The beginnings of MT
Andrew D. Booth and Kathleen H.V. Booth
253
R.H. Richens: translation in the NUDe
Karen Sparck Jones
263
Margaret Masterman
Yorick Wilks
279
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: a philosopher’s contribution to machine translation
W. John Hutchins
299
Silvio Ceccato and the correlational grammar
Ernst von Glasersfeld
313
Early MT in France
Maurice Gross
325
Bernard Vauquois’ contribution to the theory and practice of building MT systems: a historical perspective
Christian Boitet
331
Pioneer work in machine translation in Czechoslovakia
Zdeněk Kirschner
349
Alexander Ljudskanov
Elena Paskaleva
361
Memoirs of a survivor
Hiroshi Wada
377
Index of names
387
Index of subjects
394
Locations of photographs
Participants at US conferences
xii
Weaver, Reifler, Yngve, Oettinger
16
Dostert, Garvin, Zarechnak, Toma
146
Brown, Lehmann, Lamb
196
Participants at USSR conference; Mel’č uk, Mološnaja, Reformatskij
232
Marčuk, Piotrowski, Booth
252
Richens, Masterman, Ceccato
298
Sgall, Wada, Vauquois
386
“It follows the growth of an intellectual community with international scope from the beginning, even in the cold war era. It is the very best source for finding out what really went on in the early years of this field that is rapidly growing in importance with the growth of the internet.”
“It is the very best source for finding out what really went on in the early years of this field that is rapidly growing in importance. [...] It holds several important lessons and deserves close study by people involved in public policy as it impacts and is impacted by science and technology.”
“It holds several important lessons and deserves close study by people involved in public policy as it impacts and is impacted by science and technology.”
“Although the book is a compilation of articles from the original MT pioneers, [...] that cover the time span from the early 50s, until the mid 70s, this is not a limit because most of today's commercially available MT systems are based on the linguistic techniques and technologies that were designed and implemented during that period.”
“Those of us who have endured conference presentations in which eager authors present long-discarded Machine Translation (MT) theories as the latest and greatest ideas should welcome a book which puts previous research in perspective.”
“In capturing and preserving this impressively wide-ranging collection of reminiscences, John Hutchins has made a huge and enormously valuable contribution to our understanding of the ideas, personalities, and external forces that shaped the early development of machine translation and computational linguistics and that set in motion many of the activities in those areas that are still ongoing today. I heartily recommend this book not only for readers engaged in those or related fields, but also for anyone with an interest in the history of science.”
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This list is based on CrossRef data as of 05 september 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects

Translation & Interpreting Studies

Translation Studies
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  00062138