Article published in:Advances in Sociophonetics
Edited by Chiara Celata and Silvia Calamai
[Studies in Language Variation 15] 2014
► pp. 59–96
Derhoticisation in Scottish English
A sociophonetic journey
This paper presents the rewards of a sociophonetic journey by focusing on fine-grained variation in Scottish English coda /r/. We synthesize the results of some 15 years of research and provide a sociophonological account of variation and change in this feature. We summarize observations on coda /r/ in Scottish English across the twentieth century, which reveal a socially-constrained, long-term process of derhoticisation in working-class speech, alongside strengthening of /r/ in middle-class speakers. We then consider the linguistic and social factors involved, information from studies based on listener responses, the acoustics of derhoticisation, and insights gained from a socio-articulatory ultrasound corpus collected. These different views of coda /r/ force us to consider carefully the complex relationships between auditory, acoustic, and articulatory descriptions of (socially structured) speech. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for mental representations of speech and social information for speaker-hearers in this community.
Published online: 12 June 2014
Cited by other publications
Lawson, Eleanor, James M. Scobbie & Jane Stuart-Smith
Llamas, Carmen, Dominic Watt & Andrew E. MacFarlane
Nance, Claire, Wilson McLeod, Bernadette O'Rourke & Stuart Dunmore
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 november 2019. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Aitken, Adam J.
1984 “Scots and English in Scotland”. Language in the British Isles ed. by Peter Trudgill, 517–532. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anthony, A., D. Bogle, T.T.S. Ingram & M.W. McIsaac
1971 The Edinburgh Articulation Test . Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
Articulate Instruments Ltd
(2011) Articulate Assistant Advanced User Guide:Version 2.13 . Edinburgh: Articulate Instruments Ltd.
2011 Perception of /r/ in Scottish English . Undergraduate Dissertation, Edinburgh, Queen Margaret University.
2009 “From stance to style: gender, interaction, and indexicality in Mexican immigrant youth slang”. Stance. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Stance ed. by Alexandra Jaffe, 146–170. New York: Oxford University Press.
2010 Cross Accent Perception of Standard Southern British English and Glasgow English , Undergraduate Dissertation, University of Glasgow.
Denes, Peter B. & Elliot N. Pinson, E.
1993 The Speech Chain: The Physics and Biology of Spoken Language . Oxford: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Delattre, Pierre & Donald C. Freeman
1968 “A dialect study of American r’s by x-ray motion picture”. Linguistics 44. 29–68.
Dobson, Eric J.
1957 English Pronunciation 1500-1700 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Docherty, Gerard J. & Paul Foulkes
1999 “Derby and Newcastle: instrumental phonetics and variationist studies”. Urban voices: variation and change in British accents ed. by Paul Foulkes & Gerard J. Docherty, 47–71. London: Arnold.
Douglas, Fiona M.
2004 “English in early 21st century Scotland: a phonological perspective”. La Tribune Internationale des Langues Vivantes 36. 87–108.
Foulkes, Paul, Gerard J. Docherty & Dominic J.L. Watt
Foulkes, Paul, James M. Scobbie & Dominic J.L. Watt
Goldinger, Stephen D.
2007 “A complementary-systems approach to abstract and episodic speech perception”. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences ed. by Jürgen Trouvain & William J. Barry, 49–54 (ID 1781). http://www.icphs2007.de/
1914 The Pronunciation of English in Scotland . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
and James M. Dixon 1921 A Manual of Modern Scots . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2000 Media research methods: Measuring audiences, reactions and impact . London: Sage.
1980 “Encoding/decoding”. Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers on Cultural Studies, 1972-79 , 128–38. London: Hutchinson.
2000 Rethinking writing . London: Athlone Press.
1987 Ritualised Friendship and the Greek City . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
and Leendert Plug 2011 “The role of F2 and F3 in the perception of rhoticity: Evidence from listening experiments”. Proceedings of the XVIIh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences , 867–70. http://www.icphs2011.hk/ICPHS_CongressProceedings.htm
2009 “Introduction: The sociolinguistics of stance”. Stance. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Stance ed. by Alexandra Jaffe. New York: Oxford University Press.
(2011), ‘Retroflex versus bunched /r/ in compensation for coarticulation’, UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Report . 114–27.
1983 “Irregular style variation patterns in Edinburgh speech”. Scottish Language 2: 1–19.
1985 “The rise and fall of the Morningside/Kelvinside accent”. Focus on Scotland ed. by Manfred Gorlach, 37–56. Amsterdam: Benjamin.
1997 “Regional Variation”. The Edinburgh History of Scots ed. by Charles Jones, 433–513. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
1972 Sociolinguistic patterns . Oxford: Blackwell.
1994 Principles of Linguistic Change, vol. I, Internal Factors . Oxford: Blackwell.
Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson
1996 The Sounds of the World’s Languages . Oxford: Blackwell.
Lawson, Eleanor, Jane Stuart-Smith & James M. Scobbie
2008 “Articulatory insights into language variation and change: Preliminary findings from an ultrasound study of derhoticisation in Scottish English”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 14 (2). 101–110.
Lawson, Eleanor, James M. Scobbie & Jane Stuarty-Smith.
Lawson, Eleanor, Jane Stuart-Smith, James M. Scobbie, Malcah Yaeger-Dror & Margaret Maclagan
. 2011a. “Liquids”. Sociophonetics: A Student’s Guide ed. by Malcah Yaeger-Dror and Marianna di Paolo, 72–86. London: Routledge.
Lawson, Eleanor, James M. Scobbie & Jane Stuart-Smith.
2011b “A single case study of articulatory adaptation during acoustic mimicry”. Proceedings of the XVIIh International Congress of Phonetic Sciences , 1170–1173. http://www.icphs2011.hk/ICPHS_CongressProceedings.htm
Lawson, Eleanor, James M. Scobbie & Jane
and Stuart-Smith 2013, forthcoming. “A socio-articulatory study of Scottish rhoticity”. Sociolinguistics in Scotland ed. by Robert Lawson, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
2011 A real-time study of rhoticity in Glaswegian between 1997 and 2011 . Undergraduate Dissertation, University of Glasgow
2010 “Convergence and divergence across a national border”. Language and Identities ed. by Carmen Llamas & Dominic Watt, 227–236. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Llamas, Carmen, Dominic Watt & Daniel Ezra Johnson
1983 Varieties of English around the World: Glasgow . Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
MacAllister, Anne H.
1938 A Year’s Course in Speech Training . London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Macaulay, Ronald K.S.
1977 Language, Social Class and Education: A Glasgow Study . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
MacFarlane, Andrew E. & Jane Stuart
Ohala, John J.
1989 “Sound change is drawn from a pool of synchronic variation”. L. E. Breivik & E. H. Jahr (Eds.), Language Change: Contributions to the study of its causes ed. by Leiv E. Breivik & Ernst H. Jahr, 173–198. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Plug, Leendert & Richard Ogden
and Thomas Jauriberry 2011 “Language change in action – variation in Scottish English”. Recherches Anglaises et Nord-Américaines 44. 83–100.
2013 A Real-Time Sociophonetic Study of Scottish English: The Realisation of /r/ across a Century . Unpublished Honours Dissertation, University of Glasgow.
1978 “Postvocalic /r/ in Scottish English: sound change in progress?”. Sociolinguistic patterns in British English ed. by Peter Trudgill, 144–57. London: Edward Arnold.
Scobbie, James M.
2006 “R as a variable”. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics ed. by Keith Brown, 334–344. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
2007 “Biological and social grounding of phonology: Variation as a research tool”. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences ed. by Jürgen Trouvain & William J. Barry, 211–214 (ID 1765). http://www.icphs2007.de/
Scobbie, James M., Olga B. Gordeeva & Benjamin Matthews
2007 “Scottish English Speech Acquisition”. The International Guide to Speech Acquisition ed. by Sharynne McLeod, 221–240. Thomson Delmar Publishing.
Scobbie, James M.
and Koen Sebregts 2011 “Acoustic, articulatory and phonological perspectives on rhoticity and /r/ in Dutch (Eds.) Interfaces in Linguistics: New Research Perspectives ed. by Raffaella Folli & Christiane Ulbrich, 257–277. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Scobbie, James M. & Jane Stuart
-Smith 2008 “Quasi-phonemic contrast and the fuzzy inventory: examples from Scottish English”. Contrast: Perception and Acquisition. Selected papers from the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology ed. by Peter Avery, Elan B. Dresher & Keren Rice, 87–113. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
-Smith 2012 “Socially-stratified sampling in laboratory-based phonological experimentation”. The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology ed. by Abigail C. Cohn, Cécile Fougeron & Marie Huffman, 608–621. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Speitel, Hans-Henning & Paul Johnston
1983 “A Sociolinguistic investigation of Edinburgh speech”. Unpublished final report (Grant No. 000230023) for the Social Science Research Council (Great Britain).
Sproat, Richard & Osamu Fujimura
1993 “Allophonic variation in English /l/ and its implications for phonetic implementation”. Journal of Phonetics 21. 291–311.
1998 Acoustic Phonetics . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
1999 “Glasgow: accent and voice quality”. Urban voices: variation and change in British accents ed. by Paul Foulkes & Gerard Docherty, 201–222. London: Arnold.
2003 “The phonology of Modern Urban Scots”. The Edinburgh Companion to Scots ed. by John Corbett, Derrick McClure & Jane Stuart-Smith, 110–137. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
2006 “The influence of media on language”. The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics ed. by Carmen Llamas, Louise Mullany, Peter Stockwell, 140–148. London: Routledge.
2007 “A sociophonetic investigation of postvocalic /r/ in Glaswegian adolescents”. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences ed. by Jürgen Trouvain & William J. Barry, 211–214 (ID 1307). http://www.icphs2007.de/.
Stuart-Smith, Jane & Claire Timmins
2010 “The role of the individual in language change”. Language and Identity ed. by Carmen Llamas & Dominic Watt, 39–54. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Stuart-Smith, Jane, Rachel Smith, Tamara Rathcke, Francesco Li Santi & Sophie Holmes
2011 “Responding to accents after experiencing interactive or mediated speech”. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences , Hong Kong, 1914–1917. http://www.icphs2011.hk
Stuart-Smith, Jane, Claire Timmins & Fiona Tweedie
2007 “Talkin’ Jockney: Accent change in Glaswegian”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11. 221–61.
Stuart-Smith, Jane, Claire Timmins, Gwilym Pryce & Barrie Gunter
1986 Dialects in contact . Oxford: Blackwell.
Twist, Alina, Adam Baker, Jeff Mielke
& Diana Archangeli 2007 “Are ‘covert’ /r/ allophones really indistinguishable?”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 13(2). 207–216. http://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol13/iss2/16
Wells, John C.
1982 Accents of English . Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Whitaker, Charles W.
A 1996 Aristotle’s De Interpretatione: Contradiction and Dialectic . Oxford: Clarendon.
Williams, Irene F.
1909 Phonetics for Scottish students: the sounds of polite Scottish described and compared with those of polite English . Glasgow: J. MacLehose.
Williams, Ann & Paul Kerswill
1999 “Dialect levelling: change and continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull”. Urban voices: variation and change in British accents ed. by Paul Foulkes & Gerard J. Docherty, 141–162. London: Arnold.
Wright, Susan & Paul Kerswill
Yaeger-Dror, Malcah, Tyler Kendall, Paul Foulkes, Dominic Watt, Jillian Oddie, Phil Harrison & Colleen Kavenagh
2009) “Perception of r-fulness by trained listeners”. Paper presented at NWAV 37, Houston, TX.