Chapter published in:Processes of Change: Studies in Late Modern and Present-Day English
Edited by Sandra Jansen and Lucia Siebers
[Studies in Language Variation 21] 2019
► pp. 115–138
Early immigrant English
Midwestern English before the dust settled
We explore the development of final obstruent neutralization (German Bad ‘bath’: /ba:d/ = [ba:t]) and other features of an emerging Wisconsin English variety that has been shaped by contact, while considering multiple factors such as input, contact, and influence from other varieties. We draw our data from immigrant letters and supplement these with what is known about education and language guides available to early immigrants, as well as contact with other language varieties and dialects. Through time and over remarkably heterogeneous varieties of English and German, we trace the presence of this feature in German and English, where it has been transformed.
Keywords: sound change, language variation, immigrant languages, final obstruent neutralization, new dialect formation, koineization, imposition
Published online: 13 August 2019
Ahn, Franz Heinrich
1923 Ahn’s neuer amerikanischer Dolmetscher für Deutsche zum Erlernen der englischen Sprache ohne Lehrer: Anleitung zur Aussprache des Englischen. Kurgefasste Grammatik nebst leichten Beispielen Gespräche, Wörtersammlungen, Inserate und Zeitungartikel, Schriftlicher Verkehr usw. (New American Interpreter). New York, NY: Steiger. (Originally published 1920.)
Avery, Peter & William J. Idsardi
Bagwell, Angela & Mike Olson
2006a ‘I got my knife yet’: German imposition on Wisconsin English. Paper presented at the Germanic linguistics annual conference , University of Illinois, April.
Bagwell, Angela, Samantha Litty & Mike Olson
Forthcoming). Wisconsin immigrant letters: German transfer to Wisconsin English. In Raymond Hickey ed. Keeping in touch. Familiar letters across the English-speaking world Amsterdam John Benjamins
Benor, Sarah Bunin
Cassidy, Frederic G. & Joan Houston Hall
Curme, George O.
Frazer, Timothy C.
Frey, Benjamin E.
Geiger, Steven R. and Joseph C. Salmons
Howell, Robert B.
Iverson, Gregory K. and Joseph C. Salmons
2014 Variation in English VOT in three southern Wisconsin counties. Poster presented at The Mid-Continental phonetics and phonology Conference (MidPhon). University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Purnell, Thomas, Dilara Tepeli, and Joseph Salmons
Purnell, Thomas, Joseph Salmons, Dilara Tepeli, and Jennifer Mercer
Purnell, Thomas, Eric Raimy, and Joseph Salmons
Robinson, Orrin W.
Forthcoming. Laryngeal phonetics, phonology, assimilation and final neutralization. In Richard Page & Michael T. Putnam ed. Cambridge handbook of germanic linguistics Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Salmons, Joseph, Dilara Tepeli & Thomas Purnell
Salmons, Joseph and Thomas Purnell
forthcoming. Language contact and the development of American English. In Raymond Hickey ed. The handbook of language contact 2nd edition Oxford Blackwell
Seifert, Lester W. J.
Tepeli, Dilara, Joseph Salmons & Thomas Purnell
van Coetsem, Frans
van Dalen, Carl
Wilkerson, Miranda & Joseph Salmons
2012 Linguistic marginalities: Becoming American without learning English. Journal of Transnational American Studies 4 (2). http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/5vn092kk.
Wilkerson, Miranda, Mark Livengood & Joseph Salmons
Wilson, Joseph B.
2001 Counting chad. Paper presented at the Stanford SemFest. (Handout available at http://www-csli.stanford.edu/~zwicky/.)
Cited by 1 other publications
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 06 february 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.