The on-line emergence of Hebrew insubordinate she- (‘that/which/who’) clauses
A usage-based perspective on so-called ‘subordination’
This study examines the on-line emergence of insubordinate clauses in Hebrew conversation as constrained by local interactional contingencies, questioning traditional notions of grammatical ‘subordination’ and contributing to conceptions of grammar as a locally sensitive, temporally unfolding resource for social interaction. The clauses examined are syntactically unintegrated (unembedded in any matrix clause), or loosely-integrated (cannot be viewed unambiguously as constituting a relative, complement, or adverbial clause), yet they all begin with she- – the general ‘subordinating conjunction’ in traditional Modern Hebrew grammar. All 102 insubordinate she- clauses found throughout a 5.5 hour audio-recorded corpus were classified according to their discourse function: modal, elaborative, or evaluative/epistemic. Leaving aside the modal type, the remaining insubordinate she- clauses (N = 70, 69%) are shown to emerge on-line while speakers are busy performing a variety of tasks and responding to local interactional contingencies. In all of these cases she- functions as a generic ‘wildcard’ tying back to immediately prior discourse and projecting an elaboration/evaluation of it, in either same- or other-speaker talk. The findings concerning insubordinate clauses suggest a usage-based perspective also on canonical subordinate clauses, positioning canonical and syntactically unintegrated clauses at two ends of a continuum.
Keywords: insubordination, cosubordination, subordination, emergent on-line syntax, projection, interactional linguistics, spoken Hebrew syntax, elaboration, evaluation
Published online: 19 October 2018
[ p. 702 ]References
Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth & Tsuyoshi Ono
Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth & Margaret Selting
Deppermann, Arnulf & Susanne Günthner
Du Bois, John W.
forthcoming. Representing discourse. Linguistics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara (Fall 2012 version). http://www.linguistics.ucsb.edu/projects/transcription/representing
Du Bois, John W., Susanna Cumming, Stephan Schuetze-Coburn, & Danae Pao-lino[ p. 703 ]
Evans, Nicholas & Honoré Watanabe
Ford, Cecilia E., Barbara A. Fox, & Sandra A. Thompson
Ford, Cecilia E. & Sandra A. Thompson
Fox, Barbara, Yael Maschler & Susanne Uhmann
Fox, Barbara A. & Sandra A. Thompson
Holmstedt, Robert D.
Hopper, Paul J.
Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson
Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth Closs Traugott[ p. 704 ]
Laury, Ritva & Tsuyoshi Ono
Laury, Ritva & Eeva-Leena Seppänen
2017 The emergence of Hebrew loydea / loydat (‘I dunno masc/fem’) from interaction: Blurring the boundaries between discourse marker, pragmatic marker, and modal particle. In Andrea Sansò & Chiara Fedriani (eds.), Pragmatic Markers, Discourse Markers and Modal Particles: New Perspectives, 37–69. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Maschler, Yael & Fishman, Stav
. Forthcoming. From multi-clausality to discourse markerhood: The Hebrew ma she- (‘what that’) construction in so-called ‘pseudo-clefts’.
Maschler, Yael & Carmit Miller Shapiro
Maschler, Yael & Bracha Nir
Maschler, Yael, Hilla Polak-Yitzhaki, Stav Fishman, Carmit Miller Shapiro, Netanel Goretsky, Gallith Aghion & Ophir Fofliger[ p. 705 ]
2017 The Haifa Corpus of Spoken Hebrew. http://weblx2.haifa.ac.il/~corpus/corpus_website.
Mertzlufft, Christine & Camilla Wide
Panther, Klaus-Uwe & Linda L. Thornburg
Pekarek Doehler, Simona
Polak-Yitzhaki, Hilla & Yael Maschler
. The Institutio oratoria of Quintilian, with an English translation by H. E. Butler. London: W. Heinemann.
Roberts, Murat H.
Schegloff, Emanuel A.
Schegloff, Emanuel A., Gail Jefferson, & Harvey Sacks
Selting, Margret & Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen
Thompson, Sandra A.[ p. 706 ]
Van Valin, Robert D.
Verstraete, Jean-Christophe, Sarah D’Hertefelt & An Van Linden
Cited by other publications
Berman, Ruth A.
Maschler, Yael & Stav Fishman
Pekarek Doehler, Simona, Yael Maschler, Leelo Keevallik & Jan Lindström
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 30 september 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.