The grammar of ‘non-realization’
On the basis of cross-linguistic data from both genetically and geographically related and unrelated languages, in this article we argue that the linguistic phenomena usually referred to as the avertive, the frustrative and the apprehensional belong not to three but to five – semantically related, and yet distinct grammatical categories, all of which involve different degrees of non-realization of the verb situation in the area of Tense-Aspect-Mood: apprehensional, avertive, frustrated initiation, frustrated completion, inconsequential. Our major goal here is to account for these grammatical categories in terms of an adequate model of linguistic categorization. For this purpose, we apply the notion of Intersective Gradience (introduced for the first time in the morphosyntactic domain in Aarts (2004, 2007) to the morphosemantic domain. Thus the present approach reconciles two major approaches to linguistic categorization: (i) the classical, Aristotelian approach and (ii) a more recent, gradience/fuzziness approach.
Keywords: apprehensional, avertive, frustrated initiation, frustrated completion, inconsequential, linguistic categorization, semantically elaborate grammatical categories
Published online: 23 January 2020
2016 “Narrowly averted and partially completed events in the languages of Europe and beyond.” Talk presented at the 49th Annual Conference of the Societas Linguistica Europaea (SLE) conference in Naples, Italy, 2016.
Angelo, Denise & Eva Schultze-Berndt
Bybee, Joan and Östen Dahl[ p. 892 ]
2015 Tense, aspect, mood and evidentiality. In James D. Wright (ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. 210–213. Amsterdam: Elsevier https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008097086852025X (accessed 14th October 2017).
Dowty, David R.
Dryer, Matthew S.
Everett, Daniel L.[ p. 893 ]
Ferreira, Helder P.
2015 The expression of counterfactuality in Yanomama. Paper presented at the Workshop on Counterfactuality, Radboud University, Nijmegen, July 2015.
Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi & Friederike Hünnemeyer
Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
1995 “The Proximative”. Paper presented at the Fourth ICLA conference in Albuquerque, USA, July 1995.
Ježek, Elisabetta & Paolo Ramat[ p. 894 ]
De Jong, Jan Willem
Kimball, Geoffrey D. with the assistance of Bel Abbey, Nora Abbey, Martha John, Ed John & Ruth Poncho
2010 Grammaticalization and the evolution of grammar: On one particular kind of grammatical categories. In Young-Se Kang, Jong-Yuri Yoon, Jongseon Hong, Jiun-Shiung Wu, Seongha Rhee, Kyoung-Ae Kim, Dong-Ho Choi, Kee-Ho Kim & Hye-Kyung Kang (eds.), Lectures on universal grammar and individual languages (SICOL-2010), 144–156. Hankookmunhwasa: Seoul.
Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee
Kytö, Merja & Suzanne Romaine
Malchukov, Andrej L.
Plungian, Vladimir[ p. 895 ]
Van Sluijs, Robbert
2015 Counterfactuality in Virgin Islands Dutch Creole (Negerhollands). Paper presented at the Workshop on Counterfactuality, Radboud University, Nijmegen, July 2015.
Smith, Ellen L.
2015 A grammar of Papapana, with an investigation into language contact and endangerment. Callaghan, AUS: University of Newcastle dissertation. http://nova.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/uon:16705?queryType=vitalDismax&query=ellen+smith+papapana
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Graeme Trousdale
forthcoming. The apprehensional domain: a typology of grammatical(ized) ‘fear’-morphemes.
forthcoming. Towards a grammar of counterfactuality and its implications for emotive functions: The Avertive, Frustrative and Apprehensional category.
Ziegeler, Debra[ p. 896 ]