Dogon pseudo-subjects with or without true subjects
Dogon pseudo-subjects are bare meteorological, temporal-environmental, and partonymic nouns of low referentiality/specificity that occur in fixed noun-verb collocations. The pseudo-subject controls the choice of verb in all cases, but it fails to behave like a true subject in linear position, in a quotative-subject construction, or in pronominal-subject agreement. The pseudo-subject is the sole nominal in these meteorological and temporal collocations, but in partonymic collocations it co-occurs with a true subject denoting the possessor-experiencer. The latter has all of the clear subject properties except controlling the choice of verb. Pseudo-subjects have some similarities with, but are distinct from, a range of typologically familiar phenomena including impersonal subjects, direct objects, possessums stranded by possessor raising, East Asian-style second subjects or post-topic subjects, incorporated nouns, and adverbial adjuncts. They can be classified as pseudo-incorporated nominals if this category is broad enough to include subject-like as well as object-like nominals. The relevant constructions are easily modelled in construction grammars, but not in arboreal syntax.
- 1.Impersonal subjects
- 2.Dogon clauses with pseudo-subjects and without true subjects
- 2.1Meteorological and temporal-environmental expressions
- 2.2Linear position of subjects and pseudo-subjects
- 2.3Quotative-subject phrases
- 2.4Switch reference
- 2.5Pronominal-subject agreement
- 3.Two-part Dogon clauses with pseudo-subjects and true subjects
- 3.1Partonymic collocations denoting somatic and emotional conditions
- 3.2Pronominal-subject agreement and linear order
- 3.3Quotative-subject phrases
- 3.4Switch reference
- 4.Verb subcategorization
- 5.Discussion: What are pseudo-subjects?
- 5.1Direct objects and unaccusatives?
- 5.2Chickasaw-style possessums stranded by possessor-raising?
- 5.3Japanese-style post-topic subjects?
- 5.4Asian-style “grammatical subjects”?
- 5.5Incorporated nouns?
- 5.7Pseudo-incorporated nouns?
- 6.Construction grammar
- Contributions of co-authors