Edited by Elisabeth Leiss and Werner Abraham
[Studies in Language Companion Series 149] 2014
► pp. 193–218
Deontic or epistemic?
habēre as a modal marker of future certainty in Macedonian
The Macedonian verb ima ‘have’, which is primarily used for possession and existence, can acquire various modal meanings in construction with the untensed da-clause. According to their semantic and syntactic properties, these constructions can be grouped into classes that represent different levels of grammaticalization. In this paper, we examine the most advanced grammaticalized constructions with inflected and uninflected ima, and we differentiate them on semantic grounds. The analysis focuses on uninflected ima, which exhibits a range of deontic and epistemic meanings which are of theoretical and typological significance. What is especially challenging is the meaning of future certainty that renders a future epistemic qualification. We propose that these meanings of uninflected ima cannot be understood properly without taking into account discourse factors.