This chapter investigates how the context of acquisition, and more precisely the amount of naturalistic input received, may influence non-native speakers’ knowledge of English discourse markers. It considers three levels of analysis, from the more individual (foreign language learners having spent different periods of time in a target language country) to the more general (foreign language setting vs. official language setting), over an intermediate level of analysis comparing populations of foreign language learners from different countries. The corpus study carried out suggests that a higher degree of exposure to naturalistic language tends to have a positive impact on learners’ knowledge of discourse markers, resulting in more frequent use, better approximation of native speaker frequencies and, possibly, more fluent usage.
2011Corpus-based pragmatics I: Qualitative studies. In Foundations of Pragmatics, Wolfram Bublitz & Neal R. Norrick (eds), 587–627. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Aşik, Asuman & Cephe, Paşa Tevfik
2013Discourse markers and spoken English: Nonnative use in the Turkish EFL setting. English Language Teaching 6(12): 144–155. [URL]
Brinton, Laurel J.
1996Pragmatic Markers in English. Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
De Cock, Sylvie
2004Preferred sequences of words in NS and NNS speech. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literature (BELL) 2: 225–246.
2016English in the Netherlands. Functions, Forms and Attitudes [Varieties of English around the World G56]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fuller, Janet M.
2003The influence of speaker roles on discourse marker use. Journal of Pragmatics 35: 23–45.
Fung, Loretta & Carter, Ronald
2007Discourse markers and spoken English: Native and learner use in pedagogic settings. Applied Linguistics 28(3): 410–439.
2008Hesitation markers among EFL learners: Pragmatic deficiency or difference? In Pragmatics and Corpus Linguistics. A Mutualistic Entente, Jesús Romero-Trillo (ed.), 119–149. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2007Language which is not taught: The discourse marker use of beginning adult learners of English. Journal of Pragmatics 39(1): 157–179.
Li, Min & Xiao, Yan
2012A comparative study on the use of the discourse marker “well” by Chinese learners of English and native English speakers. International Journal of English Linguistics 2(5): 65–71.
Llanes, Àngels & Muñoz, Carmen
2009A short stay abroad: Does it make a difference?System 37: 353–365.
Low, Ee Ling & Deterding, David
2003A corpus-based description of particles in spoken Singapore English. In English in Singapore. Research on Grammar, David Deterding, Low Ee Ling & Adam Brown (eds), 58–66. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education.
2006Rethinking applied corpus linguistics from a language-pedagogical perspective: New departures in learner corpus research. In Planing, Gluing and Painting Corpora: Inside the Applied Corpus Linguist’s Workshop, Bernhard Kettemann & Georg Marko (eds), 205–232. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
2021. Likein Korean English speech. World Englishes
Unuabonah, Foluke Olayinka
2019. Frequency and Stylistic Variability of Discourse Markers in Nigerian English. Corpus Pragmatics 3:3 ► pp. 249 ff.
2017. Adversative Pragmatic Markers in Learner Language: A Cross-Sectional Perspective. Corpus Pragmatics 1:2 ► pp. 135 ff.
Wolk, Christoph, Sandra Götz & Katja Jäschke
2021. Possibilities and Drawbacks of Using an Online Application for Semi-automatic Corpus Analysis to Investigate Discourse Markers and Alternative Fluency Variables. Corpus Pragmatics 5:1 ► pp. 7 ff.
Öztürk, Yusuf & Gül Durmuşoğlu Köse
2021. “Well (er) You Know …”: Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native Spoken English. Corpus Pragmatics 5:2 ► pp. 223 ff.
ŞAHİN KIZIL, Aysel
2021. Discourse Markers in Learner Speech: A Corpus Based Comparative Study. Dil Eğitimi ve Araştırmaları Dergisi 7:1 ► pp. 1 ff.
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